Biological control of hawkweeds
European hawkweeds are invasive in North American pastures, where mechanical methods of control are difficult and ineffective. Chemical control with broad-spectrum herbicides is not selective and relatively expensive, with the weed often recolonising untreated pastures. Insects that feed on hawkweeds in Europe have been studied as potential biological control agents for North America since 2000. Two agents have been released in Canada – the gall wasp Aulacidea subterminalis in 2011 and the hoverfly Cheilosia urbana in 2017.