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It is PlantwisePlus policy that plant doctors should not recommend the use of chemicals that are banned or restricted by international agreements. PlantwisePlus has compiled pesticide restrictions into a so-called 'Pesticide Red List'. The table below lists the pesticides identified as Classes Ia and Ib by the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard, as well as pesticides banned or restricted by the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Tradethe Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Please note: This table was updated following the last meeting of the Conference of Parties of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions in May 2023. Under these agreements, procedures exist for restricting additional chemicals and, as a consequence, the list of restricted chemicals changes on a regular basis. Refer to the websites of the agreements (given below) for the most up-to-date lists of banned and restricted pesticides. Likewise, the websites provide additional information on the hazards associated with each chemical.

  International agreements under which the pesticide is restricted
Active ingredient WHO Classification[i] Rotterdam Convention (PIC)[ii] Stockholm Convention (POP)[iii] Montreal Protocol[iv]
2,4,5-T and its salts and esters Ia X    
3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol Ib      
Abamectin Ib      
Acrolein Ib      
Alachlor   X    
Aldicarb Ia X    
Aldrin X X  
Allyl alcohol Ib      
Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane     X  
Alphachlorohydrin, also called 3-Chloro-2,3-propanediol Ib      
Azinphos-ethyl Ib      
Azinphos-methyl Ib X    
Benomyl   X[v]    
Binapacryl   X    
Beta hexachlorocyclohexane     X  
Beta-cyfluthrin Ib      
Blasticidin-S Ib      
Brodifacoum Ia      
Bromadiolone Ia      
Bromethalin Ia      
Bromophos-ethyl Ib      
Butocarboxim Ib      
Butoxycarboxim Ib      
Cadusafos Ib      
Calcium arsenate Ib      
Calcium cyanide Ia      
Captafol Ia X    
Carbofuran Ib X
Chlordane   X X  
Chlordecone     X  
Chlordimeform   X    
Chlorethoxyfos Ia      
Chlorfenvinphos Ib      
Chlormephos Ia      
Chlorobenzilate   X    
Chlorophacinone Ia      
Coumaphos Ib      
Coumatetralyl Ib      
CVP, also called Chlorfenvinphos Ib      
Cyfluthrin / Beta-cyfluthrin Ib      
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)   X X[vi]  
DDVF, also called Dichlorvos Ib      
DDVP, also called Dichlorvos Ib      
Demeton-S-methyl Ib      
Dichlorvos Ib      
Dicofol II   X  
Dicrotophos Ib      
Dieldrin X X  
Difenacoum Ia      
Difethialone Ia      
Difolatan, also called Captafol Ia      
Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) and its salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt) Ib X    
Dinoseb and its salts and esters X    
Dinoterb Ib      
Diphacinone Ia      
Disulfoton Ia      
DMTP, also called  Methidathion Ib      
EDB (1,2-dibromoethane)   X    
EDDP, also called Edifenphos Ib      
Edifenphos Ib      
Endosulfan (technical endosulfan) and its related isomers   X X  
Endrin     X  
Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN) Ia      
Ethiofencarb Ib      
Ethoprop, also called  Ethoprophos Ia      
Ethoprophos Ia      
Ethylene dichloride   X    
Ethylene oxide   X    
Ethylthiometon, also called Disulfoton Ia      
Famphur Ib      
Fenamiphos Ib      
Flocoumafen Ia      
Flucythrinate Ib      
Fluoroacetamide Ib X    
Formetanate Ib      
Furathiocarb Ib      
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its mixed isomers X    
Heptachlor   X X  
Heptenophos Ib      
Hexachlorobenzene Ia X X  
Isoxathion Ib      
Lead arsenate Ib      
Lindane (gamma-HCH)   X X  
M74, also called Disulfoton Ia      
Mecarbam Ib      
Mercaptodimethur, also called Methiocarb Ib      
Mercuric chloride Ia X    
Mercuric oxide Ib X    
Mercury compounds, including inorganic mercury compounds, alkyl mercury compounds and alkyloxyalkyl and aryl mercury compounds   X    
Metaphos, also called Methyl-parathion Ia X[vii]    
Methamidophos Ib X    
Methidathion Ib      
Methiocarb Ib      
Methomyl Ib      
Methoxychlor     X
Methyl bromide       X
Methylmercapthphos teolovy, also called Demeton-S-methyl Ib      
Methyl-parathion Ia X[vii]    
Metilmerkaptophosoksid, also called Oxydemeton-methyl Ib      
Metriltriazotion, also called Azinphos-methyl Ib      
Mevinphos Ia      
Mirex     X  
Monocrotophos Ib X    
Nicotine Ib      
Omethoate Ib      
Oxamyl Ib      
Oxydemeton-methyl Ib      
Parathion Ia X    
Parathion-methyl, also called Methyl-parathion Ia X[vii]    
Paris green Ib      
Pentachlorobenzene     X  
Pentachlorophenol Ib X[viii]  X  
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid     X[ix]  
Phenylmercury acetate Ia      
Phorate Ia X    
Phosphamidon Ia X[x]    
Propetamphos Ib      
Sodium arsenite Ib      
Sodium cyanide Ib      
Sodium fluoracetate Ia      
Strychnine Ib      
Sulfotep Ia      
Tebupirimfos Ia      
Tefluthrin Ib      
Terbufos Ia X    
Thallium sulfate Ib      
Thiram   X[v]    
Thiofanox Ib      
Thiofos, also called Parathion Ia X    
Thiometon Ib      
Thioxamyl, also called Oxamyl Ib      
Timet, also called Phorate Ia      
Toxaphene (Camphechlor)   X X  
Triazophos Ib      
Triazotion, also called Azinphos-ethyl Ib      
Tributyl tin compounds   X    
Trichlorfon   X    
Vamidothion Ib      
Warfarin Ib      
Zeta-cypermethrin Ib      
Zinc phosphide Ib      

[i] WHO classification of pesticides by hazard - Extremely and highly hazardous pesticides:


[ii] Rotterdam Convention Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade - Annex III:


[iii] Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants - pesticides targeted for elimination and with restrictions for production and use:


[iv] Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - substances being phased out:


[v] Dustable powder formulations containing a combination of benomyl at or above 7%, carbofuran at or above 10% and thiram at or above 15%


[vi] Production and use restricted to disease vector control


[vii] Emulsifiable concentrates (EC) at or above 19.5% active ingredient and dusts at or above 1.5% active ingredient


[viii] As well as its salts and esters


[ix] Acceptable purpose for production and use restricted to insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants from Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp. Specific exemption for control of red imported fire ants and termites.


[x] Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 1000 g active ingredient/l