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Objective: To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and ...

Gale, E.; Ticehurst, K. E.; Zaki, S.
Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2015, 42, 3, pp 292-298