- - ectoparasites such as ticks
- - mites such as Tetranychus spp. attacking economically important plants
Anthelmintic and nematicidal properties
- - parasites such asSchistosoma spp. (causing schistosomiasis), andHaemonchusspp.
- - Plant parasitic nematodes such asBursaphelenchus xylophilus
- - the test organism Caenorhabditis elegans
- - human and animal pathogens, such asEscherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella peumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae andStaphylococcus aureus
- - plant pathogenic bacteria such asXanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum
- - toxinogenic bacteria
Antifungal and fungicidal properties
- - dermatophytes (such asTrichophyton, Epidermophyton andMicrosporum
- - pathogenic yeasts (such asCandidaspp.)
- - fungi causing diseases such as aspergillosis (Aspergillusspp.)
- - toxinogenic fungi which produce mycotoxins associated with poisoning of food and feed
- - fungal pathogens of crops such as Botrytis cinerea
protozoa such as Plasmodium spp. (causing malaria), Leishmania spp. (causing leishmaniasis), Entamoeba histolytica (causing amoebiasis) and Trypanosoma spp. (causing trypanosomiasis)
- - human and animal viruses, such as the herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- - plant viruses such as the tomato spotted wilt virus
Chemistry and formulations
Chemical structure of active plant extracts; commercial formulations such as Azatin and NeemAzal.
Effects on target and non-target organisms:
- - Toxicity to and sublethal effects on all kinds of organisms, including target pests, disease vectors and diseases of man, domesticated animals and crops, and decay organisms of all kinds of stored animal or plant products
- Unwanted side effects on man, crops and animals under protection, and other beneficial organisms, such as biological control agents
Herbicidal and algicidal properties, allelopathins
Activity against weeds of all kinds, including algae, parasitic and poisonous plants.
- - insect vectors of human and animal diseases, includingAnopheles, Culex, Aedes spp. which carry the organisms causing diseases, such as malaria (Plasmodiumspp.), filariasis, and dengue
- - ectoparasites, such as fleas
- - insects of significance to public health, such as cockroaches
- - insect pests of crops and stored products including the vectors of plant diseases, such as aphids (Aphidoidea)
Extraction and purification of constituents of all kinds of plants (such as Azadirachta indica (neem), Melia azedarach, Derris spp., Tanacetum cinerariifolium (pyrethrum), Schoenocaulon officinale, Ryania speciosa, Quassia spp.), including compounds such as azadirachtin, nimbin and other neem extracts, pyrethrins, rotenone and other rotenoids, quassin, ryanodine, dehdroryanodine and allelopathins.
Mode of action
Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action on all kinds of organisms.
- - snails (such asBiomphalaria, Bulinus, andLymnaea) which act as intermediate hosts of the organisms causing diseases such as schistosomiasis (Schistosoma spp.) and fascioliasis (Fasciolaspp.)
- - slug and snail pests of crops
Recommended use, dosages and efficiency in the field or surgery.
Residues and environmental effects
Residues in products and in the environment and their effects on the environment.