Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

CABI Book Chapter

Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

Book cover for Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing <i xmlns="">Bacillus thuringiensis</i> toxins.


This book focuses on descriptions of the extent of use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops and the emerging problem of resistance, recent progress in elucidating the mechanism of action of Bt toxins and describing the different resistance mechanisms and strategies for coping with resistance in the field. There are four sections. In the first section ('The extent of use of Bt crops and the emergin...

Chapter 17 (Page no: 186)

Insect resistance management and integrated pest management for Bt crops: prospects for an area-wide view.

Throughout this book, several authors have reviewed the pest resistance challenges within the context of the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, the solutions that are necessary to mitigate the evolution of insect pest resistance and the continued need for effective insect resistance management (IRM). Clearly, the current selection pressure has resulted from the extensive adoption of GM crops by millions of farmers worldwide due, in part, to their real or perceived benefits. Many of the benefits of GM maize and cotton have been well documented. They include increased yields, reduced yield variability, increased economic returns to farmers, reductions in insecticide use, reductions in pesticide exposure to farm workers, the subsequent conservation of beneficial insects, and the environmental benefits resulting from less tillage. These benefits, however, are not universal for all GM crops, and several important insect pests have exhibited 'field-evolved resistance' to crops engineered to express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In several cases, 'practical resistance' and yield losses have been confirmed. From these case studies, we can review the factors that often contribute to resistance and thereby develop more proactive IRM programmes that are not only compatible with integrated pest management (IPM), but are fully integrated with IPM. Several compatible IPM tactics, such as biological control and cultural controls (e.g. crop rotation) can be quite effective with Bt crops and should further reduce selection pressure. Within the context of IRM and IPM, a primary question remains: what can we learn from the case studies of Bt resistance versus longer term success in order to better design future IRM plans? In this chapter, the benefits of Bt crops are reviewed as a basis for understanding grower decision making and the rationale for Bt crop use. I then summarize the key IRM elements that are necessary to facilitate the sustainability of Bt crop use within an IPM context, and subsequently review several reasons why the goals of IRM and IPM may be best understood and implemented from a landscape, or area-wide, management perspective.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Successes and failures of transgenic Bt crops: global patterns of field-evolved resistance. Author(s): Tabashnik, B. E., Carrière, Y.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) Status of resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm. Author(s): Gao YuLin, Liu ChenXi, Wu YiDong, Wu KongMing
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 26) Insect resistance to Bt toxins in Brazil and Latin America. Author(s): Monnerat, R., Martins, E., Queiroz, P., Praça, L., Soares, C. M.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 36) Resistance of Busseola fusca to Cry1Ab Bt maize plants in South Africa and challenges to insect resistance management in Africa. Author(s): Berg, J. van den, Campagne, P.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 49) Resistance of cabbage loopers to Btk in a greenhouse setting: occurrence, spread and management. Author(s): Janmaat, A., Franklin, M., Myers, J. H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 56) Different models of the mode of action of Bt 3d-Cry toxins. Author(s): Bravo, A., Gómez, I., Mendoza, G., Gaytán, M., Soberón, M.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 69) Roles of insect midgut cadherin in Bt intoxication and resistance. Author(s): Fabrick, J. A., Wu YiDong
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 87) Mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in cabbage loopers - a resistance mechanism selected in insect populations in an agricultural environment. Author(s): Wang, P.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 98) Roles of ABC proteins in the mechanism and management of Bt resistance. Author(s): Heckel, D. G.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 107) The role of proteolysis in the biological activity of Bt insecticidal crystal proteins. Author(s): Zalunin, I. A., Elpidina, E. N., Oppert, B.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 119) The lessons that Caenorhabditis elegans has taught us about the mechanism of action of crystal proteins. Author(s): Sitaram, A., Aroian, R. V.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 126) The development and prospect of discovery of Bt toxin genes. Author(s): Zhang Jie, Shu ChangLong, Wang ZeYu
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 138) Cry toxin binding site models and their use in strategies to delay resistance evolution. Author(s): Jakka, S., Ferré, J., Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 150) Countering pest resistance with genetically modified Bt toxins. Author(s): Soberón, M., García-Gómez, B. I., Pacheco, S., Sánchez, J., Tabashnik, B. E., Bravo, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 162) RNA interference strategy for crop protection against insect pests. Author(s): Sneha Yogindran, Rajam, M. V.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Resistance management for Bt maize and above-ground lepidopteran targets in the USA: from single gene to pyramided traits. Author(s): Huang, F. N.