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Datasheet

Bremia lactucae
(downy mildew of lettuce)

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Datasheet

Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bremia lactucae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • downy mildew of lettuce
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Peronosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); browning and chlorosis of lettuce leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); browning and chlorosis of lettuce leaves.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); browning and chlorosis of lettuce leaves.
SymptomsBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); browning and chlorosis of lettuce leaves.©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); necrotic lesions on lettuce leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); necrotic lesions on lettuce leaf.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); necrotic lesions on lettuce leaf.
SymptomsBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); necrotic lesions on lettuce leaf.©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); chlorosis of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); chlorosis of leaves.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); chlorosis of leaves.
SymptomsBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); chlorosis of leaves.©AgrEvo
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); sporangia have become detached and the ends of the branches of the sporangiophore can be seen to be expanded into discs, each with 4-6 pegs around its margin. The sporangia were once attached singly to each peg.
TitleSporangia and sporangiophores
CaptionBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); sporangia have become detached and the ends of the branches of the sporangiophore can be seen to be expanded into discs, each with 4-6 pegs around its margin. The sporangia were once attached singly to each peg.
Copyright©David S. Ingram
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); sporangia have become detached and the ends of the branches of the sporangiophore can be seen to be expanded into discs, each with 4-6 pegs around its margin. The sporangia were once attached singly to each peg.
Sporangia and sporangiophoresBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); sporangia have become detached and the ends of the branches of the sporangiophore can be seen to be expanded into discs, each with 4-6 pegs around its margin. The sporangia were once attached singly to each peg.©David S. Ingram
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); the sporangia (which do not form zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are still attached. Each is approximately 20 µm diameter.
TitleSporangia and sporangiophores
CaptionBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); the sporangia (which do not form zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are still attached. Each is approximately 20 µm diameter.
Copyright©David S. Ingram
Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); the sporangia (which do not form zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are still attached. Each is approximately 20 µm diameter.
Sporangia and sporangiophoresBremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce); the sporangia (which do not form zoospores and therefore function as conidia) are still attached. Each is approximately 20 µm diameter.©David S. Ingram

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bremia lactucae Regel (1843)

Preferred Common Name

  • downy mildew of lettuce

Other Scientific Names

  • Botrytis ganglioniformis Berk. (1846)
  • Peronospora gangliformis Berk. ex de Bary (1863)
  • Peronospora ganglioniformis (Berk.) Tul. (1854)

International Common Names

  • English: lettuce downy mildew
  • Spanish: mildiu de la lechuga
  • French: blanc de la laitue; meunier de la laitue; mildiou de la laitue; mildiou de l'artichaut

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Falscher Mehltau: Salat

EPPO code

  • BREMLA (Bremia lactucae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Peronosporales
  •                     Family: Peronosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Bremia
  •                             Species: Bremia lactucae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent, Localized
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Eastern SiberiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-Western SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
CubaPresent
GuatemalaPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Wood

References

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Anderson PA; Okubara PA; Arroyo-Garcia R; Meyers BC; Michelmore RW, 1996. Molecular analysis of irradiation-induced and spontaneous deletion mutants at a disease resistance locus in Lactuca sativa. Molecular and General Genetics, 251(3):316-325; 44 ref.

Anon., 1994. Variety: 'Diamond'. Application no. 93/239. Plant Varieties Journal, 7:28.

Anon., 1994. Variety: 'Marksman'. Application no. 94/195. Plant Varieties Journal, 7:37-38.

Bedlan G, 1991. The occurrence of physiological races of Bremia lactucae Regel on lettuce from selected Austrian lettuce producing areas. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 52(3):133-137

Bennett M; Gallagher M; Fagg J; Bestwick C; Paul T; Beale M; Mansfield J, 1996. The hypersensitive reaction, membrane damage and accumulation of autofluorescent phenolics in lettuce cells challenged by Bremia lactucae. Plant Journal, 9(6):851-865; 69 ref.

Bennett MH; Gallagher MDS; Bestwick CS; Rossiter JT; Mansfield JW, 1994. The phytoalexin response of lettuce to challenge by Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 44(5):321-333

Brown S; Koike ST; Ochoa OE; Laemmlen F; Michelmore RW, 2004. Insensitivity to the fungicide fosetyl-aluminum in California isolates of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae. Plant Disease, 88(5):502-508.

Canihos Y; Paynon J, 1995. In vitro effect of a bacterial -1,3-glucanase expressed in Streptomyces lividans on Bremia lactucae. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 24(3):115-120; 13 ref.

Carranza, M., Larran, S., Alippi, H., 2001. First report of artichoke downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae in Argentina. Plant Disease, 85(4), 446. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.446D

Crute IR, 1992. Downy mildew of lettuce. Plant diseases of international importance. Volume. II. Diseases of vegetables and oil seed crops [edited by Chaube, H.S.; Kumar, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.N.; Singh, U.S.] Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA; Prentice Hall, Inc., 165-185

Datnoff LE; Nagata RT; Raid RN, 1994. Pathotyping of Bremia lactucae in Florida. Plant Disease, 78(9):854-857

Davies JML, 1994. Integrated control of downy mildew in crisp lettuce. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1994. Volume 2. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 817-822

Dickinson CH; Crute IR, 1974. The influence of seedling age and development on the infection of lettuce by Bremia lactuca. Annals of Applied Biology, 76:49-61.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Gilardi, G., Gullino, M. L., 2003. First report of Bremia lactucae causing downy mildew on Helichrysum bracteatum in Italy. Plant Disease, 87(3), 315. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.3.315A

Humphreys-Jones DR, 1971. Studies on amethod of carry-over of downy mildew (Bremia lactuca) of lettuce. Plant and Soil, 35:187-188.

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Koike, S. T., Ochoa, O. E., 2007. Downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae on strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum) in California. Plant Disease, 91(3), 326. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0326A

Lebeda A, 1996. Study of resistance in genetic resources of horticultural crops - the model system Lactuca spp. - Bremia lactucae. Zahradnictvi^acute~, 23(2):63-70; 46 ref.

Lebeda A; Krfstkovß E, 1995. Genetic resources of vegetable crops from the genus Lactuca. Zahradnictvi^acute~, 22(4):117-121; 23 ref.

Lebeda A; Reinink K, 1994. Histological characterization of resistance in Lactuca saligna to lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae). Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 44(2):125-139

Marlatt RB; Lewis RW; Mckittrick RT, 1962. Systemic infection of lettuce by Bremia lactuca. Phytopathology, 52:888-890.

Meier R, 1994. Chemical control of downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce. Verslag - Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond Lelystad, Netherlands; Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, No. 171:47 pp.

Moreau C; Moreau M, 1962. La mycologie au service de l'agriculture. Sciences, (19-20):42-53.

Morgan WM, 1981. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 682. Bremia lactucae. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Petrzelová I; Lebeda A, 2004. Occurrence of Bremia lactucae in natural populations of Lactuca serriola. Journal of Phytopathology, 152(7):391-398. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/jph

Petrželová, I., Lebeda, A., Kosman, E., 2013. Distribution, disease level and virulence variation of Bremia lactucae on Lactuca sativa in the Czech Republic in the period 1999-2011. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(7/8), 503-514. doi: 10.1111/jph.12098

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives, 17(1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Scherm H; Bruggen AHCvan, 1995. Comparative study of microclimate and downy mildew development in subsurface drip- and furrow-irrigated lettuce fields in California. Plant Disease, 79(6):620-625

Scherm H; Bruggen AHCvan, 1995. Concurrent spore release and infection of lettuce by Bremia lactucae during mornings with prolonged leaf wetness. Phytopathology, 85(5):552-555

Scherm H; Koike ST; Laemmlen FF; Bruggen AHCvan, 1995. Field evaluation of fungicide spray advisories against lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) based on measured or forecast morning leaf wetness. Plant Disease, 79(5):511-516

Trdan S; Znidarcic D, 2001. Growing technique and cultivar choice as factors of the occurrence of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae Regel) on summer lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Zbornik Biotehni?ke Fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Kmetijstvo, 77(2):273-277.

Trimboli DS; Nieuwenhuis J, 2011. New races of Bremia lactucae on lettuce in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):62-63. http://www.springerlink.com/content/772jr6t73 g567054/fulltext.html

UK CAB International, 1981. Bremia lactucae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 4). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 86.

Verhoeff K, 1960. On the parasitism of Bremia lactuca Regel on lettuce. Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten, 66:133-204.

Vieira BS; Barreto RW, 2006. First record of Bremia lactucae infecting Sonchus oleraceus and Sonchus asper in Brazil and its infectivity to lettuce. Journal of Phytopathology, 154(2):84-87. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jph

Wicks TG; Hall B; Pezzaniti P, 1994. Fungicidal control of metalaxyl-insensitive strains of Bremia lactucae on lettuce. Crop Protection, 13(8):617-623

Wolcan SM, 2010. First report of downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae on Gerbera jamensonii in Argentina. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 5(1):98-100. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Wu, B. M., Bruggen, A. H. C. van, Subbarao, K. V., Pennings, G. G. H., 2001. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems. Phytopathology, 91(2), 134-142. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.2.134

Distribution References

Brown S, Koike S T, Ochoa O E, Laemmlen F, Michelmore R W, 2004. Insensitivity to the fungicide fosetyl-aluminum in California isolates of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae. Plant Disease. 88 (5), 502-508. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.5.502

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carranza M, Larran S, Alippi H, 2001. First report of artichoke downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae in Argentina. Plant Disease. 85 (4), 446. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.446D

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Garibaldi A, Minuto A, Gilardi G, Gullino M L, 2003. First report of Bremia lactucae causing downy mildew on Helichrysum bracteatum in Italy. Plant Disease. 87 (3), 315. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.3.315A

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Koike S T, Ochoa O E, 2007. Downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae on strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum) in California. Plant Disease. 91 (3), 326. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-3-0326A

Petrželová I, Lebeda A, 2004. Occurrence of Bremia lactucae in natural populations of Lactuca serriola. Journal of Phytopathology. 152 (7), 391-398. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/jph DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2004.00859.x

Petrželová I, Lebeda A, Kosman E, 2013. Distribution, disease level and virulence variation of Bremia lactucae on Lactuca sativa in the Czech Republic in the period 1999-2011. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (7/8), 503-514. DOI:10.1111/jph.12098

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Trdan S, Žnidarčič D, 2001. Growing technique and cultivar choice as factors of the occurrence of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae Regel) on summer lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Zbornik Biotehniške Fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Kmetijstvo. 77 (2), 273-277.

Trimboli D S, Nieuwenhuis J, 2011. New races of Bremia lactucae on lettuce in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 6 (1), 62-63. http://www.springerlink.com/content/772jr6t73 g567054/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-011-0021-y

UK, CAB International, 1981. Bremia lactucae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 86. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500086

Vieira B S, Barreto R W, 2006. First record of Bremia lactucae infecting Sonchus oleraceus and Sonchus asper in Brazil and its infectivity to lettuce. Journal of Phytopathology. 154 (2), 84-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2006.01064.x

Wolcan S M, 2010. First report of downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae on Gerbera jamensonii in Argentina. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 5 (1), 98-100. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm DOI:10.1071/DN10035

Wu B M, Bruggen A H C van, Subbarao K V, Pennings G G H, 2001. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems. Phytopathology. 91 (2), 134-142. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.2.134

Distribution Maps

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