Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bruchus pisorum
(pea weevil)

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Datasheet

Bruchus pisorum (pea weevil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bruchus pisorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pea weevil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The pea weevil is a small insect (up to 5 mm long) with good flight possibilities. The adults may fly up to 5 km in search of pea flowers. The larvae develop within a single pea seed; the pupae and newly emerged adults also remain there, so the pest...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eggs (arrowed) are yellow, cigar-shaped and measure 1.5 x 0.6 mm. They are laid singly or in pairs attached to green pods.
TitleOva
CaptionEggs (arrowed) are yellow, cigar-shaped and measure 1.5 x 0.6 mm. They are laid singly or in pairs attached to green pods.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Eggs (arrowed) are yellow, cigar-shaped and measure 1.5 x 0.6 mm. They are laid singly or in pairs attached to green pods.
OvaEggs (arrowed) are yellow, cigar-shaped and measure 1.5 x 0.6 mm. They are laid singly or in pairs attached to green pods. Radoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
The females lay eggs on developing (immature) pea pods. Oviposition starts 5-52 h after mating.
TitleAdult female
CaptionThe females lay eggs on developing (immature) pea pods. Oviposition starts 5-52 h after mating.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
The females lay eggs on developing (immature) pea pods. Oviposition starts 5-52 h after mating.
Adult femaleThe females lay eggs on developing (immature) pea pods. Oviposition starts 5-52 h after mating.Radoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Ovoid, chunky beetle, about 5 mm long. It is brownish, flecked with white, black and grey patches covered with short hairs or scales. The tip of the abdomen is exposed behind the wing covers and is white marked with two black oval spots. There is a visible white 'cross mark'.
TitleAdult
CaptionOvoid, chunky beetle, about 5 mm long. It is brownish, flecked with white, black and grey patches covered with short hairs or scales. The tip of the abdomen is exposed behind the wing covers and is white marked with two black oval spots. There is a visible white 'cross mark'.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Ovoid, chunky beetle, about 5 mm long. It is brownish, flecked with white, black and grey patches covered with short hairs or scales. The tip of the abdomen is exposed behind the wing covers and is white marked with two black oval spots. There is a visible white 'cross mark'.
AdultOvoid, chunky beetle, about 5 mm long. It is brownish, flecked with white, black and grey patches covered with short hairs or scales. The tip of the abdomen is exposed behind the wing covers and is white marked with two black oval spots. There is a visible white 'cross mark'.Radoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Damaged dry pea seeds. An opaque circular 'window' is visible (arrowed) on the pea. The fully-grown larva prepares an exit hole and pupates behind this 'window'. Due to cannibalism, only one larva completes its development. The new generation of adult beetles pushes the window open and leaves the seed, creating a 5-mm exit hole.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionDamaged dry pea seeds. An opaque circular 'window' is visible (arrowed) on the pea. The fully-grown larva prepares an exit hole and pupates behind this 'window'. Due to cannibalism, only one larva completes its development. The new generation of adult beetles pushes the window open and leaves the seed, creating a 5-mm exit hole.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Damaged dry pea seeds. An opaque circular 'window' is visible (arrowed) on the pea. The fully-grown larva prepares an exit hole and pupates behind this 'window'. Due to cannibalism, only one larva completes its development. The new generation of adult beetles pushes the window open and leaves the seed, creating a 5-mm exit hole.
Damage symptomsDamaged dry pea seeds. An opaque circular 'window' is visible (arrowed) on the pea. The fully-grown larva prepares an exit hole and pupates behind this 'window'. Due to cannibalism, only one larva completes its development. The new generation of adult beetles pushes the window open and leaves the seed, creating a 5-mm exit hole.Radoslav Andreev & I. Manolov/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bruchus pisorum Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • pea weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Bruchus cruciger Geoff.
  • Bruchus pisi Linnaeus
  • Bruchus salicis Skop.
  • Callosobruchus pisorum Linnaeus
  • Dermestes pisorum Linnaeus, 1758
  • Laria pisorum Linnaeus
  • Mylabris pisorum Linnaeus

International Common Names

  • English: beetle, pea; pea beetle; pea seed beetle; weevil, pea
  • Spanish: brucho del poroto; bruco de la arveja; bruquido de las arvejas; brúquido de las arvejas; gorgojo de la arveja; gorgojo de la arveja y garbanzos; gorgojo de los chicharos; gorgojo del frijol y arveja; picudo del guisante
  • French: bruche du pois; bruchide des poix
  • Portuguese: caruncho da ervilha; gorgulho da ervilla

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Erbsenkafer
  • Belgium: erwtekever
  • Bulgaria: grahov zarnoyad
  • Croatia: graskov zizak
  • Czech Republic: zrnokaz hrachov; zrnokaz hrachový; zrnokaza hrachového
  • Denmark: Ærtefrøbille
  • Ethiopia: yeater nekez
  • Finland: hernepiilokas
  • Germany: Gemeiner Erbsen Kaefer; Grosser Erbsen Kaefer; Kaefer, Gemeiner Erbsen-; Kaefer, Grosser Erbsen-
  • Hungary: borsózsizsik
  • Israel: zaryit haafuna
  • Italy: bruco del pisello; pappice; tonchio del pisello
  • Japan: endo-zomusi
  • Latvia: zirnu seklgrauzis
  • Netherlands: erwte kever
  • Norway: ertefrobille
  • Poland: strakowca grochowego
  • Romania: gargaritei
  • Slovenia: ggraharja
  • Sweden: ärtsmyg
  • Turkey: bezelye böcegi; bezelye tohumböcegi
  • Ukraine: zernivka gorohova
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): graskovog zizka

EPPO code

  • BRCHPI (Bruchus pisorum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page The pea weevil is a small insect (up to 5 mm long) with good flight possibilities. The adults may fly up to 5 km in search of pea flowers. The larvae develop within a single pea seed; the pupae and newly emerged adults also remain there, so the pest is easily spread all over the world in seed (grain) trade. This is the reason why the pest can be found everywhere that pea is cultivated. It may be invasive in tropical, subtropical and warmer parts of temperate zones. It only has one generation per year, but is a prevalent pest on pea in many countries, causing considerable damage. Infestation by the pest causes economic losses, partly due to the direct loss of seed contents consumed by the pest and partly due to the fact that weevil-damaged seed has a lower germination rate and fetches a lower unit price.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Bruchidae
  •                             Genus: Bruchus
  •                                 Species: Bruchus pisorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadBashar et al., 1994; APPPC, 1987
ChinaPresentAPPPC, 1987
-Hong KongPresentHong Kong Government Information Centre, 2003
IndiaWidespreadRaina , 1971
-Indian PunjabWidespreadPajni and Sood , 1975
-Jammu and KashmirWidespreadBhat , 1988
-ManipurWidespreadBarwal and Devi , 1993
IranPresentAbivardi , 1976
IraqWidespreadAl-Rawy and Kaddou , 1971
JapanPresent, few occurrencesLincoln Plant Protection Centre, 1985; Lund University, 2003
KazakhstanWidespreadAleksandrova , 1977
Korea, Republic ofPresentKSAE, 1989; Park and et al. , 1991
NepalWidespreadPandey et al., 2000
SyriaWidespreadWeigand and et al. , 1994
TajikistanPresentKadamshoev , 1985
TurkeyPresentKalkan , 1972

Africa

EthiopiaWidespreadAssefa and et al. , 2003
NigeriaPresentOlaifa , 2000

North America

CanadaPresentCFIA, 2003
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-IdahoWidespreadPesho and et al. , 1977
-KansasPresentIntroducedKansas Pest Code List, 2003
-MontanaPresentMontana and Department of Agriculture, 2003
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive Systma and et al. , 2003
-WashingtonWidespreadPesho and et al. , 1977
-WisconsinPresentUniversity of Wisconsin Madison, 2003

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadVia rural, 2003
ChileWidespreadCafati and Jimenez , 1974
PeruWidespreadALNICOLSA, 2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentBBA, 2003
AustriaPresentWeinhappel and et al. , 1996
BelgiumPresentRombaut , 2003
BulgariaWidespreadLazarov , 1931
CyprusPresentLund University, 2003
Czech RepublicPresentAGRITEC, 2003
DenmarkPresentHansen and et al. , 1991
EstoniaPresentRemm , 1967
FranceWidespreadEschenbrenner and Taupin , 1983
GermanyPresentEl Titi , 1980
GreecePresentLund University, 2003
HungaryPresentJermy and Szentesi , 1978
ItalyWidespreadParisi and Govoni , 1998
LatviaPresentTelnov and et al. , 2003
MoldovaWidespreadSokolov, 1977
PolandWidespreadWnuk and Wiech , 1987
PortugalPresentMateus et al., 2003
RomaniaWidespreadBoguleanu and et al. , 1969
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaWidespreadVolkov et al., 1955
-Northern RussiaPresentVolkov et al., 1955
-Southern RussiaWidespreadVolkov et al., 1955
-Western SiberiaPresentLegalov , 2003
SerbiaWidespreadAlmasi , 1990
SlovakiaPresentCejka , 2003
SloveniaPresentAgroruse, 2003
SpainWidespreadMarzo and et al. , 1997
SwedenPresentLund University, 2003
UKPresentMapMate, 2003
UkraineWidespreadSanin and et al. , 1975

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroducedGoodyer , 1987
-South AustraliaWidespreadIntroducedNourse , 1973
-VictoriaWidespreadIntroducedComery and , 1984
-Western AustraliaWidespreadIntroducedCSIRO/AFFA, 2003
New ZealandPresentLincoln Plant Protection Centre, 1985

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Seeds / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Dinarmus basalis Parasite Larvae
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen Larvae
Strongygaster triangulifera Parasite Adults
Triaspis thoracicus Parasite Larvae Australia; Canada peas
Trichomalopsis leguminis Parasite Larvae
Uscana chiliensis Parasite Eggs
Uscana senex Parasite Eggs Republic of Georgian; Ukraine peas

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) adults; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

References

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Abate T, 2006. IPM in Ethiopia: The current status. Facilitating the implementation and adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) in Ethiopia. Dry lands coordination group (DCG) Proceedings, No. 17 [ed. by Bekele, E. \Azerefegne, F. \Abate, T.]. Oslo, Norway 3-15.

Abivardi C, 1976. Additional studies on insecticidal activities of camphor to stored-product insects. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 83(7/8):397-400

AGRITEC, 2003. AGRITEC - Research, Breeding & Services Ltd. http://www.agritec.cz/luskoviny/.

Agroruse, 2003. http://www.agroruse.si/slo/html/katalog/insekticidi/zolone%20liquide.htm.

Aleksandrova EA, 1977. Results of an evaluation of pea varieties for susceptibility to pea weevil. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo, 1:46-47.

Ali K; Chichaybelu M; Abate T; Tefera T; Dawd M, 2009. Two decades of research on insect pests of grain legumes. In: Increasing crop production through improved plant protection, Vol. 2 [ed. by Tadesse, A.]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia/Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, 38- 84.

Almasi R, 1990. Monophagy of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Zas^hacek~tita Bilja, 41(4):395-403; 24 ref.

ALNICOLSA, 2003. Algarrobo. http://taninos.tripod.com/algarrobo.htm.

Al-Rawy MA; Kaddou IK, 1971. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.)(Coleoptera, Bruchidae) infesting Vicia faba L. in Iraq. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 68(6):365-371

Andreev SV; Martens BK, 1975. Research on the technique of radiation sterilisation of insect pests in the USSR. International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the symposium on the sterility principle for insect control jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO of the United Nations and held in Innsbruck, 22-26 July 1974. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna Austria, 103-114

Annis B; O'Keeffe LE, 1984. Effect of pollen source on oogenesis in the pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Protection Ecology, 6(4):257-266

Annis B; O'Keeffe LE, 1987. Influence of pea genotype on parasitization of the pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) by Eupteromalus leguminis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(3):653-655

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arabadzhiev D, 1975. Possibilities for replacing organochlorine preparations with other non-cumulative insecticides in the control of pea pests. Koinov, G. (Editor). [Studies on the breeding and genetics of grain legumes and the applied agricultural practices.] Selektsionno-genetichni i agrotekhnicheski prouchvaniya na z"rneno-bobovite kulturi. Izdatelstvo na B"lgarskata Akademiya na Naukite. Sofia Bulgaria, 213-218

Armstrong E; Matthews P, 2005. Managing pea weevil, pulse point, 3rd edition. Temora, Australia: NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Assefa F; Dawd M; Abesha AD, 2003. Implementation Aspects of Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Policy and Extension Gap in Ethiopia. World Wide Web page at: http://www.drylands-group.org/Rep27_2003_full.pdf.

Bahr I, 1981. Is the pea aphid stll dangerous? Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 35(10):202-206.

Baker G, 1998. Pea weevil. Fact Sheet and the South Australian Research and Development Institute. http://www.sardi.sa.gov.au/pages/entomolo/pdf/peawevil.pdf.

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BARC, 2003. Chemicals affecting insect behavior. Bruchins. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. http//www.barc.usda.gov/psi/caib/accomplishments.html#bruchins.

Barwal RN; Devi J, 1993. Pests of stored food commodities and their management with particular reference to hide and skin beetle, Dermestes maculatus (Deg.) in Manipur. Journal of Insect Science, 6(2):189-194; 9 ref.

Bashar MA; Fatema Begum, 1994. State of larval fat reserves in Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) adults and oogenesis in females. Annals of Entomology, 12(2):1-8; 25 ref.

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BDT, 2003. Biological control. Plagas de importancia económica y estado de desarrollo de tecnologías para el control biológico (TCB) en el cultivo de granos almacenados. Base de Dados Tropical. http://www.bdt.fat.org.br/biocontrol/cosave/tabla11.

Bhat AA, 1988. Preliminary screening of some pea cultivars against insect pests in Kashmir. Progressive Horticulture, 20(1-2):167-168.

Boguleanu G; Nica F; Casian A, 1969. Response of various pea varieties to the attack of Bruchus pisorum L. in relation to sowing date. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic "N. Balcescu", A, 12:425-430.

Brindley TA; Chamberlin JC; Schopp R, 1956. The pea weevil and methods for its control. US Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin, No. 1971:1-24.

Brudea V; Mateias MC, 1998. Aspects of the morphology and bioecology of the pea bruchid (Bruchus pisorum L.). Probleme de Protec^tail~tia Plantelor, 26(2):173-179; 6 ref.

Burns JW; Bragg DE, 2001. Pea Aphid and Pea Seed Weevil Control in Dry Field Peas: Effects on Yield and Yield Components from Insecticide Application Timings. http://variety.wsu.edu/Updates/2001_Pea_Report.pdf.

Cafati KC; Jimenez TA, 1974. Some recommendations for growing peas for fresh consumption and conservation. Investigacion y-Progreso Agricola, 6(1):26-27.

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Cindea E, 1979. Investigations on the biology and control of some pests of edible pea crops. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 7(2):87-96

Clement SL, 1992. On the function of pea flower feeding by Bruchus pisorum.. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 63(2):115-121.

Clement SL; Lathrop A; Muehlbauer FJ, 1988. More on the pea's nectaries and insect visitors. The Pisum Newsletter, 20:3-4.

Comery JA, 1984. Damage levels for insect pests in field pea crops. Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Adelaide 24-28 September 1984. Pest control: recent advances and future prospects [edited by Bailey, P.; Swincer, D.] Adelaide, Australia; South Australian Government Printer, 181-187

Crowe LJ, 2003. Onion family disease: what are pea weevils? World Wide Web pages at: http://nh.essortment.com/oniondiseasewe_rddi.htm.

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Eschenbrenner P; Taupin P, 1983. The phytosanitary protection of pea and field bean. Phytoma, No. 346:34-38

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Fursov VN, 1987. New species of chalcids of the genus Uscana Girault (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) from Georgia and the Ukraine. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 66(1):175-183

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Gerding M; Figueroa A, 1989. Hyalomyodes triangulifera Loew. (Diptera: Tachinidae), parasitoid of Bruchus pisorum L. Agricultura Tecnica (Santiago), 49(1):69-70

Girsch L; Cate PC; Weinhappel M, 1999. A new method for determining the infestation of field beans (Vicia faba) and peas (Pisum sativum) with bean beetle (Bruchus rufimanus) and pea beetle (Bruchus pisorum), respectively. Seed Science and Technology, 27(1):377-383; 9 ref.

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Grigorov S, 1992. Plant quarantine. Zemizdat, Sofia.

Gulii V; Pamuzak N, 1992. Gorohovaya zernovka. In: Manual on Plant Protection for Farmers. Moscow, Russia: Rosagroservis, 169-173.

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Hardie DC; Baker GJ; Marshall DR, 1995. Field screening of Pisum accessions to evaluate their susceptibility to the pea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Euphytica, 84(2):155-161; 21 ref.

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Ilieva A; Dochkova B, 2000. Biochemical evaluation of forage pea genotypes with a view to breeding for resistance to pea weevil Bruchus pisi L. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 6(2):169-174; 12 ref.

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Jermy T; Szentesi A, 1978. The role of inhibitory stimuli in the choice of oviposition site by phytophagous insects. In: Chapman RF, Bernays EA, ed. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 24:458-471

Johnson CD, 1970. Biosystematics of the Arizona, California, and Oregon species of the seed beetle genus Acanthoscelides Schilsky (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). University of California Publications in Entomology, 59:vi + 116pp.

Kadamshoev M, 1985. The biology and pest status of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera, Bruchidae) in the western Pamirs. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2:73-76

Kalkan M, 1972. Investigation on the species, distribution and percentage of damage of Bruchidae in central Anatolia. Tarim Bakanligi Zirai Mucadele ve Zirai Karantina Genel Mudurlugu Arastirma Subesi. Plant Protection Research Annual, Zirai Mucadele Arastirma Yilligi, Ankara, Turkey, 64, 192.

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