Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide







  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bracon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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B. pineti female, parasitoid of the tortricid Cydia strobilella, on spruce cones.
TitleBracon pineti female
CaptionB. pineti female, parasitoid of the tortricid Cydia strobilella, on spruce cones.
CopyrightE. Brockerhoff
B. pineti female, parasitoid of the tortricid Cydia strobilella, on spruce cones.
Bracon pineti femaleB. pineti female, parasitoid of the tortricid Cydia strobilella, on spruce cones.E. Brockerhoff


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bracon Fabricius

Other Scientific Names

  • Amicoplidea Ashmead
  • Liobracon (Ashmead) Nason
  • Macrodyctium Ashmead
  • Microbracon Ashmead
  • Seliodus Brèthes
  • Tropidobracon Ashmead

EPPO code

  • BRAOSP (Bracon sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Braconidae
  •                             Genus: Bracon

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020


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Achterberg Cvan, 1985. Notes on Braconidae I-IV. II. Pigeria gen nov., a new palparctic genus of the Braconinp (Hymenoptera; Braconidae). Zoologische Mededelingen uitgegeven door het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, 59(15):168-174

Baker JE; Weaver DK; Throne JE; Zettler JL, 1995. Resistance to protectant insecticides in two field strains of the stored-product insect parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(3):512-519

Bakke A, 1963. Studies on the spruce cone insects Laspeyresia strobilella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Kaltenbachiola strobi (Winn.) (Diptera: Itonidae) and their parasites (Hymenoptera) in Norway. Meddelelser fra det Norska Skogsforsoksvesen, 19:1-151.

Cate JR, 1985. Cotton: status and current limitations to biological control in Texas and Arkansas. Biological control in agricultural IPM systems [edited by Hoy, M.A.; Herzog, D.C.] Orlando, Florida; Academic Press, Inc., 537-556

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cline LD; Press JW, 1990. Reduction in almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestations using commercial packaging of foods in combination with the parasitic wasp, Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):1110-1113

Croft BA, 1990. Arthropod biological control agents and pesticides. New York, USA; John Wiley and Sons Inc., 723 pp.

Dhoubi MH; Jemmazi A, 1996. Lutte biologique en entrepot contre la pyrale Ectomyelois ceratoniae, ravageur des dattes. Fruit Paris, 51:39-46.

Ghosh SM; Chandrasekharan K; Abdurahiman UC, 1993. The bionomics of Pediobius imbreus (Hymenoptera) and its impact on the biological control of the coconut caterpillar. Journal of Ecobiology, 5(3):161-166; 6 ref.

Godfray HCJ, 1994. Parasitoids: behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton, New Jersey, USA; Princeton University Press, xi + 473 pp.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Guerra AA, 1992. In vitro rearing of Bracon mellitor and Catolaccus grandis with different insect hemolymph-based diets. Southwestern Entomologist, 17(2):123-126

Heimpel GE; Antolin MF; Franqui RA; Strand MR, 1997. Reproductive isolation and genetic variation between two "strains" of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Control, 9(3):149-156; 41 ref.

Herting B, 1977. A Catalogue of Parasites and Predators of Terrestrial Arthropods. Section A, Host or Prey/Enemy, Vol. IV, Hymenoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Khloptseva RI, 1991. The use of entomophages in biological pest control in the USSR. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(3):243-246

Mandal SK; Somchoudhury AK, 1995. Bioefficacy of commercial formulations of insecticides against Bracon hebetor Say. Indian Journal of Entomology, 57(1):50-54; 9 ref.

Pearson WD, 1989. Coleophora frischella L. whitetipped clover casebearer, C. spissicornis Haworth, banded clover casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). In: Cameron PJ, Hill RL, Bain J, Thomas WP, eds. A Review of Biological Control of Invertebrate Pests and Weeds in New Zealand 1874 to 1987. Technical Communications. Wallingford, UK: CAB Internationa, 10:73-85.

Quicke DL, 1997. Subfamily Braconinae. In: Wharton RA, Marsh PM, Sharkey MJ, eds. Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Special Publication of the International Society of Hymenopterists, 1:149-174.

Quicke DLJ, 1987. The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Natural History, 21(1):43-157

Quicke DLJ; Sharkey MJ, 1989. A key to and notes on the genera of Braconinp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from America north of Mexico with descriptions of two new genera and three new species. Canadian Entomologist, 121(4-5):337-361

Shaw MR; Huddleston T, 1991. Classification and biology of braconid wasps. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. London, UK; Royal Entomological Society, 7(11):126 pp.

Slosser JE; Price JR; Puterka GJ, 1990. Manipulation of overwintering survival and spring emergence of Bracon mellitor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(4):1110-1114

Summy KR; Morales-Ramos JA; King EG; Greenberg SM; Rankin MA; Hansen LG; Moomaw C, 1995. Rationale and potential for augmentative biological control of boll weevil on fallow-season cotton in southern Texas. Southwestern Entomologist, 20(4):483-491; 23 ref.

Temerak SA, 1983. Studies on Pediobius bruchicida (Rond.) (Hym., Eulophidae), a hyperparasitoid of Sesamia cretica Led. (Lep., Noctuidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 95(3):267-272

Urban A; Schmidt H, 1993. Moth pests on sultanas controlled biologically. Plant Protection News, No. 31:8-9

Von Borstel RC and 20 junior authors, 1968. Mutational Response of Habrobracon in the Biosatellite II experiment. Bioscience, 18:598-601.

Whiting AR, 1961. Genetics of Habrobracon. Advances in Genetics, 10:295-348.

Xie ZN; Li L; Xie YQ, 1989. Culture of ectoparasitoid Bracon greeni Ashmead in vitro. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 32(4):433-437

Yazlovestkii IG; Nepomnyashchaya AM; Ageeva LI, 1992. Optimization of the artificial diet for larvae of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologicheskii^breve~ Zhurnal, 71(10):134-138; 10 ref.

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