Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Trichodina

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Datasheet

Trichodina

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Trichodina
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Protista
  •     Phylum: Protozoa
  •       Subphylum: Ciliophora
  •         Class: Oligohymenophorea

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
SEM micrographs of Trichodina heterodentata (A-E). A. Aboral side with compound wreath of cilia used for movement. B. Oral view showing adoral spiral entering infundibulum. C. Denticle ring with radial and peripheral pins: with pellicle removed. D. Denticles after soft body has been removed, viewed aborally. E. Daughter cell after division, with old denticle ring in the process of resorption and new denticle ring already formed. Note the stronger old radial pins with thinner new pins in between. F. Young fingerling of Oreochromis mossambicus with a heavy infestation of trichodinids on the body. Scale bars = 20 µm (A-E), 1 mm (F). A-F originals.
TitleMicrographs
CaptionSEM micrographs of Trichodina heterodentata (A-E). A. Aboral side with compound wreath of cilia used for movement. B. Oral view showing adoral spiral entering infundibulum. C. Denticle ring with radial and peripheral pins: with pellicle removed. D. Denticles after soft body has been removed, viewed aborally. E. Daughter cell after division, with old denticle ring in the process of resorption and new denticle ring already formed. Note the stronger old radial pins with thinner new pins in between. F. Young fingerling of Oreochromis mossambicus with a heavy infestation of trichodinids on the body. Scale bars = 20 µm (A-E), 1 mm (F). A-F originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
SEM micrographs of Trichodina heterodentata (A-E). A. Aboral side with compound wreath of cilia used for movement. B. Oral view showing adoral spiral entering infundibulum. C. Denticle ring with radial and peripheral pins: with pellicle removed. D. Denticles after soft body has been removed, viewed aborally. E. Daughter cell after division, with old denticle ring in the process of resorption and new denticle ring already formed. Note the stronger old radial pins with thinner new pins in between. F. Young fingerling of Oreochromis mossambicus with a heavy infestation of trichodinids on the body. Scale bars = 20 µm (A-E), 1 mm (F). A-F originals.
MicrographsSEM micrographs of Trichodina heterodentata (A-E). A. Aboral side with compound wreath of cilia used for movement. B. Oral view showing adoral spiral entering infundibulum. C. Denticle ring with radial and peripheral pins: with pellicle removed. D. Denticles after soft body has been removed, viewed aborally. E. Daughter cell after division, with old denticle ring in the process of resorption and new denticle ring already formed. Note the stronger old radial pins with thinner new pins in between. F. Young fingerling of Oreochromis mossambicus with a heavy infestation of trichodinids on the body. Scale bars = 20 µm (A-E), 1 mm (F). A-F originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As
A. Schematic drawing of denticles of Trichodina magna to illustrate the sequence and method of the description of denticle elements, according to the method of Van As and Basson (1989). B. Diagnostically important features in the adhesive disc of trichodinids. C. Diagnostically important features of the nuclear apparatus. Abbreviations: ab, blade apex; abm, anterior blade margin (surface); add, adhesive disc diameter; b, blade length; ba, blade apophysis; bc, blade connection; bm, border membrane with striations; ca, centre of adhesive disc; ccp, central conical part; cp, central part; dbm, distal blade margin (surface); dd, denticle ring diameter; dpc, deepest point of curve relative to apex; ira, indentation in lower central part; ma, macronucleus; mi, micronucleus; pbm, posterior blade margin (surface); pp, posterior projection; r, ray length; ra, ray apophysis; rc, ray connection; rp, radial pins; rpd, number of radial pins per denticle; tp, tangent point. B, C originals.
TitleTrichodina magna
CaptionA. Schematic drawing of denticles of Trichodina magna to illustrate the sequence and method of the description of denticle elements, according to the method of Van As and Basson (1989). B. Diagnostically important features in the adhesive disc of trichodinids. C. Diagnostically important features of the nuclear apparatus. Abbreviations: ab, blade apex; abm, anterior blade margin (surface); add, adhesive disc diameter; b, blade length; ba, blade apophysis; bc, blade connection; bm, border membrane with striations; ca, centre of adhesive disc; ccp, central conical part; cp, central part; dbm, distal blade margin (surface); dd, denticle ring diameter; dpc, deepest point of curve relative to apex; ira, indentation in lower central part; ma, macronucleus; mi, micronucleus; pbm, posterior blade margin (surface); pp, posterior projection; r, ray length; ra, ray apophysis; rc, ray connection; rp, radial pins; rpd, number of radial pins per denticle; tp, tangent point. B, C originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
A. Schematic drawing of denticles of Trichodina magna to illustrate the sequence and method of the description of denticle elements, according to the method of Van As and Basson (1989). B. Diagnostically important features in the adhesive disc of trichodinids. C. Diagnostically important features of the nuclear apparatus. Abbreviations: ab, blade apex; abm, anterior blade margin (surface); add, adhesive disc diameter; b, blade length; ba, blade apophysis; bc, blade connection; bm, border membrane with striations; ca, centre of adhesive disc; ccp, central conical part; cp, central part; dbm, distal blade margin (surface); dd, denticle ring diameter; dpc, deepest point of curve relative to apex; ira, indentation in lower central part; ma, macronucleus; mi, micronucleus; pbm, posterior blade margin (surface); pp, posterior projection; r, ray length; ra, ray apophysis; rc, ray connection; rp, radial pins; rpd, number of radial pins per denticle; tp, tangent point. B, C originals.
Trichodina magnaA. Schematic drawing of denticles of Trichodina magna to illustrate the sequence and method of the description of denticle elements, according to the method of Van As and Basson (1989). B. Diagnostically important features in the adhesive disc of trichodinids. C. Diagnostically important features of the nuclear apparatus. Abbreviations: ab, blade apex; abm, anterior blade margin (surface); add, adhesive disc diameter; b, blade length; ba, blade apophysis; bc, blade connection; bm, border membrane with striations; ca, centre of adhesive disc; ccp, central conical part; cp, central part; dbm, distal blade margin (surface); dd, denticle ring diameter; dpc, deepest point of curve relative to apex; ira, indentation in lower central part; ma, macronucleus; mi, micronucleus; pbm, posterior blade margin (surface); pp, posterior projection; r, ray length; ra, ray apophysis; rc, ray connection; rp, radial pins; rpd, number of radial pins per denticle; tp, tangent point. B, C originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. acuta, B. T. centrostrigeata, C. T. compacta, D. T. fultoni (courtesy of Dr Lom), E. T. heterodentata, F. T. maritinkae. Scale bars = 20 µm. A-C, E, F originals.
TitleDiscs of Trichodina spp.
CaptionSilver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. acuta, B. T. centrostrigeata, C. T. compacta, D. T. fultoni (courtesy of Dr Lom), E. T. heterodentata, F. T. maritinkae. Scale bars = 20 µm. A-C, E, F originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. acuta, B. T. centrostrigeata, C. T. compacta, D. T. fultoni (courtesy of Dr Lom), E. T. heterodentata, F. T. maritinkae. Scale bars = 20 µm. A-C, E, F originals.
Discs of Trichodina spp.Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. acuta, B. T. centrostrigeata, C. T. compacta, D. T. fultoni (courtesy of Dr Lom), E. T. heterodentata, F. T. maritinkae. Scale bars = 20 µm. A-C, E, F originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. murmanica (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. T. mutabilis, C. T. nigra, D. T. nobilis, E. T. pediculus (courtesy of Dr Lom), F. T. perforata (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. B-D originals.
TitleDiscs of Trichodina spp.
CaptionSilver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. murmanica (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. T. mutabilis, C. T. nigra, D. T. nobilis, E. T. pediculus (courtesy of Dr Lom), F. T. perforata (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. B-D originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. murmanica (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. T. mutabilis, C. T. nigra, D. T. nobilis, E. T. pediculus (courtesy of Dr Lom), F. T. perforata (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. B-D originals.
Discs of Trichodina spp.Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. murmanica (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. T. mutabilis, C. T. nigra, D. T. nobilis, E. T. pediculus (courtesy of Dr Lom), F. T. perforata (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. B-D originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. rectuncinata, B. T. reticulata, C. T. truttae (courtesy of Dr Lom), D. T. uretra, E. Hemitrichodina robusta, F. Vauchomia renicola (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. A, B, D, E originals.
TitleDiscs of Trichodina spp.
CaptionSilver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. rectuncinata, B. T. reticulata, C. T. truttae (courtesy of Dr Lom), D. T. uretra, E. Hemitrichodina robusta, F. Vauchomia renicola (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. A, B, D, E originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. rectuncinata, B. T. reticulata, C. T. truttae (courtesy of Dr Lom), D. T. uretra, E. Hemitrichodina robusta, F. Vauchomia renicola (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. A, B, D, E originals.
Discs of Trichodina spp.Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of Trichodina species. A. T. rectuncinata, B. T. reticulata, C. T. truttae (courtesy of Dr Lom), D. T. uretra, E. Hemitrichodina robusta, F. Vauchomia renicola (courtesy of Dr Lom). Scale bars = 20 µm. A, B, D, E originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of various trichodinid species. A. Paratrichodina corlissi (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. Paratrichodina incissa (courtesy of Dr Lom), C. Tripartiella cichlidarum, D. Tripartiella clavodonta, E. Tripartiella orthodens, F. Trichodinella epizootica. Scale bars = 10 µm. C-F originals.
TitleDiscs of Trichodina spp.
CaptionSilver-impregnated adhesive discs of various trichodinid species. A. Paratrichodina corlissi (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. Paratrichodina incissa (courtesy of Dr Lom), C. Tripartiella cichlidarum, D. Tripartiella clavodonta, E. Tripartiella orthodens, F. Trichodinella epizootica. Scale bars = 10 µm. C-F originals.
CopyrightLinda Basson & Jo van As
Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of various trichodinid species. A. Paratrichodina corlissi (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. Paratrichodina incissa (courtesy of Dr Lom), C. Tripartiella cichlidarum, D. Tripartiella clavodonta, E. Tripartiella orthodens, F. Trichodinella epizootica. Scale bars = 10 µm. C-F originals.
Discs of Trichodina spp.Silver-impregnated adhesive discs of various trichodinid species. A. Paratrichodina corlissi (courtesy of Dr Lom), B. Paratrichodina incissa (courtesy of Dr Lom), C. Tripartiella cichlidarum, D. Tripartiella clavodonta, E. Tripartiella orthodens, F. Trichodinella epizootica. Scale bars = 10 µm. C-F originals.Linda Basson & Jo van As

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Trichodina

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Protista
  •         Phylum: Protozoa
  •             Subphylum: Ciliophora
  •                 Class: Oligohymenophorea
  •                     Subclass: Peritricha
  •                         Order: Mobilida
  •                             Family: Trichodinidae
  •                                 Genus: Trichodina

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Achatina fulicaRaut and Barker (2002)
Dreissena rostriformis bugensisAdultTyutin and Scherbina (2006)

References

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Davis HS, 1947. Studies of the Protozoan Parasites of Freshwater Fishes. Fishery Bulletin 51. Washington, USA: US Department of the Interior 129 pp.

Haider G, 1964. Monographie der Familie Urceolariidae (Ciliata, Peritricha, Mobilia) mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der im süddeutschen Raum vorkommenden Arten.. Parasitologische Schriftenreihe Heft 17, Fischer, Jena, 251 pp.

Kruger J; Van As JG; Basson L, 1995. Observations on the adhesive disc of Trichodina xenopodos Fantham, 1924 and Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) during binary fission. Acta Protozoologica, 34:203-209.

Lom J, 1958. A contribution to the systematics and morphology of endoparasitic trichodinids from amphibians with a proposal of uniform specific characteristics. Journal of Protozoology, 5:251-263.

Lom J, 1964. The morphology and morphogenesis of the buccal ciliary organelles in some peritrichous ciliates. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 107:131-162.

Lom J, 1973. The adhesive disc of Trichodinella epizootica - ultrastructure and injury to the host tissue. Folia Parasitologica (Praha), 20:193-202.

MacLennan RF, 1939. The morphology and locomotor activities of Cyclochaeta domerguei. Journal of Morphology, 65:241-256.

Pénard E, 1922. Etudes sur les infusoires d’eau douce. Geneva, Switzerland: Georg.

Precht H, 1935. Epizoen der Kieler Bucht. Nova Acta Leopoldina, Neue Folge, 3:405-474.

Richards CS, 1949. Description and host relations of four new species of Trichodina from freshwater molluscs. Abstracts of Dissertations, Stanford University, 24:94-95.

Van As JG; Basson L, 1988. The Incidence and Control of Fish Ectoparasitic Protozoa in South Africa. Technical Communication No. 211. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, 11 pp.

Van As JG; Basson L, 1990. An articulated internal skeleton resembling a spinal column in a ciliated protozoan. Naturwissenschaften, 77:229-231.