Invasive Species Compendium

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Urochloa decumbens
(signal grass)

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Datasheet

Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Urochloa decumbens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • signal grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • U. decumbens is a C4 grass widely cultivated as a pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions of world. This species has escaped from cultivation and once naturalized it behaves as a weed on ga...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D. Webster

Preferred Common Name

  • signal grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Brachiaria bequaertii Robyns
  • Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

International Common Names

  • English: basilisk signal grass; spreading liverseed grass; Surinam grass
  • Spanish: braquiaria; pasto alambre; pasto chontalpo; pasto de la palizada; pasto de las orillas; pasto peludo; pasto prodigio; zacate prodigio; zacate señal; zacate signal; zacate Surinam
  • Portuguese: braquiária; capim-braquiaria

Local Common Names

  • Australia: basilisk signal grass; Surinam grass
  • Brazil: capim-braquiária; capim-pangola
  • Ecuador: braquiaria; zacate Surinam

EPPO code

  • BRADC (Brachiaria decumbens)

Summary of Invasiveness

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U. decumbens is a C4 grass widely cultivated as a pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions of world. This species has escaped from cultivation and once naturalized it behaves as a weed on gardens, parks, roadsides, disturbed sites, waste areas, riparian areas, and sugarcane plantations (Weeds of Australia, 2015). It is highly adaptable to a wide range of soil types and habitat conditions (Cook et al., 2005). This perennial grass vigorously colonizes disturbed environments and often forms dense stands in the understory of secondary forests and open woodlands, along waterways and on floodplains (Weeds of Australia, 2015; I3N-Brasil, 2015; PIER, 2015). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, Costa Rica, Brazil, Jamaica, and Australia where it is listed among the top 200 most invasive plants in Queensland (Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008; Chacón & Saborio, 2012; I3N-Brasil, 2015; I3N-Jamaica, 2015; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015). In general, the success of Urochloa and Brachiaria species can be attributed to their broad adaptation and to their aggressiveness and resilience, which enable them to persist even under unfavourable conditions (Stur et al., 1996).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Urochloa
  •                                 Species: Urochloa decumbens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomy of the genus Urochloa is unclear mostly due to the weaknesses of the characters used to separate Urochloa from Brachiaria (i.e., spikelet orientation and presence or absence of an upper floret). These weaknesses have been discussed by several authors including Webster (1987, 1988) and Morrone and Zuloaga (1992, 1993). Floristic studies conducted in Australia (Webster, 1987), North America (Webster, 1988; Zuloaga and Morrone, 2003), South America, Mexico and Central America (Morrone and Zuloaga, 1992, 1993) have circumscribed species of Brachiaria into Urochloa. On the other hand, Sharp and Simon (2002) maintained the name Brachiaria for all species that occur in Australia and the annual species of Brachiaria are now included in the new genus Moorochloa (Veldkamp, 2004). The taxonomic positions of these three genera still remain unclear. The species Urochloa decumbens is also named as Brachiaria decumbens which is still an acceptable name for some authors (Clayton et al., 2015). 

Description

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U. decumbens is a perennial grass. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 50–150 cm long; wiry. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 5–20 cm long; 7–15 mm wide. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2–7; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 1–5 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 1–8 cm long. Rhachis broadly winged; 1–1.7 mm wide; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing adaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; subacute, or acute; 4–5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus square. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes. Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 0.33–0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 9 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute. Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; pubescent; obtuse, or acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 3.5–4.5 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea involute; indurate; without keels (Clayton et al., 2015). 

Distribution

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U. decumbens is native to tropical eastern Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Congo Democratic Republic (former Zaire). It has been widely cultivated as a pasture grass across tropical and subtropical regions of the world and can now be found naturalized in tropical Asia, Central and South America, the West Indies, Australia, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for detail, USDA-ARS, 2015; Clayton et al., 2015; PIER, 2015). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
LaosPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

Africa

BurundiPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
KenyaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
RwandaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
TanzaniaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
UgandaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015Cultivated
HondurasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Jamaica, 2015
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
PanamaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedZuloaga and Morrone, 2003Corrientes, Misiones
BoliviaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-BahiaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-CearaPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-GoiasPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-ParaPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-ParanaPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-PiauiPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-RoraimaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-SergipePresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Brasil, 2015
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedShirasuna, 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
ParaguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al., 2008Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Caguazú, Caazapá, Guairá, San Pedro
PeruPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2015
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson, 1988Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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U. decumbens has been widely introduced to be used as a pasture grass. In Central and South America it was introduced from Africa in the 1950s and 1960s. For example, in Brazil, it was introduced in 1950 in areas of Sao Paulo and Belem to be used as a forage grass. Further introductions in this country have been reported in 1964 and 1980 (I3N-Brasil, 2015). Keller-Grein et al. (1996) suggested that Brachiaria was the most widely used tropical grass genus, especially in Central and South America. In Brazil alone, about 40 million ha of Brachiaria pastures exist, more than 85% of which consists of Brachiaria decumbens [U. decumbens]. In humid lowlands of tropical Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru, Brachiaria species (i.e., B. decumbens[U. decumbens] and B. brizantha) were also introduced in the 1950s and have become important components of sown pastures (Argel and Keller-Grein, 1996). In Australia,U. decumbens (named as B. decumbens) was introduced in 1930 and re-introduced in the late 1960s (Shelton, 2015). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of U. decumbens is very high. This grass has been intentionally introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world since the 1950s to be used as a forage grass (Cook et al., 2005). It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and rapidly colonizes disturbed environments and forms dense stands with the potential to displace native vegetation in forests, woodlands, and riparian areas (Weeds of Australia, 2015). 

Habitat

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U. decumbens grows in humid tropical areas and warmer subtropical sites with rainfall ranging from 1000 to >3000 mm (Cook et al., 2005). It grows as a weed along roadsides, in disturbed sites, waste areas, riparian areas, open woodlands and plantation crops (Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

U. decumbens is a tetraploid species and the chromosome number reported for this species varies from 2n = 18, 2n = 4x = 36 (Cook et al., 2005).

Reproductive Biology

U. decumbens is an apomict and tetraploid grass in which the embryo is produced without fusion of male and female gametes. Sexuality has been found at the diploid level in this species and is generally associated with regular chromosome pairing and division. Cross pollination can produce a (sterile) triploid hybrid (Cook et al., 2005; Shelton, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

U. decumbens grows on a wide range of soil types including those of low fertility, low pH (as low as pH 3.5) and high aluminium saturation. It grows best in humid areas with rainfall ranging from 1000 mm to >3000 mm and temperatures above 19ºC. It can tolerate up to 5 months of dry season, some short-term flooding but not temporary waterlogging. U. decumbens can be burnt during the dry season and recovers rapidly from stolons and seed with the onset of rains (Cook et al., 2005). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BSh - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation, low altitude, average temp. > 18°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
27

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration5number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10003000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Uromyces setariae-italicae Pathogen All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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U. decumbens is susceptible to spittlebugs (Aeneolamia, Deois and Zulia spp.) and to the rust species Uromyces setariae-italicae (Cook et al., 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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U. decumbens spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons. Seeds may be dispersed by wind, water and animals, in contaminated soil, machinery, and contaminated agricultural produce (i.e., pasture seeds; Cook et al., 2005; Weeds of Australia, 2015; I3N-Brasil, 2015). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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U. decumbens is a weed and an aggressive invasive grass that rapidly colonizes principally disturbed habitats and forms dense stands in the understory of open forests, woodlands, lowlands, along waterways and on floodplains (Weeds of Australia, 2015; PIER, 2015). It is also a serious problem in soyabean and sugarcane crops (I3N-Brasil, 2015). In Australia (i.e., Queensland) it has been recently listed among the top 200 most invasive plants (Weeds of Australia, 2015). In Brazil, it is invading areas in the “cerrado” and the “caatinga” where it is forming dense stands and displacing native vegetation. It also invades annual and perennial crops and orchards reducing the production and generating control and removal costs (I3N-Brasil, 2015). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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U. decumbens is planted for permanent pastures, fresh feed and for conservation under cut-and-carry systems. It withstands heavy grazing and establishes on poor and rocky soils (Cook et al., 2005). It is also used as a ground-cover grass for erosion control on hillsides (Cook et al., 2005).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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U. decumbens is very similar to Urochloa brizantha (also named as Brachiaria brizantha) and Urochloa mosambicensis, and relatively similar to Urochloa mutica. These species can be distinguished by the following differences (Weeds of Australia, 2015):

  • Urochloa decumbens: seed-heads with 2-7 branches (racemes) that are usually all arranged along one side of the flowering stem. The flowering stem is usually also slightly extended beyond the last branch of the seed-head. Its flower spikelets are arranged in two rows along the seed-head branches and are somewhat hairy (pubescent).
  • Urochloa brizantha: seed-heads with 2-16 branches (racemes) that are usually all arranged along one side of the flowering stem. The flowering stem is usually also slightly extended beyond the last branch of the seed-head. Its flower spikelets are arranged in a single row along the seed-head branches and are hairless (glabrous).
  • Urochloa mosambicensis: seed-heads with 3-7 branches (racemes) that are usually all arranged along both sides of the flowering stem. Its flower spikelets are arranged in two rows along the seed-head branches and are somewhat hairy (i.e. pubescent) with very pointed tips (they extended into a mucro).
  • Urochloa mutica: seed-heads with 5-20 branches (racemes) that are usually arranged around the flowering stem and become much smaller towards the tip of the stem. Its flower spikelets are irregularly arranged along the seed-head branches and are hairless (glabrous).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

In Brazil, strategies recommended for the control of U. decumbens include the use of controlled intensive grazing, suffocation with transparent plastic-sheet for 40-60 days to eliminate seed banks, and hand removal of small infestations (I3N-Brasil, 2015).

Chemical Control

Large infestations of U. decumbens can be controlled by foliar application of the herbicide glyphosate in 1-2% dilution in water. Repeated applications should be made until control occurs (I3N-Brasil, 2015). This species tolerates pre-emergence application of atrazine when establishing in weedy cultivated lands (Cook et al., 2005). 

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Argel PJ, Keller-Grein G, 1996. Regional experience with Brachiaria: tropical America-humid lowlands. In: Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement [ed. by Miles Maass Valle, J. W. ;. B. L. ;. B. C.]. CIAT/Embrapa, 205-221.

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2015. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Cook BG, Pengelly BC, Brown SD, Donnelly JL, Eagles DA, Franco MA, Hanson J, Partridge IJ, Peter M, Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

I3N-Brasil, 2015. Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora (National database of exotic invasive species). Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

I3N-Jamaica, 2015. Invasive Information Network (I3N), Jamaica invasive species database. http://apps.licj.org.jm/jamaica-invasives/

Keller-Grein G, Maass BL, Hanson J, 1996. Natural variation in Brachiaria and existing germplasm collection. In: Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement [ed. by Miles, J. W. \Maass, B. L. \Valle, C. B.]. CIAT/Embrapa, 17-42.

Morrone O, Zuloaga FO, 1992. A revision of the native and introduced South American species of Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. and Urochloa P. Beauv. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). (Revisión de las especies sudamericanas nátivas e introducidas de los géneros Brachiaria y Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae).) Darwiniana, 31(1-4):43-109.

Morrone O, Zuloaga FO, 1993. Synopsis of the genus Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) from Mexico and Central America. (Sinopsis del género Urochloa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) para Mexico y América Central.) Darwiniana, 32:59-75.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Sharp D, Simon BK, 2002. AusGrass1: Grasses of Australia. Canberra and Queensland, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study and Environmental Protection Agency.

Shelton M, 2015. Brachiaria decumbens. FAO Grassland Species Profiles. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/gbase/Default.htm

Shirasuna RT, 2014. Urochloa in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil ([English title not available]). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB24316

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stur WW, Hopkinson JM, Chen CP, 1996. Regional Experience with Brachiaria. Asia, the South Pacific and Australia. In: Brachiaria: Biology, Agronomy and Improvement [ed. by Miles Maass Valle, J. W. ;. B. L. ;. B. C.]. CIAT/Embrapa, 258-271.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Veldkamp JF, 2004. Miscellaneous notes on mainly Southeast Asian gramineae. Reinwardtia, 12:135-140.

Webster RD, 1987. Australian Paniceae (Poaceae). Berlin, Germany: J. Cramer, 322pp.

Webster RD, 1988. Genera of the North American Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae). Systematic Botany, 13(4):576-609.

Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, 2003. Brachiaria, Urochloa. Contributions of the US National Herbarium, 46:141-143, 629-634. [Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundionoideae, and Danthonioideae.]

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
FAO Grassland species profileshttp://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/gbase/Default.htm
Plant Resources for Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org/
Tropical Forageshttp://www.tropicalforages.info/index.htm
Weeds of Australiahttp://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds

Contributors

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10/12/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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