Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 September 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Togaviridae
  •         Genus: Alphavirus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Togaviridae
  •                 Genus: Alphavirus
  •                     Species: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizePresent
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
VenezuelaPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that causes disease ranging from mild febrile illness to fatal encephalitis in Equidae and humans. VEEV is transmitted by haematophagous insects, primarily mammalophilic mosquitoes (Weaver et al., 2004).

Alphavirus virions are spherical, enveloped, and approximately 70 nm in diameter, with icosahedral T = 4 symmetry (Paredes et al., 2001). The 5′ end of the VEEV genome encodes four non-structural proteins, nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4, and the 3′ end is responsible for three structural proteins, the capsid and the envelope proteins E1 and E2. Non-structural proteins participate in the replication of the viral genome involved in functions of the cytoplasm of the host (Guzmán-Terán et al., 2020).

There are at least six VEEV subtypes (I-VI). Within subtype I, there are five antigenic variants (variants AB-F). Antigenic variants I-AB and I-C are associated with epizootic activity in equids and human epidemics. Originally, subtypes I-A and I-B were considered to be distinct variants, but they are now considered to be identical (I-AB). The other three variants of subtype I (I-D, I-E, I-F) and the other five subtypes of VEEV (II–VI) circulate in natural enzootic cycles. Equidae serve as amplifying hosts for epizootic VEEV strains while enzootic VEEV cycles primarily between sylvatic rodents and mosquitoes. Enzootic variants and subtypes are typically non-pathogenic for equids, but can cause clinical disease in humans (Walton et al., 1973; Weaver et al., 2004). VEEV is highly infectious in aerosol form and is a known biowarfare agent (Sharma and Knollmann-Ritschel, 2019).

Venezuelan equine encephalitis (or encephalomyelitis) is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For the most recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedeomyia squamipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albifasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes angustivittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fulvus fulvusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes terrensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles albitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex adamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex crybdaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex delponteiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ferreriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex idottusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex nigripalpusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex panocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pedroiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex spissipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex taeniopusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Mansonia titillansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora columbiaeInsectUSA
Psorophora confinnisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora feroxMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhodnius pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Simulium metallicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium mexicanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Guzmán-Terán, C., Calderón-Rangel, A., Rodriguez-Morales, A., Mattar, S., 2020. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: the problem is not over for tropical America. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 19(19), (19 May 2020). doi: 10.1186/s12941-020-00360-4

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Paredes A, Alwell-Warda K, Weaver SC, Chiu W, Watowich SJ, 2001. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus structure and its divergence from Old World alphaviruses. Journal of Virology, 75(19):9532-9537. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/19/9532

Sharma, A., Knollmann-Ritschel, B., 2019. Current understanding of the molecular basis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. Viruses, 11(2), 164. doi: 10.3390/v11020164

WALTON TE, ALVAREZ O Jr, BUCKWALTER RM, JOHNSON KM, 1973. Experimental infection of horses with enzootic and epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 128(3):271-82

Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:141-174

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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