Invasive Species Compendium

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 September 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Togaviridae
  •         Genus: Alphavirus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Togaviridae
  •                 Genus: Alphavirus
  •                     Species: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizePresentJan-Jun-2020
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2020
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that causes disease ranging from mild febrile illness to fatal encephalitis in Equidae and humans. VEEV is transmitted by haematophagous insects, primarily mammalophilic mosquitoes (Weaver et al., 2004).

Alphavirus virions are spherical, enveloped, and approximately 70 nm in diameter, with icosahedral T = 4 symmetry (Paredes et al., 2001). The 5′ end of the VEEV genome encodes four non-structural proteins, nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4, and the 3′ end is responsible for three structural proteins, the capsid and the envelope proteins E1 and E2. Non-structural proteins participate in the replication of the viral genome involved in functions of the cytoplasm of the host (Guzmán-Terán et al., 2020).

There are at least six VEEV subtypes (I-VI). Within subtype I, there are five antigenic variants (variants AB-F). Antigenic variants I-AB and I-C are associated with epizootic activity in equids and human epidemics. Originally, subtypes I-A and I-B were considered to be distinct variants, but they are now considered to be identical (I-AB). The other three variants of subtype I (I-D, I-E, I-F) and the other five subtypes of VEEV (II–VI) circulate in natural enzootic cycles. Equidae serve as amplifying hosts for epizootic VEEV strains while enzootic VEEV cycles primarily between sylvatic rodents and mosquitoes. Enzootic variants and subtypes are typically non-pathogenic for equids, but can cause clinical disease in humans (Walton et al., 1973; Weaver et al., 2004). VEEV is highly infectious in aerosol form and is a known biowarfare agent (Sharma and Knollmann-Ritschel, 2019).

Venezuelan equine encephalitis (or encephalomyelitis) is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For the most recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedeomyia squamipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albifasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes angustivittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fulvus fulvusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes terrensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles albitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex adamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex crybdaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex delponteiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ferreriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex idottusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex nigripalpusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex panocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pedroiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex spissipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex taeniopusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Mansonia titillansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora columbiaeInsectUSA
Psorophora confinnisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora feroxMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhodnius pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Simulium metallicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium mexicanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Guzmán-Terán, C., Calderón-Rangel, A., Rodriguez-Morales, A., Mattar, S., 2020. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: the problem is not over for tropical America. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 19(19), (19 May 2020). doi: 10.1186/s12941-020-00360-4

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Paredes A, Alwell-Warda K, Weaver SC, Chiu W, Watowich SJ, 2001. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus structure and its divergence from Old World alphaviruses. Journal of Virology, 75(19):9532-9537. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/19/9532

Sharma, A., Knollmann-Ritschel, B., 2019. Current understanding of the molecular basis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. Viruses, 11(2), 164. doi: 10.3390/v11020164

WALTON TE, ALVAREZ O Jr, BUCKWALTER RM, JOHNSON KM, 1973. Experimental infection of horses with enzootic and epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 128(3):271-82

Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:141-174

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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