Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Togaviridae
  •         Genus: Alphavirus
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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Togaviridae
  •                 Genus: Alphavirus
  •                     Species: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
USALast reported1971OIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported1944OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorLast reported1972OIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that causes disease ranging from mild febrile illness to fatal encephalitis in Equidae and humans. VEEV is transmitted by haematophagous insects, primarily mammalophilic mosquitoes (Weaver et al., 2004).

Alphavirus virions are spherical, enveloped, and approximately 70 nm in diameter, with icosahedral T = 4 symmetry (Paredes et al., 2001).

There are at least six VEEV subtypes (I-VI). Within subtype I, there are five antigenic variants (variants AB-F). Antigenic variants I-AB and I-C are associated with epizootic activity in equids and human epidemics. The other three variants of subtype I (I-D, I-E, I-F) and the other five subtypes of VEEV (II–VI) circulate in natural enzootic cycles. Equidae serve as amplifying hosts for epizootic VEEV strains while enzootic VEEV cycles primarily between sylvatic rodents and mosquitoes. Enzootic variants and subtypes are typically non-pathogenic for equids, but can cause clinical disease in humans (Walton et al., 1973; Weaver et al., 2004).

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedeomyia squamipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albifasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes angustivittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fulvus fulvusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes terrensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles albitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex adamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex crybdaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex delponteiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ferreriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex idottusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex nigripalpusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex panocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pedroiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex spissipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex taeniopusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Mansonia titillansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora columbiaeInsectUSA
Psorophora confinnisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora feroxMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhodnius pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Simulium metallicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium mexicanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Paredes A; Alwell-Warda K; Weaver SC; Chiu W; Watowich SJ, 2001. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus structure and its divergence from Old World alphaviruses. Journal of Virology, 75(19):9532-9537. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/19/9532

WALTON TE; ALVAREZ O Jr; BUCKWALTER RM; JOHNSON KM, 1973. Experimental infection of horses with enzootic and epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 128(3):271-82.

Weaver SC; Ferro C; Barrera R; Boshell J; Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:141-174.

Distribution Maps

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