Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Togaviridae
  •         Genus: Alphavirus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Togaviridae
  •                 Genus: Alphavirus
  •                     Species: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that causes disease ranging from mild febrile illness to fatal encephalitis in Equidae and humans. VEEV is transmitted by haematophagous insects, primarily mammalophilic mosquitoes (Weaver et al., 2004).

Alphavirus virions are spherical, enveloped, and approximately 70 nm in diameter, with icosahedral T = 4 symmetry (Paredes et al., 2001).

There are at least six VEEV subtypes (I-VI). Within subtype I, there are five antigenic variants (variants AB-F). Antigenic variants I-AB and I-C are associated with epizootic activity in equids and human epidemics. The other three variants of subtype I (I-D, I-E, I-F) and the other five subtypes of VEEV (II–VI) circulate in natural enzootic cycles. Equidae serve as amplifying hosts for epizootic VEEV strains while enzootic VEEV cycles primarily between sylvatic rodents and mosquitoes. Enzootic variants and subtypes are typically non-pathogenic for equids, but can cause clinical disease in humans (Walton et al., 1973; Weaver et al., 2004).

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedeomyia squamipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albifasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes angustivittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fulvus fulvusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes terrensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles albitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex adamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex crybdaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex delponteiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ferreriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex idottusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex nigripalpusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex ocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex panocossaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pedroiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex spissipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex taeniopusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Mansonia titillansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora columbiaeInsectUSA
Psorophora confinnisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora feroxMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psorophora pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhodnius pallescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Simulium metallicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium mexicanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Paredes A; Alwell-Warda K; Weaver SC; Chiu W; Watowich SJ, 2001. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus structure and its divergence from Old World alphaviruses. Journal of Virology, 75(19):9532-9537. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/19/9532

WALTON TE; ALVAREZ O Jr; BUCKWALTER RM; JOHNSON KM, 1973. Experimental infection of horses with enzootic and epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 128(3):271-82.

Weaver SC; Ferro C; Barrera R; Boshell J; Navarro JC, 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annual Review of Entomology, 49:141-174.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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