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rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

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Datasheet

rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Caliciviridae
  •         Genus: Lagovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TitleTEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit
CaptionRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
Copyright©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbitRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

English acronym

  • RHDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Caliciviridae
  •                 Genus: Lagovirus
  •                     Species: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
USALast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Last reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus (genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviriade), is a small non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, with a genome of ~7.4 kb and only one major capsid protein (VP60) (Ohlinger et al., 1990). RHDV causes a highly contagious and acute fatal hepatitis of wild and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (reviewed by Abrantes et al., 2012). The genus Lagovirus also includes European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), which causes disease in brown hares (Lepus europaeus). Despite their high genetic relationship (VP60 nucleotide similarity of 70%), RHDV and EBHSV are two distinct viral species (Lavazza et al., 1996; Wirblich et al., 1994).

There are three main RHDV groups:

i) “Classical RHDV”, including genogroups G1-G5, first reported in China in 1984 (Liu et al., 1984). This RHDV has been reported in Asia, Africa, Americas, Europe and Oceania and is endemic in most parts of the world where European rabbits live naturally or are domesticated.

ii) Subtype RHDVa/G6 identified in Europe in 1996 (Capucci et al., 1998; Schirrmeier et al., 1999) and since reported in Oceania, Asia and Americas.

iii) “New” RHDV (provisionally called RHDV2 or RHDVb), first reported in France in 2010 in wild and farmed vaccinated rabbits (Dalton et al., 2012; Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2011, 2013), that has since spread in Europe and was reported in Australia in 2015 (Hall et al., 2015). With a unique antigenic profile, it causes mortality in young rabbits (less than two months old) and vaccinated rabbits, typically not susceptible to G1-G6 strains (Dalton et al., 2012). RHDV2 appears to be replacing classical RHDV strains among some wild rabbit populations in Europe (Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2013; Lopes et al., 2015) and is capable of infecting lagomorphs from the Lepus genus (Puggioni et al., 2013; Camarda et al., 2014).

Weak pathogenic and non-pathogenic forms of the virus also exist, which are genetically different from the pathogenic RHDV (Capucci et al., 1996; Strive et al., 2009).

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int

References

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Abrantes J; Loo Wvan der; Pendu Jle; Esteves PJ, 2012. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review. Veterinary Research, 43(12):(10 February 2012). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-43-12.pdf

Camarda A; Pugliese N; Cavadini P; Circella E; Capucci L; Caroli A; Legretto M; Mallia E; Lavazza A, 2014. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Research in Veterinary Science, 97(3):642-645. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288

Capucci L; Fallacara F; Grazioli S; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Brocchi E, 1998. A further step in the evolution of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: the appearance of the first consistent antigenic variant. Virus Research, 58(1/2):115-126.

Capucci L; Fusi P; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Rossi C, 1996. Detection and preliminary characterization of a new rabbit calicivirus related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus but nonpathogenic. Journal of Virology, 70(12):8614-8623.

Dalton KP; Nicieza I; Balseiro A; Muguerza MA; Rosell JM; Casais R; Álvarez ÁL; Parra F, 2012. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12):2009-2012. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/pdfs/12-0341.pdf

Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Marchandeau S; Bertagnoli S; Zwingelstein F; Cavadini P; Martinelli N; Lombardi G; Guérin JL; Lemaitre E; Decors A; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Capucci L, 2013. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. Veterinary Research, 44(81):(8 September 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/44/1/81/abstract

Gall-Reculé Gle; Zwingelstein F; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Plassiart G; Portejoie Y; Decors A; Bertagnoli S; Guérin JL; Marchandeau S, 2011. . http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Hall RN; Mahar JE; Haboury S; Stevens V; Holmes EC; Strive T, 2015. . http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/12/pdfs/15-1210.pdf

Lavazza A; Scicluna MT; Capucci L, 1996. Susceptibility of hares and rabbits to the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) under experimental conditions. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 43(7):401-410.

Liu SJ; Xue HP; Pu BQ; Qian NH, 1984. A new viral disease in rabbits. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (Xumu yu Shouyi), 16(6):253-255.

Lopes AM; Correia J; Abrantes J; Melo P; Ramada M; Magalhães MJ; Alves PC; Esteves PJ, 2015. Is the new variant RHDV replacing genogroup 1 in Portuguese wild rabbit populations? Viruses, 7(1):27-36. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/1/27/htm

Ohlinger VF; Haas B; Meyers G; Weiland F; Thiel HJ, 1990. Identification and characterization of the virus causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Journal of Virology, 64(7):3331-3336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Puggioni G; Cavadini P; Maestrale C; Scivoli R; Botti G; Ligios C; Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Capucci L, 2013. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). Veterinary Research, 44(96):(7 October 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-44-96.pdf

Schirrmeier H; Reimann I; Köllner B; Granzow H, 1999. Pathogenic, antigenic and molecular properties of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) isolated from vaccinated rabbits: detection and characterization of antigenic variants. Archives of Virology, 144(4):719-735.

Strive T; Wright JD; Robinson AJ, 2009. Identification and partial characterisation of a new lagovirus in Australian wild rabbits. Virology, 384(1):97-105. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WXR-4V28ST8-3&_user=6686535&_coverDate=02%2F05%2F2009&_rdoc=15&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%237165%232009%23996159998%23863056%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=7165&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=32&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=47b44d5cc5fcfb28686ab86589f04d0c

Wirblich C; Meyers G; Ohlinger VF; Capucci L; Eskens U; Haas B; Thiel HJ, 1994. European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses. Journal of Virology, 68(8):5164-5173.

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