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rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

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Datasheet

rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Caliciviridae
  •         Genus: Lagovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TitleTEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit
CaptionRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
Copyright©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)
TEM showing rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbitRHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus); this transmission electron micrograph (TEM) shows rabbit calicivirus isolated from the liver of an infected rabbit. The virus has been prepared using negative contrast electron microscopy. The virus has been labeled (inner box) with anti-rabbit calicivirus antibodies and colloidal gold. (Image produced by Electron Microscopy Unit, Australian Animal Health Laboratory)©Electron Microscopy Unit AAHL/CSIRO - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

English acronym

  • RHDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Caliciviridae
  •                 Genus: Lagovirus
  •                     Species: rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus (genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviriade), is a small non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, with a genome of ~7.4 kb and only one major capsid protein (VP60) (Ohlinger et al., 1990). RHDV causes a highly contagious and acute fatal hepatitis of wild and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (reviewed by Abrantes et al., 2012). The genus Lagovirus also includes European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), which causes disease in brown hares (Lepus europaeus). Despite their high genetic relationship (VP60 nucleotide similarity of 70%), RHDV and EBHSV are two distinct viral species (Lavazza et al., 1996; Wirblich et al., 1994).

There are three main RHDV groups:

i) “Classical RHDV”, including genogroups G1-G5, first reported in China in 1984 (Liu et al., 1984). This RHDV has been reported in Asia, Africa, Americas, Europe and Oceania and is endemic in most parts of the world where European rabbits live naturally or are domesticated.

ii) Subtype RHDVa/G6 identified in Europe in 1996 (Capucci et al., 1998; Schirrmeier et al., 1999) and since reported in Oceania, Asia and Americas.

iii) “New” RHDV (provisionally called RHDV2 or RHDVb), first reported in France in 2010 in wild and farmed vaccinated rabbits (Dalton et al., 2012; Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2011, 2013), that has since spread in Europe and was reported in Australia in 2015 (Hall et al., 2015). With a unique antigenic profile, it causes mortality in young rabbits (less than two months old) and vaccinated rabbits, typically not susceptible to G1-G6 strains (Dalton et al., 2012). RHDV2 appears to be replacing classical RHDV strains among some wild rabbit populations in Europe (Le Gall-Reculé et al., 2013; Lopes et al., 2015) and is capable of infecting lagomorphs from the Lepus genus (Puggioni et al., 2013; Camarda et al., 2014).

Weak pathogenic and non-pathogenic forms of the virus also exist, which are genetically different from the pathogenic RHDV (Capucci et al., 1996; Strive et al., 2009).

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)

References

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Abrantes J; Loo Wvan der; Pendu Jle; Esteves PJ, 2012. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review. Veterinary Research, 43(12):(10 February 2012). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-43-12.pdf

Camarda A; Pugliese N; Cavadini P; Circella E; Capucci L; Caroli A; Legretto M; Mallia E; Lavazza A, 2014. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Research in Veterinary Science, 97(3):642-645. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288

Capucci L; Fallacara F; Grazioli S; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Brocchi E, 1998. A further step in the evolution of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: the appearance of the first consistent antigenic variant. Virus Research, 58(1/2):115-126.

Capucci L; Fusi P; Lavazza A; Pacciarini ML; Rossi C, 1996. Detection and preliminary characterization of a new rabbit calicivirus related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus but nonpathogenic. Journal of Virology, 70(12):8614-8623.

Dalton KP; Nicieza I; Balseiro A; Muguerza MA; Rosell JM; Casais R; Álvarez ÁL; Parra F, 2012. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(12):2009-2012. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/pdfs/12-0341.pdf

Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Marchandeau S; Bertagnoli S; Zwingelstein F; Cavadini P; Martinelli N; Lombardi G; Guérin JL; Lemaitre E; Decors A; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Capucci L, 2013. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. Veterinary Research, 44(81):(8 September 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/44/1/81/abstract

Gall-Reculé Gle; Zwingelstein F; Boucher S; Normand Ble; Plassiart G; Portejoie Y; Decors A; Bertagnoli S; Guérin JL; Marchandeau S, 2011. . http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Hall RN; Mahar JE; Haboury S; Stevens V; Holmes EC; Strive T, 2015. . http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/12/pdfs/15-1210.pdf

Lavazza A; Scicluna MT; Capucci L, 1996. Susceptibility of hares and rabbits to the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) under experimental conditions. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 43(7):401-410.

Liu SJ; Xue HP; Pu BQ; Qian NH, 1984. A new viral disease in rabbits. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (Xumu yu Shouyi), 16(6):253-255.

Lopes AM; Correia J; Abrantes J; Melo P; Ramada M; Magalhães MJ; Alves PC; Esteves PJ, 2015. Is the new variant RHDV replacing genogroup 1 in Portuguese wild rabbit populations? Viruses, 7(1):27-36. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/1/27/htm

Ohlinger VF; Haas B; Meyers G; Weiland F; Thiel HJ, 1990. Identification and characterization of the virus causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Journal of Virology, 64(7):3331-3336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Puggioni G; Cavadini P; Maestrale C; Scivoli R; Botti G; Ligios C; Gall-Reculé Gle; Lavazza A; Capucci L, 2013. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). Veterinary Research, 44(96):(7 October 2013). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/1297-9716-44-96.pdf

Schirrmeier H; Reimann I; Köllner B; Granzow H, 1999. Pathogenic, antigenic and molecular properties of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) isolated from vaccinated rabbits: detection and characterization of antigenic variants. Archives of Virology, 144(4):719-735.

Strive T; Wright JD; Robinson AJ, 2009. Identification and partial characterisation of a new lagovirus in Australian wild rabbits. Virology, 384(1):97-105. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WXR-4V28ST8-3&_user=6686535&_coverDate=02%2F05%2F2009&_rdoc=15&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%237165%232009%23996159998%23863056%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=7165&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=32&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=47b44d5cc5fcfb28686ab86589f04d0c

Wirblich C; Meyers G; Ohlinger VF; Capucci L; Eskens U; Haas B; Thiel HJ, 1994. European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses. Journal of Virology, 68(8):5164-5173.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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