Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Botryosphaeria ribis
(canker: apple)

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Datasheet

Botryosphaeria ribis (canker: apple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Botryosphaeria ribis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • canker: apple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. & Duggar

Preferred Common Name

  • canker: apple

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryosphaeria berengiana De Not.
  • Botryosphaeria mali V.A. Putterill
  • Dothiorella gregaria Sacc.
  • Dothiorella ribis (Fuckel) Sacc.
  • Fusicoccum aesculi Corda
  • Fusicoccum tingens Goid.

International Common Names

  • English: cane blight: currant; canker: melaleuca; canker: pine; canker: walnut; dieback: conifers; dieback: currant; dieback: mango; fruit rot: apple; gummosis: citrus spp.; gummosis: peach; panicle and shoot blight: pistachio; stem blight: blueberry; tip dieback: mango; white rot: apple
  • Spanish: cancro; gomosis de los agrios
  • French: chancre du pin; gommose des agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Krebs: Apfel; Krebs: Jahannisbeere; Krebs: Kiefer
  • Italy: cancro

EPPO code

  • BOTSRI (Botryosphaeria ribis)
  • DOTRGR (Dothiorella gregaria)
  • DOTRRI (Dothiorella ribis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Order: Botryosphaeriales
  •                         Family: Botryosphaeriaceae
  •                             Genus: Botryosphaeria
  •                                 Species: Botryosphaeria ribis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MozambiquePresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
NigerPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
South AfricaPresentHerbert and Grech (1985); Crous et al. (1989); Smith et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
TogoPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentDenman et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2011)

Asia

BangladeshPresentRahman et al. (1983); CABI and EPPO (2011)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
ChinaPresentTang (1992); CABI and EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-FujianPresentZhang ShaoSheng et al. (2002); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-HeilongjiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Inner MongoliaPresentSchmutzenhofer et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-JiangsuPresentLiu SuQin and Xu HouZhi (2000); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-JilinPresentSchmutzenhofer et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-LiaoningPresentSchmutzenhofer et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-SichuanPresentYe XiaoYun (2005); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-ZhejiangPresentShe DeSong et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2011)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
IndiaPresentAnahosur and Fazalnoor (1972); Gupta and Dutt (1972); Saharan (1974); Singh and Prashar (1988); Kachhwaha et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ChhattisgarhPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-DelhiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma (1988); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentThakur (1995); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ManipurPresentSrivastava and Verma (1991); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-MeghalayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-UttarakhandPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
IranPresentAschkan (1973); CABI and EPPO (2011)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentWon et al. (1972); Cho et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2011)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
TaiwanPresentChao and Wu (1979); Kuo et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2011)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)

Europe

CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Rumbos (1987);
-CretePresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
ItalyPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Cutuli and Lanza (1973); Vannacci and Lorenzini (1981); Grasso (1983); Corazza et al. (1986); Frisullo et al. (1994);
-SicilyPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
NetherlandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
-MadeiraPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Romero et al. (2005);
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2011);
-Channel IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ScotlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)

North America

BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-AlbertaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-YukonPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
CubaPresentSTEVENS (1926); CABI and EPPO (2011)
DominicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
GrenadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
MexicoPresentCarrión and Chacón (1985); CABI and EPPO (2011)
PanamaPresentMejía et al. (2008)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
United StatesPresentWOLF and WOLF (1939); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ArizonaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ArkansasPresentWOLF and WOLF (1939); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-CaliforniaPresentEnglish et al. (1975); Michailides (1991); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-ConnecticutPresentSTEVENS (1926); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-DelawarePresentSMITH and FERGUS (1971); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-FloridaPresentRamos et al. (1991); Rayachhetry et al. (1996); Ramos et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadSTEVENS (1926); WOLF and WOLF (1939); SMITH and FERGUS (1971); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-HawaiiPresentGardner and Hodges (1990); CABI and EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-KentuckyPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MainePresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MarylandPresentSMITH and FERGUS (1971); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-MassachusettsPresentSTEVENS (1926); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MississippiPresentWOLF and WOLF (1939); Filer and Randall (1978); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-NebraskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-New JerseyPresentSTEVENS (1926); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-New YorkPresentGrossenbacher and Duggar (1911); STEVENS (1926); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-North CarolinaPresentWOLF and WOLF (1939); CABI and EPPO (2011); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentSCHREIBER (1964); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-VirginiaPresentWOLF and WOLF (1939); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-West VirginiaPresentSMITH and FERGUS (1971); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentShearer et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Western AustraliaPresentDavidson and Tay (1983); Fraser and Davison (1985); CABI and EPPO (2011)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentSpiers (1977); CABI and EPPO (2011)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
BrazilPresentKrugner et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-ParaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-PernambucoPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentMacedo and Barreto (2008); CABI and EPPO (2011)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)
ChilePresentLatorre and Toledo (1984); CABI and EPPO (2011)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Herb IMI (Undated)
UruguayPresentPérez et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2011)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2011)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / lesions
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Anahosur KH; Fazalnoor K, 1972. Nuclear condition in the ascospores and conidia of Botryosphaeria ribis from India. Caryologia, 25(3):327-334

Aschkan M, 1973. Occurrence, pathogenicity and morphology of Botryosphaeria ribis inciting a canker of apple tree in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(3/4):85-94; 33-37

Brooks FE; Ferrin DM, 1994. Branch dieback of southern California chaparral vegetation caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Phytopathology, 84(1):78-83

Brown EA II; Hendrix FF, 1981. Pathogenicity and histopathology of Botryosphaeria dothidea on apple stems. Phytopathology, 71(4):375-379

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Botryosphaeria ribis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1109 (Edition 1).

Carrion G; Chacon S, 1985. First record in Mexico of Botryosphaeria ribis and Mamiania fimbriata (Ascomycetes). Revista Mexicana de Micologia, 1:345-348

Chao G-P; Wu W-S, 1979. Mycological investigations on the cultivated plants at Highland farms (III). Memoirs of the College of Agriculture National Taiwan University, 19(1):87-95

Cho WD; Kim CH; Kim SC, 1986. Pathogen physiology, epidemiology and varietal resistance in white rot of apple. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 25(2):63-70

Cline WO; Milholland RD, 1992. Root dip treatments for controlling blueberry stem blight caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in container-grown nursery plants. Plant Disease, 76(2):136-138

Corazza L; Chilosi G; Avanzato D, 1986. Dieback of pistachio branches caused by Botryosphaeria ribis. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, 11:95-98

Crist CR; Schoeneweiss DF, 1975. The influence of controlled stresses on susceptibility of European white birch stems to attack by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Phytopathology, 65(4):369-373

Crous PW; Knox-Davies PS; Wingfield MJ, 1989. Newly recorded foliage fungi of Eucalyptus spp. in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 21(1):85-88

Cutuli G; Lanza G, 1973. Trametes hispida (Bagl.) Fr. Su piante di limone colpite da cancro gommoso (Botryosphaeria ribis Gross. e Dugg.) E da mal secco [Phoma (Deuterophoma) tracheiphila (Petri) Kanc. e Ghik.]. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per I'Agrumicoltura, 6:309-313.

Davidson EM; Tay CS, 1983. Twig, branch, and upper trunk cankers of Eucalyptus marginata. Plant Disease, 67(11):1285-1287

Denman S; Crous PW; Groenewald JZ; Slippers B; Wingfield BD; Wingfield MJ, 2003. Circumscription of Botryosphaeria species associated with Proteaceae based on morphology and DNA sequence data. Mycologia, 95(2):294-307.

Drake CR, 1971. Source and longevity of apple fruit rot inocula of Botryosphaeria ribis and Physalospora obtusa under orchard conditions. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:122-126.

English H; Davis JR; DeVay JE, 1975. Relationship of Botryosphaeria dothidae and Hendersonula toruloidea to a canker disease of almond. Phytopathology, 65(2):114-122

Filer THJr; Randall WK, 1978. Resistance of twenty-one sweetgum families to Botryosphaeria ribis. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):38-39

Fraser D; Davison EM, 1985. Stem cankers of Eucalyptus saligna in Western Australia. Australian Forestry, 48(4):220-226

Frisullo S; Lops F; Sisto D; Trombetta NM, 1994. Pathogenic fungi in southern Italy. X. Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. et Duggar. on walnut. Informatore Fitopatologico, 44(2):61-64

Gardner DE; Hodges CS Jr, 1990. Diseases of Myrica faya (firetree, Myricaceae) in the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Plant Pathology, 39(2):326-330

Grasso S, 1983. Fungi associated with citrus gummous cankers in Sicily. Informatore Fitopatologico, 33(12):43-46; [5 col. fig., 2 tab.]; 16 ref.

Grossenbacher JG; Duggar BM, 1911. A contribution to the life history, parasitism, and biology of Botryosphaeria ribis. New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Geneva Technical Bulletin, 18:114-188.

Gupta GK; Dutt K, 1972. Dothiorella fruit rot of apple in India. Progressive Horticulture, 4:59-62.

Herbert JA; Grech NM, 1985. Branch dieback of macadamias in South Africa induced by Botryosphaeria ribis. Plant Disease, 69(1):83

Hildebrand EM; Weber PV, 1944. Varietal susceptibility of currants to the cane blight organism and to currant mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 28:1031-1036.

Hwang BK, 1983. Contents of sugars, fruit acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds of apple fruits in relation to their susceptibility to Botryosphaeria ribis. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 108(1):1-11

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Ivory MH, 1967. Fusicoccum tingens Goid.: A wound pathogen of pines in East Africa. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal, 23:341-343.

Kachhwaha M; Chile A; Khare V; Mehta A; Mehta P, 1992. A new fruit rot disease of banana. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 22(2):211

Krugner TL; Caneva RA; Tomazello FM, 1973. Branch dieback in grafted eucalypt plants in Espirito Santo. IPEF, No. 6, 69-73.

Kuo KC; Kao CW; Leu LS, 1989. Grape cluster rot induced by Botryosphaeria ribis. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 31(3):238-247

Latorre BA; Toledo MV, 1984. Occurrence and relative susceptibility of apple cultivars to Botryosphaeria canker in Chile. Plant Disease, 68(1):36-38

Liu SuQin; Xu HouZhi, 2000. Integrated control and characteristics of the main poplar diseases and insect outbreaks in Siyang County. Journal of Jiangsu Forestry Science & Technology, 27(6):33-35.

Luttrel ES, 1973. Loculoascomycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS, eds. The Fungi. Vol. IVA. New York, USA: Academic Press, 135-219.

Luttrell ES, 1950. Botryosphaeria stem canker of elm. Plant Disease Reporter, 34:138-139.

Maas JL; Uecker FA, 1984. Botryosphaeria dothidea cane canker of thornless blackberry. Plant Disease, 68(8):720-726

Macedo DMde; Barreto RW, 2008. First record of Botryosphaeria ribis associated with leaf spots on Magnolia aff. candollei in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 39(2):321-324. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822008000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Majumdar VL, 1985. Some fungi hitherto unrecorded on guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits. Indian Botanical Reporter, 4(2):195; 2 ref.

Mejía LC; Rojas EI; Maynard Z; Bael Svan; Arnold AE; Hebbar P; Samuels GJ; Robbins N; Herre EA, 2008. Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biological Control, 46(1):4-14. [Special Issue: Endophytes.] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10499644

Michailides TJ, 1991. Pathogenicity, distribution, sources of inoculum, and infection courts of Botryosphaeria dothidea on pistachio. Phytopathology, 81(5):566-573

Milholland RD, 1970. Histopathology of Botryosphaeria canker of susceptible and resistant high bush blueberries. Phytopathology, 60:70-74.

Milholland RD, 1972. Histopathology and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeria dothidea on blueberry stems. Phytopathology, 62:654-660.

Morgan-Jones G; White JF Jr, 1987. Notes on Coelomycetes. II. Concerning the Fusicoccum anamorph of Botryosphaeria ribis. Mycotaxon, 30:117-125

Myers RL, 1975. The relationship of site condition to the capability of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Southwest Florida. MSc Thesis. Gainesville, USA: Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Florida.

Old KM; Gibbs R; Craig I; Myers BJ; Yuan ZQ, 1990. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of eucalypts to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Australian Journal of Botany, 38(6):571-581; 21 ref.

Pennycook SR; Samuels GJ, 1985. Botryosphaeria and Fusicoccum species associated with ripe fruit rot of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) in New Zealand. Mycotaxon, 24:445-458

Pérez CA; Allier N; Simeto S; Wingfield MJ; Slippers B; Blanchette RA, 2008. Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus and Native Myrtaceae in Uruguay. Agrociencia (Montevideo), 12(2):19-30.

Petrak, 1922. Beitrage zur kenntnis der Pilzflora der sudlichen Alpenlander und Norditaliens. Ann. Mycol., 20:126-139.

Punithalingam E; Holliday P, 1973. Botryosphaeria ribis. Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 395. Wallingford & Kew, UK: CAB International & Association of Applied Biology.

Pusey PL, 1989. Availability and dispersal of ascospores and conidia of Botryosphaeria in peach orchards. Phytopathology, 79(6):635-639

Pusey PL, 1989. Influence of water stress on susceptibility of nonwounded peach bark to Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Disease, 73(12):1000-1003

Pusey PL; Reilly CC; Okie WR, 1986. Symptomatic responses of peach trees to various isolates of Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Disease, 70(6):568-572

Rahman MA; Khisa SK; Basuk AC, 1983. Top dying of Sundri in the Sunderbans. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 12(1/2):69-71

Ramos LJ; Davenport TL; McMillan RTJr; Lara SP, 1997. The resistance of mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars to tip dieback disease in Florida. Plant Disease, 81(5):509-514; 23 ref.

Ramos LJ; Lara SP; McMillan RTJr; Narayanan KR, 1991. Tip dieback of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Botryosphaeria ribis.. Plant Disease, 75(3):315-318; 30 ref.

Rayachhetry MB; Blakeslee GM; Center TD, 1996. Predisposition of melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) to invasion by the potential biological control agent Botryosphaeria ribis. Weed Science, 44(3):603-608; 27 ref.

Rayachhetry MB; Blakeslee GM; Charudattan R, 1996. Susceptibility of Melaleuca quinquenervia to Botryosphaeria ribis, a potential biological control agent. Plant Disease, 80(2):145-150; 35 ref.

Rayachhetry MB; Blakeslee GM; Miller T, 1996. Histopathology of Botryosphaeria ribis in Melaleuca quinquenervia: pathogen invasion and host response. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 157(2):219-227; 26 ref.

Rayachhetry MB; Blakeslee GM; Webb RS; Kimbrough JW, 1996. Characteristics of the Fusicoccum anamorph of Botryosphaeria ribis, a potential biological control agent for Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida. Mycologia, 88(2):239-248; 35 ref.

Romero MA; Sánchez ME; Trapero A, 2005. First report of Botryosphaeria ribis as a branch dieback pathogen of olive trees in Spain. Plant Disease, 89(2):208. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

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She DeSong, Fu FengJuan, Chen Fei, Zhou ChuanLiang, Ma GenShen, 2005. The occurrence of diseases and pests on the trunk and branches of Yunhexueli pear cultivar and their control. South China Fruits. 66-68.

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Spiers A G, 1977. Botryosphaeria dothidea infection of Salix species in New Zealand. Plant Disease Reporter. 61 (8), 664-667.

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Ye XiaoYun, 2005. The occurrence regulation of peach gummosis disease and its control. China Fruits. 15-17.

Zhang ShaoSheng, Xiao RongFeng, Lin NaiQuan, Ai HongMu, 2002. Diagnosis of Chinese olive fungal diseases in Fujian, China. Journal of Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University. 31 (2), 168-173.

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