Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

myxoma virus

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Datasheet

myxoma virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • myxoma virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • myxoma virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Leporipoxvirus
  •                         Species: myxoma virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
USACAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandLast reported1953OIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a member of the genus Leporipoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. MYXV infects only lagomorphs. While it causes only mild disease in its natural hosts, American rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus, in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes serious disease (myxomatosis) that can result in 100% mortality (Fenner and Ratcliffe, 1965, Fenner, 1994). Following the introduction of MYXV to control wild rabbit populations in Australia (in 1950) and France (in 1952), MYXV now has a worldwide distribution (Fenner and Fantini, 1999).

MYXV contains a very large linear double-stranded DNA genome encoding 171 unique genes. The entire genomes of the South American strain, Lausanne (Cameron et al., 1999) and the North American strain MSW (Labudovic et al., 2004) have been sequenced. The strains introduced into Europe and Australia are South American in origin. The evolutionary process of MYXV is characterised by an unusually high nucleotide substitution rate for a double-stranded DNA virus, frequent changes in virulence and a marked ability to spread (Bertagnoi and Marchandeau, 2015).

Myxomatosis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes caspiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes detritusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes geniculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes rusticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amiota variegataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Anopheles annulipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus annulatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culiseta annulataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culiseta subochreaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor marginatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Haemaphysalis concinnaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haemaphysalis punctataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haematopota italicaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes acuminatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lipoptena cerviMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psoroptes cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus bursaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus pusillusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Sarcoptes scabieiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Spilopsyllus cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Uranotaenia unguiculataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Bertagnoli S; Marchandeau S, 2015. Myxomatosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 34(2):539-547 (Fr), 549-556 (En). http://www.oie.int/publications-and-documentation/scientific-and-technical-review-free-access/list-of-issues/

Cameron C; Hota-Mitchell S; Chen Ling; Barrett J; Cao JingXin; Macaulay C; Willer D; Evans D; McFadden G, 1999. The complete DNA sequence of myxoma virus. Virology (New York), 264(2):298-318.

Fenner F, 1994. Myxoma virus. Virus infections of rodents and lagomorphs [ed. by Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 59-70.

Fenner F; Fantini B, 1999. Biological control of vertebrate pests: the history of myxomatosis, an experiment in evolution. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xii + 339 pp.

Fenner F; Ratcliffe FN, 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge: University Press, xiv + 379 pp.

Labudovic A; Perkins H; Leeuwen Bvan; Kerr P, 2004. Sequence mapping of the Californian MSW strain of Myxoma virus. Archives of Virology, 149(3):553-570.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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