Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

myxoma virus

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Datasheet

myxoma virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • myxoma virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • myxoma virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Leporipoxvirus
  •                         Species: myxoma virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a member of the genus Leporipoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. MYXV infects only lagomorphs. While it causes only mild disease in its natural hosts, American rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus, in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes serious disease (myxomatosis) that can result in 100% mortality (Fenner and Ratcliffe, 1965, Fenner, 1994). Following the introduction of MYXV to control wild rabbit populations in Australia (in 1950) and France (in 1952), MYXV now has a worldwide distribution (Fenner and Fantini, 1999).

MYXV contains a very large linear double-stranded DNA genome encoding 171 unique genes. The entire genomes of the South American strain, Lausanne (Cameron et al., 1999) and the North American strain MSW (Labudovic et al., 2004) have been sequenced. The strains introduced into Europe and Australia are South American in origin. The evolutionary process of MYXV is characterised by an unusually high nucleotide substitution rate for a double-stranded DNA virus, frequent changes in virulence and a marked ability to spread (Bertagnoi and Marchandeau, 2015).

Myxomatosis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes caspiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes detritusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes geniculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes rusticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amiota variegataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Anopheles annulipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus annulatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culiseta annulataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culiseta subochreaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor marginatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Haemaphysalis concinnaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haemaphysalis punctataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haematopota italicaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes acuminatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lipoptena cerviMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psoroptes cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus bursaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus pusillusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Sarcoptes scabieiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Spilopsyllus cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Uranotaenia unguiculataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Bertagnoli S; Marchandeau S, 2015. Myxomatosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 34(2):539-547 (Fr), 549-556 (En). http://www.oie.int/publications-and-documentation/scientific-and-technical-review-free-access/list-of-issues/

Cameron C; Hota-Mitchell S; Chen Ling; Barrett J; Cao JingXin; Macaulay C; Willer D; Evans D; McFadden G, 1999. The complete DNA sequence of myxoma virus. Virology (New York), 264(2):298-318.

Fenner F, 1994. Myxoma virus. Virus infections of rodents and lagomorphs [ed. by Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 59-70.

Fenner F; Fantini B, 1999. Biological control of vertebrate pests: the history of myxomatosis, an experiment in evolution. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xii + 339 pp.

Fenner F; Ratcliffe FN, 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge: University Press, xiv + 379 pp.

Labudovic A; Perkins H; Leeuwen Bvan; Kerr P, 2004. Sequence mapping of the Californian MSW strain of Myxoma virus. Archives of Virology, 149(3):553-570.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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