Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

myxoma virus

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Datasheet

myxoma virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • myxoma virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • myxoma virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Leporipoxvirus
  •                         Species: myxoma virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AngolaPresent
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresent
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandPresent
Isle of ManPresent
ItalyPresent
JerseyPresent
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaPresent
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a member of the genus Leporipoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. MYXV infects only lagomorphs. While it causes only mild disease in its natural hosts, American rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus, in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes serious disease (myxomatosis) that can result in 100% mortality (Fenner and Ratcliffe, 1965, Fenner, 1994). Following the introduction of MYXV to control wild rabbit populations in Australia (in 1950) and France (in 1952), MYXV now has a worldwide distribution (Fenner and Fantini, 1999).

MYXV contains a very large linear double-stranded DNA genome encoding 171 unique genes. The entire genomes of the South American strain, Lausanne (Cameron et al., 1999) and the North American strain MSW (Labudovic et al., 2004) have been sequenced. The strains introduced into Europe and Australia are South American in origin. The evolutionary process of MYXV is characterised by an unusually high nucleotide substitution rate for a double-stranded DNA virus, frequent changes in virulence and a marked ability to spread (Bertagnoi and Marchandeau, 2015).

Myxomatosis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For more information, see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes caspiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes detritusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes geniculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes rusticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amiota variegataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Anopheles annulipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus annulatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culiseta annulataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culiseta subochreaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor marginatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Haemaphysalis concinnaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haemaphysalis punctataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haematopota italicaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes acuminatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lipoptena cerviMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Psoroptes cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus bursaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus pusillusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Sarcoptes scabieiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Spilopsyllus cuniculiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Uranotaenia unguiculataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Bertagnoli S; Marchandeau S, 2015. Myxomatosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 34(2):539-547 (Fr), 549-556 (En). http://www.oie.int/publications-and-documentation/scientific-and-technical-review-free-access/list-of-issues/

Cameron C; Hota-Mitchell S; Chen Ling; Barrett J; Cao JingXin; Macaulay C; Willer D; Evans D; McFadden G, 1999. The complete DNA sequence of myxoma virus. Virology (New York), 264(2):298-318.

Fenner F, 1994. Myxoma virus. Virus infections of rodents and lagomorphs [ed. by Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 59-70.

Fenner F; Fantini B, 1999. Biological control of vertebrate pests: the history of myxomatosis, an experiment in evolution. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, xii + 339 pp.

Fenner F; Ratcliffe FN, 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge: University Press, xiv + 379 pp.

Labudovic A; Perkins H; Leeuwen Bvan; Kerr P, 2004. Sequence mapping of the Californian MSW strain of Myxoma virus. Archives of Virology, 149(3):553-570.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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