Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Botryosphaeria dothidea
(canker of almond)

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Datasheet

Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Botryosphaeria dothidea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • canker of almond
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
Copyright©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit. Several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit. Several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
Copyright©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit. Several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit. Several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
Copyright©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.©T.B. Sutton
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.©Alan L. Jones
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
Copyright©D.A. Rosenberger
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); white or bot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.©D.A. Rosenberger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.) Ces. & de Not.

Preferred Common Name

  • canker of almond

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryosphaeria berengeriana DE NOT.
  • Dothiorella mali ELLIS & EVERH.

International Common Names

  • English: bark gummosis of peach; bot rot of apple; cane canker of blackberry; gummosis disease of blueberry; ripe rot of kiwi fruit; white rot of apple
  • Spanish: chancro del almendro; gomosis del melocotonero; gomosis del mirto
  • French: chancre de l'amandier; chancre des tiges du rosier; gommose de la myrtille; gommose du pecher

EPPO code

  • BOTSDO (Botryosphaeria dothidea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Order: Botryosphaeriales
  •                         Family: Botryosphaeriaceae
  •                             Genus: Botryosphaeria
  •                                 Species: Botryosphaeria dothidea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Aug 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentAmmad et al. (2014)
EthiopiaPresentTegegne and Pretorius (2007)
MalawiPresentWhittle and Rattan (1997)
NamibiaPresentJami et al. (2017); Slippers et al. (2014)
Sierra LeonePresentLenné (1990)
South AfricaPresentJami et al. (2014); Jami et al. (2017); Pavlic-Zupanc et al. (2017)
TunisiaPresentChattaoui et al. (2011); Bahri et al. (2017)
ZimbabwePresentCrous et al. (2004)

Asia

ChinaPresentMo et al. (2013)
-AnhuiPresentZhang and Xu (2011); Wang XiaoJie et al. (2017)
-BeijingPresentLi GuoQing et al. (2016); Xiao ZhouYe et al. (2013); Li RuHua et al. (2014)
-ChongqingPresentZhai LiFeng et al. (2019)
-FujianPresentJayawardena et al. (2016)
-GansuPresentLiang ChaoQiong et al. (2014)
-GuangxiPresentQiu et al. (2020); Li et al. (2010); Mo et al. (2013)
-GuizhouPresentYang YouLian et al. (2015)
-HebeiPresentFan Kun et al. (2016); Xiao ZhouYe et al. (2013); Chen XiaoJie et al. (2015)
-HeilongjiangPresentCai et al. (2020)
-HenanPresentBian et al. (2015); Li et al. (2018); Ran et al. (2018)
-HubeiPresentWang Fan et al. (2011); Zhang XingYao et al. (2000)
-JiangsuPresentZheng XiangRong et al. (2020); Li et al. (2010)
-JiangxiPresentZhu QiLi et al. (2018); Li Cheng et al. (2012)
-LiaoningPresentCheng ShiJie et al. (2017); Xiao ZhouYe et al. (2013)
-NingxiaPresentFan JunFeng et al. (2010)
-ShaanxiPresentCheng ShiJie et al. (2017); Ma Yu et al. (2014)
-ShandongPresentZhang ZongXia et al. (2013); Feng HuiJing et al. (2017); Zhang YongLe et al. (2018)
-ShanghaiPresentTian YanLi et al. (2018)
-ShanxiPresentCheng ShiJie et al. (2017); Fan Kun et al. (2013)
-SichuanPresentLi GuoQing et al. (2016); Zhou You et al. (2015)
-TianjinPresentLi et al. (2010)
-YunnanPresentYu Lei et al. (2014); Yu et al. (2012)
-ZhejiangPresentZhang and Xu (2011); Xu FengXian et al. (2012); Yao JunLei et al. (2019)
Hong KongPresentLu et al. (2000)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao et al. (2011)
-AssamPresentRao et al. (2011)
-ChhattisgarhPresentRao et al. (2011)
-GujaratPresentVijya Rabari et al. (2016)
-HaryanaPresentSuresh Chandra et al. (2016)
-Himachal PradeshPresentKishor Sharma and Harender Raj (2018); Bharat (2004)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKhan et al. (2010)
-Madhya PradeshPresentRao et al. (2011)
-Tamil NaduPresentHerb IMI (1966)
-Uttar PradeshPresentHerb IMI (1974)
IranPresentArzanlou et al. (2012); Soltaninejad et al. (2017); Chakusary et al. (2019)
JapanPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated); Nitta et al. (2006); Soltaninejad et al. (2017)
-HokkaidoPresentSasaki and Matsuzaki (1987)
PakistanPresentAhmad et al. (1997)
PhilippinesPresentKobayashi and Guzman (1988)
South KoreaPresentKim GyoungHee and Koh YoungJin (2018); Choi (2011)
SyriaPresentKhafateh (2014)
TaiwanPresentKo et al. (2011); Lin YuJu et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentAkgul et al. (2014); Türkölmez et al. (2016); Kurt et al. (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresentCech and Tomiczek (2013)
BelgiumPresentCampenhout et al. (2017)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentZlatković et al. (2016)
BulgariaPresentGeorgieva (2016)
CroatiaPresentNovak et al. (2018); Kaliterna and Miličević (2012)
FrancePresentLarignon et al. (2003)
GermanyPresentKehr (2004)
GreecePresentThomidis and Exadaktylou (2010)
HungaryPresentVajna and Schwarczinger (1998)First report.
ItalyPresentGaribaldi et al. (2012); Bertetti et al. (2012); Scala et al. (2019)
-SicilyPresentGrasso and Granata (2010)
LithuaniaPresentChlebicki (2002)
MontenegroPresentZlatković et al. (2016); Latinović et al. (2013)
PolandPresentZimowska et al. (2017)
PortugalPresentBarradas et al. (2016); Hilário et al. (2020)
SerbiaPresentZlatković et al. (2016)
SloveniaPresentPiškur and Jurc (2011); Jurc et al. (2006)
SpainPresentLópez-Moral et al. (2020); Gramaje et al. (2012); Roca et al. (2013); Luque et al. (2014)Southern Spain
SwedenPresentEriksson (1992)
SwitzerlandPresentTaylor and Hyde (2003)
UkrainePresentKorolyova (2017)
United KingdomPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-EnglandPresentFisher et al. (1993)

North America

Canada
-ManitobaPresentPlatford (1992)
Costa RicaPresentArguedas Gamboa (1996)
GuatemalaPresentSchieber and Zentmyer (1978)
MexicoPresentValencia-Botín et al. (2003)
PanamaPresentGilbert and Steven (1996)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated b)
-AlabamaPresentMullen and Hagan (1985); CABI Data Mining (Undated)
-ArkansasPresentUrbez-Torres et al. (2012)
-CaliforniaPresentMayorquin et al. (2012); Aćimović et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
-ColoradoPresentAnon (2018)
-ConnecticutPresentAnon (2018)
-District of ColumbiaPresentSmith and Stanosz (2001)
-FloridaPresentWright and Harmon (2009)
-GeorgiaPresentPusey and Yadava (1991); CABI Data Mining (Undated)
-HawaiiPresentTaylor et al. (2001)
-IllinoisPresentMa et al. (2004)
-IndianaPresentAnon (2018)
-KentuckyPresentJohnson et al. (2001)
-LouisianaPresentHolcomb (1993); CABI Data Mining (Undated)
-MarylandPresentMaas et al. (1989)
-MississippiPresentKummuang et al. (1996)
-MissouriPresentUrbez-Torres et al. (2012)
-New MexicoPresentPark IkJu et al. (2019)
-North CarolinaPresentMa et al. (2004)
-OhioPresentMaas et al. (1989)
-PennsylvaniaPresentMa et al. (2004)
-Rhode IslandPresentGoos (2010)
-South CarolinaPresentSchnabel et al. (2006)
-TexasPresentÚrbez-Torres et al. (2009)
-VirginiaPresentShi et al. (1996)
-WashingtonPresentElliott et al. (2002)
-West VirginiaPresentAnon (2018)
-WisconsinPresentAnon (2018)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentWunderlich et al. (2012)
-New South WalesPresentScarlett et al. (2019); Pitt et al. (2013)
-South AustraliaPresentPitt et al. (2013); Pitt et al. (2010)
-VictoriaPresentCunnington et al. (2007)
-Western AustraliaPresentSakalidis et al. (2011); Taylor et al. (2009)
New CaledoniaPresentSpaulding (1961)
New ZealandPresentBillones-Baaijens et al. (2013); Billones et al. (2010)

South America

BoliviaPresentKaiser et al. (2002)
BrazilPresentMarques et al. (2013); Lisboa et al. (2016)
-ParanaPresentBotelho et al. (2012)
-PernambucoPresentCosta et al. (2010)
-Santa CatarinaPresentBecker and Ieki (2002)
-Sao PauloPresentFirmino et al. (2016)
ChilePresentBesoain et al. (2000); Latorre and Toledo (1984)
ColombiaPresentSlippers et al. (2009); Rodas et al. (2009)
ParaguayPresentKobayashi (1984)
UruguayPresentDelgado-Cerrone et al. (2016); Sessa et al. (2016)
VenezuelaPresentCedeño et al. (1998)

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eudarluca quinqueseptata Pathogen

References

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Akgul DS, Savas NG, Eskalen A, 2014. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease, 98(4):568. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Arzanlou M, Moshari S, Bakhshi M, Khodaie S, 2012. Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with grapevine decline disease in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):197-200. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5/fulltext.html

Barradas C, Phillips AJL, Correia A, Diogo E, Bragança H, Alves A, 2016. Diversity and potential impact of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(2):245-257. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Bertetti D, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of fruit rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivated in Italy. (Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. & De Not., agente di marciume su frutti di pero coltivato in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:60-64. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bian CH, Miao P, Kang YB, 2015. First report of canker disease of flue-cured tobacco caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 99(6):890. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Brown EA II, Hendrix FF, 1981. Pathogenicity and histopathology of Botryosphaeria dothidea on apple stems. Phytopathology, 71(4):375-379

Chattaoui M, Rhouma A, Krid S, Triki MA, Moral J, Msallem M, Trapero A, 2011. First report of fruit rot of olives caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Tunisia. Plant Disease, 95(6):770. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Choi IY, 2011. First report of bark dieback on blueberry caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Korea. Plant Disease, 95(2):227. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

English H, Davis JR, DeVay JE, 1975. Relationship of Botryosphaeria dothidae and Hendersonula toruloidea to a canker disease of almond. Phytopathology, 65(2):114-122

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2012. First report of fruit rot in pear caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Italy. Plant Disease, 96(6):910. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gramaje D, Agustí-Brisach C, Pérez-Sierra A, Moralejo E, Olmo D, Mostert L, Damm U, Armengol J, 2012. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain). Persoonia, 28:1-13. http://www.persoonia.org

Grasso FM, Granata G, 2010. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with dieback of aspen (Populus tremula) in Italy. Plant Pathology, 59(4):807. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Jami F, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M, 2014. Botryosphaeriaceae species overlap on four unrelated, native South African hosts. Fungal Biology, 118(2):168-179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878614613001724

Khan NA, Mushtaq Ahmad, Ghani MY, 2010. Botyrosphaeria dothidea associated with white rot and stem bark canker of apple in Jammu & Kashmir. Applied Biological Research, 12(2):69-73. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:abr&volume=12&issue=2&article=006

Ko Y, Liu CW, Chen SS, Chiu KY, Sun YW, Maruthasalam S, 2011. First report of gummosis disease of Japanese apricot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 95(1):77. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li X, Yan J, Kong F, Qiao G, Zhang Z, Wang Z, 2010. Botryosphaeria dothidea causing canker of grapevine newly reported in China. Plant Pathology, 59(6):1170. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Maas JL, Uecker FA, 1984. Botryosphaeria dothidea cane canker of thornless blackberry. Plant Disease, 68(8):720-726

Marinelli E, Orzali L, Scalercio S, Riccioni L, 2012. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing fruit rot of quince in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.92. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Marques MW, Lima NB, Morais Júnior MAde, Michereff SJ, Phillips AJL, Câmara MPS, 2013. Botryosphaeria, Neofusicoccum, Neoscytalidium and Pseudofusicoccum species associated with mango in Brazil. Fungal Diversity, 61(1):195-208. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0258-1

Mayorquin JS, Eskalen A, Downer AJ, Hodel DR, Liu A, 2012. First report of multiple species of the Botryosphaeriaceae causing bot canker disease of Indian laurel-leaf fig in California. Plant Disease, 96(3):459. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mo JY, Li QL, Guo TX, Huang SP, Pan ZB, Ning P, Hsiang T, 2013. First report of gummosis caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea on mango trees in Guangxi, South China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(3):665. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2979

Punithalingam E, Holliday P, 1973. Botryosphaeria ribis. Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 395. Wallingford & Kew, UK: CAB International & Association of Applied Biology

Pusey PL, 1989. Availability and dispersal of ascospores and conidia of Botryosphaeria in peach orchards. Phytopathology, 79(6):635-639

Pusey PL, 1993. Role of Botryosphaeria species in peach tree gummosis on the basis of differential isolation from outer and inner bark. Plant Disease, 77(2):170-174

Ramos LJ, Lara SP, McMillan RTJr, Narayanan KR, 1991. Tip dieback of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Botryosphaeria ribis.. Plant Disease, 75(3):315-318; 30 ref

Rayachhetry MB, Blakeslee GM, Webb RS, Kimbrough JW, 1996. Characteristics of the Fusicoccum anamorph of Botryosphaeria ribis, a potential biological control agent for Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida. Mycologia, 88(2):239-248; 35 ref

Roca LF, Raya MC, Trapero A, 2013. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing fruit rot of plum in Spain. Plant Disease, 97(4):556-557. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Rumbos IC, 1987. Twig and branch dieback of walnut trees induced by Botryosphaeria ribis. Plant Pathology, 36(4):602-605

Smith H, Kemp GHJ, Wingfield MJ, 1994. Canker and die-back of Eucalyptus in South Africa caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Pathology, 43(6):1031-1034

Smith OC, 1934. Inoculations showing the wide host range of Botryosphaeria ribis. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49:467-476

Spiers AG, 1977. Botryosphaeria dothidea infection of Salix species in New Zealand. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):664-667

Thomidis T, Exadaktylou E, 2010. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing shoot blight of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Greece. Plant Disease, 94(12):1503. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Urbez-Torres JR, Peduto F, Striegler RK, Urrea-Romero KE, Rupe JC, Cartwright RD, Gubler WD, 2012. Characterization of fungal pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Arkansas and Missouri. Fungal Diversity, 52(1):169-189. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r04710p5uv65j716/

von Arx AJ, Muller E, 1954. Die Gallun gen der amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Bietr. Kryptogamen Flora Schweiz, 11:1-434

Witcher W, Clayton CN, 1963. Blueberry stem blight caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. ribis). Phytopathology, 53:705-712

Wright AF, Harmon PF, 2009. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae associated with stem blight of southern highbush blueberries in Florida. Plant Disease, 93(9):962. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wunderlich N, Costa SS, Tpoi RP, Ash GJ, 2012. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing shoot blight and cankers of pistachio in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):47-49. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0045-y/fulltext.html

Yu L, Rarisara I, Xu SG, Wu X, Zhao JR, 2012. First report of stem blight of blueberry caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 96(11):1697. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zhang CQ, Xu BC, 2011. First report of canker on pecan (Carya cathayensis) caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 95(10):1319. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zhang ZongXia, Deng DeFa, Qi WenJing, Fan SuSu, Cao Yue, Huang JinGuang, Liu ZhenYu, 2013. Botryosphaeria dothidea, the causal agent of a new stem canker disease of Tatarian dogwood (Cornus alba) in China. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(2):113-119. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-012-0197-4

Zhu QiLi, Zhao HuiZhang, Xie JiaTao, Cheng JiaSen, Fu YanPing, 2018. Report of Botryosphaeria dothidea infecting citrus. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 48(2), 154-158. http://zwblxb.magtech.com.cn/EN/abstract/abstract939.shtml

Distribution References

Aćimović S G, Rooney-Latham S, Albu S, Grosman D M, Doccola J J, 2018. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi associated with declining urban stands of coast redwood in California. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 1950-1957. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0339-RE

Ahmad S, Iqbal S H, Khalid A N, 1997. Fungi of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Sultan Ahmad Mycological Society of Pakistan. 248 pp.

Akgul D S, Savas N G, Eskalen A, 2014. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 568. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0726-PDN

Ammad F, Benchabane M, Toumi M, Belkacem N, Guesmi A, Ameur C, Lecomte P, Merah O, 2014. Occurrence of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with grapevine dieback in Algeria. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 38 (6), 865-876. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/

Anon, 2018. Widely Prevalent Fungi of the United States., Georgia, USA: University of Georgia, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.prevalentfungi.org/

Arguedas Gamboa M, 1996. Inventory of diseases in forest species in Costa Rica. (Inventario de enfermedades de especies forestales en Costa Rica.). Revista Forestal Centroamericana. 5 (15), 20-24.

Arzanlou M, Moshari S, Bakhshi M, Khodaie S, 2012. Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with grapevine decline disease in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 7 (1), 197-200. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5

Bahri B A, Mabrouk H, Chebil S, Kallel S, 2017. Investigations into physiological, biochemical, and histological modifications in a vine decline associated with biotic and abiotic factors. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 12 (1), 35-52. http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/SiteWeb/PreviousIssues/TJPP12-1/TJPP12-1.pdf

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