Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Botryosphaeria dothidea
(canker of almond)

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Datasheet

Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Botryosphaeria dothidea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • canker of almond
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionEarly stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
CopyrightT.B. Sutton
Early stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.
SymptomsEarly stages of white or bot rot on fruit; fruit lesions begin as small spots with red margins.T.B. Sutton
White or bot rot on fruit; several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWhite or bot rot on fruit; several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
CopyrightT.B. Sutton
White or bot rot on fruit; several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.
SymptomsWhite or bot rot on fruit; several examples of 'Golden Delicious' with decay. Note apple on lower left (arrowed) is infected with black rot.T.B. Sutton
White or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWhite or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
CopyrightT.B. Sutton
White or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.
SymptomsWhite or bot rot on fruit, internal symptoms: (a) bitter rot; (b) decay often reaches and surrounds the apple core.T.B. Sutton
White or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWhite or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
White or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.
SymptomsWhite or bot rot rot on apple; note reddish-brown lesions on bark, young canker.©Alan L. Jones
White or bot rot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWhite or bot rot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
CopyrightD.A. Rosenberger
White or bot rot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.
SymptomsWhite or bot rot rot on apple; note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker.D.A. Rosenberger
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
Copyright©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
Copyright©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
Copyright©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note the discoloration on vascular tissue, 1/3 dead. Only the light-colored section is alive. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
Copyright©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptoms on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. Gainesville, Florida, USA. December 2017.©Matthew Borden, University of Florida/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptom on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. May 2017.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptom on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. May 2017.
Copyright©Jonas Janner Hamann, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Botryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptom on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. May 2017.
SymptomsBotryosphaeria dothidea (canker of almond); Symptom on peach branch (Prunus persica) note exudation of liquid from a blister in an active canker. May 2017.©Jonas Janner Hamann, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.) Ces. & de Not.

Preferred Common Name

  • canker of almond

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryosphaeria berengeriana DE NOT.
  • Dothiorella mali ELLIS & EVERH.

International Common Names

  • English: bark gummosis of peach; bot rot of apple; cane canker of blackberry; gummosis disease of blueberry; ripe rot of kiwi fruit; white rot of apple
  • Spanish: chancro del almendro; gomosis del melocotonero; gomosis del mirto
  • French: chancre de l'amandier; chancre des tiges du rosier; gommose de la myrtille; gommose du pecher

EPPO code

  • BOTSDO (Botryosphaeria dothidea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Order: Botryosphaeriales
  •                         Family: Botryosphaeriaceae
  •                             Genus: Botryosphaeria
  •                                 Species: Botryosphaeria dothidea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
MalawiPresent
NamibiaPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TianjinPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresentFirst report.
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MontenegroPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
SerbiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresentSouthern Spain
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-EnglandPresent

North America

Canada
-AlbertaPresent, Few occurrences
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
Costa RicaPresent
GuatemalaPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
ParaguayPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / necrosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Eudarluca quinqueseptata Pathogen

References

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Akgul DS, Savas NG, Eskalen A, 2014. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease, 98(4):568. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Arzanlou M, Moshari S, Bakhshi M, Khodaie S, 2012. Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with grapevine decline disease in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):197-200. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5/fulltext.html

Barradas C, Phillips AJL, Correia A, Diogo E, Bragança H, Alves A, 2016. Diversity and potential impact of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(2):245-257. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Bertetti D, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of fruit rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivated in Italy. (Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. & De Not., agente di marciume su frutti di pero coltivato in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:60-64. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bian CH, Miao P, Kang YB, 2015. First report of canker disease of flue-cured tobacco caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 99(6):890. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Brown EA II, Hendrix FF, 1981. Pathogenicity and histopathology of Botryosphaeria dothidea on apple stems. Phytopathology, 71(4):375-379

Chattaoui M, Rhouma A, Krid S, Triki MA, Moral J, Msallem M, Trapero A, 2011. First report of fruit rot of olives caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Tunisia. Plant Disease, 95(6):770. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Choi IY, 2011. First report of bark dieback on blueberry caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Korea. Plant Disease, 95(2):227. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

English H, Davis JR, DeVay JE, 1975. Relationship of Botryosphaeria dothidae and Hendersonula toruloidea to a canker disease of almond. Phytopathology, 65(2):114-122

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2012. First report of fruit rot in pear caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Italy. Plant Disease, 96(6):910. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gramaje D, Agustí-Brisach C, Pérez-Sierra A, Moralejo E, Olmo D, Mostert L, Damm U, Armengol J, 2012. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain). Persoonia, 28:1-13. http://www.persoonia.org

Grasso FM, Granata G, 2010. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with dieback of aspen (Populus tremula) in Italy. Plant Pathology, 59(4):807. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Huang, Y., Meng, L., Liu, J., Wang, C., 2019. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing shoot canker on mulberry in China. Plant Disease, 103(7), 1788-1789. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0183-PDN

Jami F, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M, 2014. Botryosphaeriaceae species overlap on four unrelated, native South African hosts. Fungal Biology, 118(2):168-179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878614613001724

Khan NA, Mushtaq Ahmad, Ghani MY, 2010. Botyrosphaeria dothidea associated with white rot and stem bark canker of apple in Jammu & Kashmir. Applied Biological Research, 12(2):69-73. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:abr&volume=12&issue=2&article=006

Ko Y, Liu CW, Chen SS, Chiu KY, Sun YW, Maruthasalam S, 2011. First report of gummosis disease of Japanese apricot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 95(1):77. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li X, Yan J, Kong F, Qiao G, Zhang Z, Wang Z, 2010. Botryosphaeria dothidea causing canker of grapevine newly reported in China. Plant Pathology, 59(6):1170. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Maas JL, Uecker FA, 1984. Botryosphaeria dothidea cane canker of thornless blackberry. Plant Disease, 68(8):720-726

Marinelli E, Orzali L, Scalercio S, Riccioni L, 2012. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing fruit rot of quince in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.92. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Marques MW, Lima NB, Morais Júnior MAde, Michereff SJ, Phillips AJL, Câmara MPS, 2013. Botryosphaeria, Neofusicoccum, Neoscytalidium and Pseudofusicoccum species associated with mango in Brazil. Fungal Diversity, 61(1):195-208. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13225-013-0258-1

Mayorquin JS, Eskalen A, Downer AJ, Hodel DR, Liu A, 2012. First report of multiple species of the Botryosphaeriaceae causing bot canker disease of Indian laurel-leaf fig in California. Plant Disease, 96(3):459. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mo JY, Li QL, Guo TX, Huang SP, Pan ZB, Ning P, Hsiang T, 2013. First report of gummosis caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea on mango trees in Guangxi, South China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(3):665. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2979

Punithalingam E, Holliday P, 1973. Botryosphaeria ribis. Description of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 395. Wallingford & Kew, UK: CAB International & Association of Applied Biology

Pusey PL, 1989. Availability and dispersal of ascospores and conidia of Botryosphaeria in peach orchards. Phytopathology, 79(6):635-639

Pusey PL, 1993. Role of Botryosphaeria species in peach tree gummosis on the basis of differential isolation from outer and inner bark. Plant Disease, 77(2):170-174

Ramos LJ, Lara SP, McMillan RTJr, Narayanan KR, 1991. Tip dieback of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Botryosphaeria ribis.. Plant Disease, 75(3):315-318; 30 ref

Rayachhetry MB, Blakeslee GM, Webb RS, Kimbrough JW, 1996. Characteristics of the Fusicoccum anamorph of Botryosphaeria ribis, a potential biological control agent for Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida. Mycologia, 88(2):239-248; 35 ref

Roca LF, Raya MC, Trapero A, 2013. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing fruit rot of plum in Spain. Plant Disease, 97(4):556-557. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Rumbos IC, 1987. Twig and branch dieback of walnut trees induced by Botryosphaeria ribis. Plant Pathology, 36(4):602-605

Smith H, Kemp GHJ, Wingfield MJ, 1994. Canker and die-back of Eucalyptus in South Africa caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Plant Pathology, 43(6):1031-1034

Smith OC, 1934. Inoculations showing the wide host range of Botryosphaeria ribis. Journal of Agricultural Research, 49:467-476

Spiers AG, 1977. Botryosphaeria dothidea infection of Salix species in New Zealand. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):664-667

Thomidis T, Exadaktylou E, 2010. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing shoot blight of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Greece. Plant Disease, 94(12):1503. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Urbez-Torres JR, Peduto F, Striegler RK, Urrea-Romero KE, Rupe JC, Cartwright RD, Gubler WD, 2012. Characterization of fungal pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Arkansas and Missouri. Fungal Diversity, 52(1):169-189. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r04710p5uv65j716/

von Arx AJ, Muller E, 1954. Die Gallun gen der amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Bietr. Kryptogamen Flora Schweiz, 11:1-434

Witcher W, Clayton CN, 1963. Blueberry stem blight caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. ribis). Phytopathology, 53:705-712

Wright AF, Harmon PF, 2009. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae associated with stem blight of southern highbush blueberries in Florida. Plant Disease, 93(9):962. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wunderlich N, Costa SS, Tpoi RP, Ash GJ, 2012. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing shoot blight and cankers of pistachio in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):47-49. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0045-y/fulltext.html

Yu L, Rarisara I, Xu SG, Wu X, Zhao JR, 2012. First report of stem blight of blueberry caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 96(11):1697. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zhang CQ, Xu BC, 2011. First report of canker on pecan (Carya cathayensis) caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 95(10):1319. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Zhang ZongXia, Deng DeFa, Qi WenJing, Fan SuSu, Cao Yue, Huang JinGuang, Liu ZhenYu, 2013. Botryosphaeria dothidea, the causal agent of a new stem canker disease of Tatarian dogwood (Cornus alba) in China. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(2):113-119. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-012-0197-4

Zhang, L. Z., Zhang, Q., Yang, P., Niu, Y., Niu, W., 2019. First report of gummosis disease of sweet cherry caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in China. Plant Disease, 103(12), 3283-3283. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1418-PDN

Zhu QiLi, Zhao HuiZhang, Xie JiaTao, Cheng JiaSen, Fu YanPing, 2018. Report of Botryosphaeria dothidea infecting citrus. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 48(2), 154-158. http://zwblxb.magtech.com.cn/EN/abstract/abstract939.shtml

Distribution References

Aćimović S G, Rooney-Latham S, Albu S, Grosman D M, Doccola J J, 2018. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi associated with declining urban stands of coast redwood in California. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 1950-1957. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0339-RE

Aguirre N M, Palmeri G N, Ochoa M E, Holmlund H I, Reese S R, Pierce E R, Sauer K E, Davis S D, Honeycutt R L, Blomquist C L, Adams G C, 2018. First report of Botryosphaeria dothidea causing stem canker and plant death in Malosma laurina in southern California. Plant Disease. 102 (7), 1451. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1322-PDN

Ahmad S, Iqbal S H, Khalid A N, 1997. Fungi of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Sultan Ahmad Mycological Society of Pakistan. 248 pp.

Akgul D S, Savas N G, Eskalen A, 2014. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 568. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0726-PDN

Ammad F, Benchabane M, Toumi M, Belkacem N, Guesmi A, Ameur C, Lecomte P, Merah O, 2014. Occurrence of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with grapevine dieback in Algeria. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 38 (6), 865-876. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/

Anon, 2018. Widely Prevalent Fungi of the United States., Georgia, USA: University of Georgia, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.prevalentfungi.org/

Arguedas Gamboa M, 1996. Inventory of diseases in forest species in Costa Rica. (Inventario de enfermedades de especies forestales en Costa Rica.). Revista Forestal Centroamericana. 5 (15), 20-24.

Armengol J, Vicent A, Torné L, García-Figueres F, García-Jiménez J, 2001. Fungi associated with esca and grapevine declines in Spain: a three-year survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 40 (Supplement), S325-S329.

Aroca A, García-Figueres F, Bracamonte L, Luque J, Raposo R, 2006. A survey of trunk disease pathogens within rootstocks of grapevines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 115 (2), 195-202. DOI:10.1007/s10658-006-9008-5

Arzanlou M, Moshari S, Bakhshi M, Khodaie S, 2012. Botryosphaeria dothidea associated with grapevine decline disease in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 7 (1), 197-200. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-012-0083-5

Bahri B A, Mabrouk H, Chebil S, Kallel S, 2017. Investigations into physiological, biochemical, and histological modifications in a vine decline associated with biotic and abiotic factors. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 12 (1), 35-52. http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/SiteWeb/PreviousIssues/TJPP12-1/TJPP12-1.pdf

Barr ME, 2009. A nomenclator of loculoascomycetous fungi from the Pacific Northwest. In: North American Fun, 4 (1) Pacific Northwest Fungi Projec. 94 pp.

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