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Datasheet

Macrobrachium rosenbergii
(giant freshwater prawn)

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Datasheet

Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 30 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Macrobrachium rosenbergii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant freshwater prawn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. rosenbergiiis a large freshwater prawn native to the Indo-West Pacific from northwest India to Vietnam, Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. It has been introduced into many countries for aqu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
Copyright©Janet H. Brown
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
AdultMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.©Janet H. Brown
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
Copyright©Janet H. Brown
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
AdultMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.©Janet H. Brown
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
Copyright©Janet H. Brown
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.
AdultMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn); adult.©Janet H. Brown

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

Preferred Common Name

  • giant freshwater prawn

Other Scientific Names

  • Cryphiops (Macrobrachium) rosenbergii Johnson, 1966
  • Palaemon (Eupalaemon) rosenbergii Nobili, 1899
  • Palaemon carcinus rosenbergii Ortmann, 1891
  • Palaemon dacqueti Sunier, 1925
  • Palaemon spinipes Schenkel, 1902
  • Palaemon whitei Sharp, 1893

International Common Names

  • English: freshwater prawn, giant; giant river prawn; river prawn, giant
  • Spanish: langostino de rio
  • French: bouquet géant

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: bara chingri; bharo chingri; mota chingris
  • India: golda chingri; mocha chingri
  • Indonesia: udang galah
  • Thailand: koong yai

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. rosenbergiiis a large freshwater prawn native to the Indo-West Pacific from northwest India to Vietnam, Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. It has been introduced into many countries for aquaculture. Adverse impacts have not been reported so if there are effects they have so far not been noticeable. However, impacts of escapes in tropical river systems might not be noticed that readily. There is the potential for viruses to be introduced via aquaculture stock (Peng et al., 1998; Flegel, 2003) and a possible risk of interbreeding with local species. This seems to be a very small risk since it has been demonstrated that in the case of M. carcinus and M. rosenbergii (Graziani et al., 2003) no successful pairings occurred. When using artificial insemination interspecifically, although zygotes were produced they did not progress past the gastrula stage. Similarly no interspecific pairings took place between M. rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii in a study by Papadopoulos (2001).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Natantia
  •                                 Unknown: Palaeomonoidea
  •                                     Family: Palaemonidae
  •                                         Genus: Macrobrachium
  •                                             Species: Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Description

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Morphology

M. rosenbergii is a striking looking prawn in which the second pair of walking legs can really justify the genus name meaning ‘large arms’. In the males these walking legs can have a vibrant shade of blue and can also be twice the body length. The largest males can attain a total length from tip of rostrum to the end of the telson of 320 mm compared to 250 mm for the largest females (Holthuis, 1980).

In general, the body form is typical of a decapod crustacean with the head and thorax fused into a cephalothorax. The rostrum at the front end of the cephalothorax is very prominent with 11-14 dorsal teeth and 8-10 ventral teeth. Another distinctive feature of the adult male is that the moveable finger of the second walking leg or cheliped is covered in tightly packed long setae that give a velvety appearance to the appendage. The first ‘walking leg’ is not readily visible being very long and delicate in form but tightly folded up under the cephalothorax and functions as a feeding appendage with fine forcep-like chelae at their tips.

Males can attain larger size than females and in dominant males the second walking legs are much longer and thicker. The abdomen of the male is narrower and the female, as well as having a wider abdomen, has longer pleura (the overlapping plates of cuticle extending from the exoskeleton) and these combined form a chamber for incubating the eggs carried on the pleopods. The male genital openings are on the fifth walking legs and the females genital pores are on the third walking leg.

For detailed descriptions see Ismael and New (2000) and New (2002).

Coloration

The colours of M. rosenbergii can vary according to where the prawns are found but the body can be greenish-grey. In small individuals, delicate striping on the cephalothorax can be seen but these markings are not apparent in tank-reared specimens. The chelipeds of dominant males are bright blue but more yellowish in non-dominant males and females. The ventral side is pale and translucent.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeNew, 2000b
Brunei DarussalamPresentNew, 2000b
CambodiaPresentNativeNew, 2000b
ChinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Yixiong and Suzhi, 1995
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-FujianPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-HebeiPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive New, 2000b
IndonesiaPresentNativeNugroho and Emmawati, 2004
-JavaPresentNativeNugroho and Emmawati, 2004
IsraelPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000a
JapanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Ling and Costello, 1979
MalaysiaPresentNativeNew, 2000b
MyanmarPresentNativeNew, 2000b
PhilippinesPresentNativeRosario and Tayamen, 2004
SingaporePresentNativeNew, 2000b
Sri LankaPresentNativeNew, 2000b
TaiwanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ThailandPresentNativeNew, 2000b
VietnamPresentNativeNew, 2000b

Africa

MalawiPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
RéunionPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
SenegalPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedNew, 2000b

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fujimara, 1966
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Not invasive New, 2000b
DominicaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
GuadeloupePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedFAO, 2010; Krauss, 2012Probably naturalized; invasiveness unclear

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeNew, 2000b
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNew, 2000b

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 40
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 18 40

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Alkalinity (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 20 60 Optimum Adult
Alkalinity (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 20 60 Optimum Broodstock
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.3 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.3 Optimum Broodstock
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) >1.0 Harmful Fry
Boron (mg/l) <0.75 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.02 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <2 Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 3 7 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 3 7 Optimum Broodstock
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >150 Harmful Fry
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >200 Harmful Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >200 Harmful Broodstock
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 40 100 Optimum Adult
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 40 100 Optimum Broodstock
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 40 100 Optimum Fry
Iron (mg/l) <0.02 Optimum Larval
Nitrate (mg/l) <20 Optimum Larval
Nitrate (mg/l) <75 Optimum Adult
Nitrate (mg/l) >160 Harmful Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) <1.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) >15.4 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) <10 Optimum Adult brackish water essential for larval culture
Salinity (part per thousand) 12 Optimum Larval brackish water essential for larval culture
Salinity (part per thousand) <10 >15 Harmful Larval brackish water essential for larval culture
Water pH (pH) >9 Harmful Fry
Water pH (pH) 7 8.5 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <18 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <18 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <18 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <25 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 32 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 32 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 31 Optimum Adult
Zinc (mg/l) <0.20 Optimum Adult

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive

References

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Bliss DE, 1990. Structure and function. In: Bliss DE, ed. Shrimps, Lobsters and Crabs. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 79-121.

Bower SM; McGladdery SE, 1997. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Introduction. Online. http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/intro_e.htm.

Bower SM; McGladdery SE, 2001. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Table of Contents. Online. www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/toc_e.htm. Accessed 30 March 2005.

D’Abramo LR; New MB, 2000. Nutrition, Feeds and Feeding. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 203-220.

Daniels WH; Cavalli RO; Smullen RP, 2000. Broodstock management. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 41-51.

FAO, 2010. Introduced Species Fact Sheets. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Introduced Species Fact Sheets. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/fishery/introsp/9144/en

FAO-FISHSTAT, 2005. Fisheries Statistics Software. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS.asp

Flegel TW, 2003. Outbreaks of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) with exotic Penaeus vannamei cultivated in Thailand. World Aquaculture Asian Pacific Conference, September 2003. Online. http://www.iiap.org.pe/publicaciones/CDs/CONFERENCIAS_WAS/WAS_BRASIL/

Fujimara T, 1966. Notes on the development of a practical mass culturing technique of the giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council Working paper IPFC/C66/WP47 FAO Bangkok.

Graziani C; Moreno C; Villarroel E; Orta T; Lodeiros C; De Donato M, 2003. Hybridization between the freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) and M. carcinus (L.). Aquaculture, 217:81-91.

Hedgecock D; Stelmach DJ; Nelson K; Lindenfelser ME; Malecha SR, 1979. Genetic divergence and biogeography of natural populations of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting, World Mariculture Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 22-26, 1979., 873-879.

Holthuis LB, 1980. FAO species catalogue. Volume 1 - Shrimps and prawns of the world. An annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, No.125:xvii + 271 pp.

Holthuis LB, 2000. Nomenclature and taxonomy. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 12-17.

Ismael D; New MB, 2000. Biology. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 18-40.

Johnson DS, 1973. Notes on some species of the genus Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Journal of the Singapore National Academy of Science, 3:273-291.

Karplus I; Hulata G; Wohlfahrth GW; Halevy A, 1986. The effect of size grading juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii prior to stocking on their population structure and production in polyculture. I. Dividing the population into two fractions. Aquaculture, 56:257-270.

Karplus I; Hulata G; Wohlfahrth GW; Halevy A, 1987. The effect of size grading juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii prior to stocking on their population structure and production in polyculture. II Dividing the population into three fractions. Aquaculture, 62:85-95.

Karplus I; Malecha S; Sagi A, 2000. The biology and management of size variation. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 259-289.

Kimura M; Crow JF, 1963. On the maximum avoidance of inbreeding. Genetical Research, 4:339-415.

Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

Lindenfelser ME, 1984. Morphometric and allozymic congruence: evolution in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) Systematic Zoology, 33:195-204.

Ling SW, 1977. Aquaculture in South East Asia - A Historical Overview. Washington Sea Grant Publication, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 108 pp.

Ling SW; Costello TJ, 1979. The culture of freshwater prawns: a review. Advances in aquaculture, 299-305.

Mather PB; de Bruyn M, 2003. Genetic diversity in wild stocks of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): Implications for aquaculture and conservation. Naga, WorldFish Quarterly 26:4-7.

McMahon BR; Burnett LE, 1990. The crustacean open circulatory system: a re-examination. Physiological Zoology, 63:35-71.

Muir JF; Lombardi JV, 2000. Grow-out systems - site selection and pond construction. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 126-156.

New MB, 2000. Commercial freshwater prawn farming around the World. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 290-325.

New MB, 2000. History and global stuatus of freshwater prawn farming. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 1-11.

New MB, 2002. Farming freshwater prawns: a manual for the culture of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No.428:xiv + 212 pp.

New Scientist, 2004. To feed itself Africa must capture more rainwater. New Scientist, 2462:8.

Nugroho E; Emmawati L, 2004. Giant freshwater prawn culture in Indonesia. IN Report of the Round Table Discussion on the Development of Genetically Improved strain of Macrobrachium. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture department, South East Asian Fisheries Development Center, 54pp.

Papadopoulos V, 2001. A comparative study of two species of Macrobrachium (M. rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii): factors affecting growth and culture potential. MSc thesis. Stirling, UK: Stirling University, 35pp.

Peng SE; Lo CF; Ho CH; Chang CF; Kou GH, 1998. Detection of white spot baculovirus (WSBV) in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using polymerase chain reaction. Aquaculture, 164(1/4):253-262.

Phillips H; Lacroix D, 2000. Marketing and preparation for consumption. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 345-368.

Ra’anaan Z; Sagi A, 1985. Alternative mating strategies in male morphotypes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man). Biological Bulletin, 169:592-601.

Ra’anan Z; Cohen D, 1984. Characterization of size distribution development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) juvenile populations. Crustaceana, 46:271-282.

Ra’anan Z; Cohen D, 1984. The effect of group interactions on the development of size distribution in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) juvenile populations. Biol. Bull, 166:22-31.

Rosario WR; Tayamen MM, 2004. Culture of giant freshwater prawn: Philippines. IN Report of the Round Table Discussion on the Development of Genetically Improved strain of Macrobrachium. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture department, South East Asian Fisheries Development Center, 54pp.

Sagi A; Cohen D; Milner Y, 1990. Effect of androgenic gland ablation on morphotypic differentiation and sexual characteristics of male freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 77(1):15-22.

Tayamen M; Brown JH, 1999. A condition index for evaluating larval quality of M. rosenbergii (De Man 1879). Aquaculture Research, 30:917-922.

Telecky TM, 1984. Alternate male reproductive strategies in the giant Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Pacific Science, 38:372-373.

Valenti WC; New MB, 2000. Grow-out systems - Monoculture. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 157-176.

Wickins JF, 1976. The tolerance of warm-water prawns to recirculated water. Aquaculture, 9(1):19-37.

Wickins JF; Lee DO’C, 2002. Crustacean Farming Ranching and Culture (Second Edition). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, 446 pp.

Yixiong C; Suzhi C, 1995. The prawns and crayfishes introduced to China. Sinozoologia, 12:170-179.

Zimmermann S; New MB, 2000. Grow-Out Systems - Polyculture and Integrated Culture. In: New MB, Valenti WC, eds. Freshwater Prawn Culture. The Farming of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Blackwell Science, 443 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Farming freshwater Prawnshttp://www.fao.orgFAO fisheries Technical paper 42b. New (2002). Follow links or search from homepage.

Contributors

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Main Author
Janet Brown
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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