Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Botryotinia fuckeliana
(grey mould-rot)

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Datasheet

Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Botryotinia fuckeliana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grey mould-rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on table grape cv. Italia.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on table grape cv. Italia.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on table grape cv. Italia.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on table grape cv. Italia.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on strawberries.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on strawberries.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on strawberries.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on strawberries.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on kiwi fruits.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on kiwi fruits.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on kiwi fruits.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on kiwi fruits.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse carnation crop.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse carnation crop.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse carnation crop.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse carnation crop.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse tulip crop.
TitleSymptoms on tulip
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse tulip crop.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse tulip crop.
Symptoms on tulipBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse tulip crop.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse crop of Antirrhinum majus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse crop of Antirrhinum majus.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse crop of Antirrhinum majus.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); grey mould on greenhouse crop of Antirrhinum majus.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on table grape.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on table grape.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on table grape.
SymptomsBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); post-harvest grey mould on table grape.©Francesco Faretra
Grey mould on wine grape cv. Sangiovese.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGrey mould on wine grape cv. Sangiovese.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Grey mould on wine grape cv. Sangiovese.
SymptomsGrey mould on wine grape cv. Sangiovese.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); portion of an ascus, showing multinucleate ascospores.
TitleAscus showing multinucleate ascospores
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); portion of an ascus, showing multinucleate ascospores.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); portion of an ascus, showing multinucleate ascospores.
Ascus showing multinucleate ascosporesBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); portion of an ascus, showing multinucleate ascospores.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); giemsa-stained nuclei in conidia and hyphae.
TitleNuclei in conidia and hyphae
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); giemsa-stained nuclei in conidia and hyphae.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); giemsa-stained nuclei in conidia and hyphae.
Nuclei in conidia and hyphaeBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); giemsa-stained nuclei in conidia and hyphae.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); conidiophore, bearing conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana.
TitleConidiophore and conidia
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); conidiophore, bearing conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); conidiophore, bearing conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana.
Conidiophore and conidiaBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); conidiophore, bearing conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana.©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); cross section of apothecium, showing the hymenium composed by 8 spored asci and sterile paraphyses.
TitleApothecium
CaptionBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); cross section of apothecium, showing the hymenium composed by 8 spored asci and sterile paraphyses.
Copyright©Francesco Faretra
Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); cross section of apothecium, showing the hymenium composed by 8 spored asci and sterile paraphyses.
ApotheciumBotryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); cross section of apothecium, showing the hymenium composed by 8 spored asci and sterile paraphyses.©Francesco Faretra

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel

Preferred Common Name

  • grey mould-rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr
  • Botrytis fuckeliana N.F. Buchw.
  • Haplaria grisea Link
  • Peziza fuckeliana de Bary
  • Phymatotrichum gemellum Bonord.
  • Polyactis vulgaris Link
  • Sclerotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Fuckel

International Common Names

  • English: Botrytis rot; brownish-grey mildew; bunch rot; gray mold of primrose; gray mold of sweet pea; grey mould; grey mould-rot of crucifers; grey rot; slipskin
  • Spanish: mancha gris de las hojas; moho gris: fresa; podredumbre gris; podredumbre gris de las crucíferas
  • French: brûlure; cinerite; cinérite; grillure des feuilles; maladie de la toile; moisissure commune; moisissure grise; pourriture grise; pourriture grise des crucifères
  • Chinese: hui mei bing
  • Portuguese: mofo cinzento; potridâo de Botrytis; potridâo dos cachos

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Edelfaüle; Graufaüle; Grauschimmel
  • Greece: tephra sipsis
  • Italy: muffa grigia

EPPO code

  • BOTRCI (Botryotinia fuckeliana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Sclerotiniaceae
  •                                 Genus: Botryotinia
  •                                     Species: Botryotinia fuckeliana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentYu et al., 2014
-BeijingPresentXie et al., 2016
-ChongqingPresentFu et al., 2013
-GansuPresentWang et al., 2017
-HebeiPresent
-HubeiPresentYou et al., 2014
-JilinPresentYu et al., 2011; Lu et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2015
-LiaoningPresentChen et al., 2017
-ShanghaiPresent
-ZhejiangPresentSun et al., 2009
IndiaPresentKaur and Chandel, 2016North
-BiharPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentMeenu and Bharat, 2013
-Indian PunjabPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresentShahzad et al., 2012
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-UttarakhandPresentDhyani et al., 2012; Shikha and Harsh, 2012
IranPresentMousakhah et al., 2014Guilan
IsraelPresent
JapanPresentTakahashi et al., 2009; Nozawa et al., 2016
-HokkaidoPresentSatou et al., 2013; Kubota and Misawa, 2014
-HonshuPresentSatou et al., 2013
-KyushuPresentSatou et al., 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentCheon and Jeon, 2013; Aktaruzzaman et al., 2015; Afroz et al., 2016; Kim et al., 2016
LebanonPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresentAlam et al., 2017
Sri LankaPresentSilva et al., 2005
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresentÖzer and Bayraktar, 2014; Erper et al., 2015; Gümrükcü et al., 2016

Africa

EgyptPresent
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresent
TunisiaPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresentRueda et al., 2014
USAPresent
-CaliforniaPresentKoike and Daugovish, 2012
-FloridaPresentZhang and Fu, 2016
-HawaiiPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresentMoorman et al., 2012
-South CarolinaPresentFernández-Ortuño et al., 2011
-VirginiaPresentFernández-Ortuño et al., 2013
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentGei and Piccolo, 2016
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Minas GeraisPresentGuatimosim et al., 2011; Silva et al., 2016Viçosa
-Rio Grande do SulPresentDallagnol et al., 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentFerrada et al., 2015; Ferrada et al., 2016
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresentAbata et al., 2016
VenezuelaPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
Czechoslovakia (former)Present
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresentBertetti et al., 2014; Garibaldi et al., 2014; Bertetti et al., 2015; Garibaldi et al., 2016Piedmont
-SardiniaPresent
LatviaPresentLaugale et al., 2004
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Ptaszek, 2015
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
Russian FederationPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UKPresent
UkrainePresent
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / mould growth on lesion

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremoniella atra Pathogen
Acremoniella atra Pathogen
Acremonium alternatum Pathogen
Acremonium alternatum Pathogen
Acremonium breve Pathogen
Acremonium breve Pathogen
Aphelenchus avenae Herbivore
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pathogen Italy
Clonostachys rosea Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Coniothyrium minitans Pathogen
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite
Cryptococcus albidus Pathogen
Cryptococcus albidus Pathogen
Exophiala jeanselmei Pathogen
Exophiala jeanselmei Pathogen
Gibberella baccata Pathogen
Gibberella baccata Pathogen
Gliocladium catenulatum Pathogen
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Pathogen
Streptomyces griseoviridis Pathogen
Streptomyces griseoviridis Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Pathogen Slovenia
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Pathogen
Trichothecium roseum Pathogen
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist
Verticillium lateritium Pathogen
Verticillium lateritium Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelSclerotia in agricultural soils. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Afroz T, Aktaruzzaman M, Kim BS, Han GS, Shin HD, 2016. First report of gray mold on crepe myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(8):1788. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Aktaruzzaman M, Kim JY, Afroz T, Kim BS, Shin HD, 2015. First report of botrytis blight caused by Botrytis cinerea on cineraria in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(12):1865-1866. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Anderson JP, 1924. Botrytis cinerea in Alaska. Phytopathology, 14:152-155.

Anon., 1993. International rules for seed testing: rules 1993. Seed Science and Technology, 21 (Suppl.):214.

Anselme C, Champion R, 1975. Study of the transmission of Botrytis cinerea by sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 3(3/4):711-717

Backhouse D, Willetts HJ, 1985. Histochemical changes during conidiogenic germination of sclerotia of Botrytis cinerea. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 31(3):282-286

Backhouse D, Willetts HJ, 1987. Development and structure of infection cushions of Botrytis cinerea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 89(1):89-95

Baker KF, 1946. Observations on some Botrytis diseases in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 30:145-155.

Barash I, Klisiewicz JM, Kosuge T, 1964. Biochemical factors affecting pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea on Safflower. Phytopathology, 54:923-927.

Beauvérie J, Guilliermond A, 1903. Etude sur la structure du Botrytis cinerea. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 10:275-281, 311-320.

Békési P, Sdrovich-Horváth E, Birta-Vas Z, 1987. Biostimulative effect of the pollen of different plants on conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Növényvédelem, 23:28-32. (Review of Plant Pathology 67:2268).

Bernaux P, 1979. Identification of some soybean diseases in Cameroon. Agronomie Tropicale, 34(3):301-304

Bertetti D, Ortu G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2014. First report of Botrytis cinerea on Rudbeckia fulgida (orange coneflower) and on R. hirta (black-eyed Susan) in Italy. (Attacchi di Botrytis cinerea su Rudbeckia fulgida e R. hirta in coltivazioni italiane.) Protezione delle Colture, No.3:26-28.

Bertetti D, Ortu G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2015. First report of Botrytis cinerea on Bolivian sage (Salvia oxyphora L.) grown in Italy. (Attacchi di Botrytis cinerea su Salvia oxyphora L. in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:33-35.

Beyma thoe Kingma FH van, 1930. Uber eine neue form von Botrytis cinerea, parasitisch auf leinsamen, Botrytis cinerea forma Lini, nf. Annals of Botany, 1:453-456.

Blakeman JP, 1980. Behaviour of conidia on aerial plant surfaces. In: Coley-Smith JR, Verhoeff K, Jarvis WR. The Biology of Botrytis. London, UK: Academic Press, 115-151.

Blank P, 1988. Two inoperculate discomycetes on grapevine. Zeitschrift fur Mykologie, 55(1):115-118

Breitenbach J, KrSnzlin F, 1981. Pilze der Schweiz, Beitang zur kenntniss der Pilzflora der Schweiz. Band 1, Ascomyceten. Verlag Mykologia, 313 pp.

Brierley WB, 1918. Botrytis cinerea. Kew Bulletin, 1:42.

Brierley WB, 1918. The microconidia of Botrytis cinerea. Kew Bulletin, 4:129-146.

Buchwald NF, 1949. Studies in the Sclerotiniaceae. I. Taxonomy of the Sclerotiniaceae. Arsskrift Kongelige Veterine og Landboh¢jskole, 74-191.

Bulit J, Lafon R, 1972. Biologie du Botrytis cinerea Pers. et le développement de la pourriture grise dans le vignoble. Revue de Zoologie Agriculture et Pathologie Vegétale, 71:1-10.

Bulit J, Lafon R, Guillier G, 1970. Périodes favorables à l'application de traitements pour lutter contre la pourriture grise de la vigne. Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie Revue de France de Medicine et Pharmacie Végétale, 19:159-165.

Chen, L. J., Yin, Y. Y., Sun, Sh. K, Sun, J., 2017. First report of a gray mold on Lilium cernuum Komar. leaves caused by Botrytis cinerea in Liaoning province of China., 99(1), 301. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3823/2465

Cheon W, Jeon YH, 2013. First report of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on greenhouse-grown zucchini in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(8):1116. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Chou Mary Chu, Preece TF, 1968. The effect of pollen grains on infections caused by Botrytis cinerea Fr. Annals of Applied Biology, 62:11-22.

Clark CA, Lorbeer JW, 1976. Comparative histopathology of Botrytis squamosa and B. cinerea on onion leaves. Phytopathology, 66(11):1279-1289

Clark CA, Lorbeer JW, 1977. Comparative nutrient dependencey of Botrytis squamosa and B. cinerea for germination of conidia and pathogenicity on onion leaves. Phytopathology, 67(2):212-218

Coley-Smith JR, 1980. Sclerotia and other structures in survival In: Coley-Smith JR, Verhoeff K, Jarvis WR, 1980. The Biology of Botrytis. London, UK: Academic Press, 85-114.

Coley-Smith JR, Verhoeff K, Jarvis WR, ed. , 1980. The biology of Botrytis. The biology of Botrytis. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. London UK, 318 pp.

Conner IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Canadian Department Agricultural Researches Branch, Ottawa, Publication 1251.

Dallagnol LJ, Ferreira LV, Araujo Filho JA, Camargo LEA, Castro-Moretti FRde, 2014. Gray mold caused by Botryotinia fuckeliana on edible pods of pea in Brazil. Plant Disease, 98(4):569-570. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

De Bary A, 1869. Ueber Schimmel und Hefe. In: Virchow und Holtzendorf's Samml. geneinverst. wiss. Vortr. Ser IV, 87:1-78.

De Istvanffi G, 1905. Etudes microbiologiques et mycologique sur le rot gris de la vigne (Botrytis cinerea - Sclerotinia fuckeliana). Annales de l'Institut Central Ampélologique Royale Hongrois, 3:183-360.

De Tempe J, 1958. Infectie van lijnzaad met Botrytis waadering en bestrijding. Tijdschrrift over PlantenZiekten, 64:281-296.

Dennis RWG, 1956. A revision of the British Helotiaceae in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, with notes on related European species. Mycological Papers, CAB International Mycological Institute, 62, 216 pp.

Dhyani A, Nautiyal BP, Nautiyal MC, Rivera MC, Prasad D, Singh KP, 2012. First report of Botrytis cinerea on Lilium polyphyllum, a critically endangered herb in Uttarakhand, India. Phyton (Buenos Aires), 81:157-159. http://www.revistaphyton.fund-romuloraggio.org.ar/vol81/21-DHYANI.pdf

Dingley JM, 1969. Records of plant diseases in New Zealand. Bulletin of the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Researches Bulletin, 192, 298 pp.

Dubos B, 1992. Biological control of Botrytis: state-of-the-art. Recent advances in Botrytis research. Proceedings of the 10th International Botrytis symposium, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 5-10 April 1992 [edited by Verhoeff, K.; Malathrakis, N.E.; Williamson, B.] Wageningen, Netherlands, Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 169-178

Elad Y, 1992. Reduced sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to two sterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides: fenetrazole and fenethanil. Plant Pathology, 41(1):47-54

Elad Y, 1992. The use of antioxidants (free radical scavengers) to control grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) and white mould (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in various crops. Plant Pathology, 41(4):417-426; 21 ref.

Elad Y, 1996. Mechanisms involved in the biological control of Botrytis cinerea incited diseases. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(8):719-732; 140 ref.

Elad Y, Shtienberg D, Yunis H, Mahrer Y, 1992. Epidemiology of grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea in vegetable greenhouses. Recent advances in Botrytis research. Proceedings of the 10th International Botrytis symposium, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 5-10 April 1992 [edited by Verhoeff, K.; Malathrakis, N.E.; Williamson, B.] Wageningen, Netherlands, Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 147-158

El-Helaly AF, Elarosi H, Assawah MW, Killani A, 1962. Studies on fungi associated with onion crops in the field and during storage. Phytophatholgia Mediteraanea, 2:37-45.

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, Waller JM, 1974. Sclerotinia fuckeliana (conidial state: Botrytis cinerea). CMI Description of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, No. 341. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Erper I, Celik H, Turkkan M, Kilicoglu MC, 2015. First report of Botrytis cinerea on golden berry. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):25. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0175-0/fulltext.html

Faretra F, Antonacci E, 1987. Production of apothecia of Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetz. under controlled environmental conditions. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 26(1):29-35

Faretra F, Antonacci E, Pollastro S, 1988. Improvement of the technique used for obtaining apothecia of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) under controlled conditions. Annali di Microbiologia ed Enzimologia, 38(1):29-40

Faretra F, Antonacci E, Pollastro S, 1988. Sexual behaviour and mating system of Botryotinia fuckeliana, teleomorph of Botrytis cinerea. Journal of General Microbiology, 134(9):2543-2550

Faretra F, Antonacci E, Semeraro L, Basile M, 1988. Frigoconservazione dell'uva da tavola: considerazioni sull'impiego di dicarbossimidici in post-raccolta in riferimento anche alla presenza di residui. Notiziario Agricolo Regione Puglia, 16 (Suppl. n. 4):22-28.

Faretra F, Grindle M, 1992. Genetic studies of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea). Recent advances in Botrytis research. Proceedings of the 10th International Botrytis symposium, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 5-10 April 1992 [edited by Verhoeff, K.; Malathrakis, N.E.; Williamson, B.] Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 7-17

Faretra F, Pollastro S, 1991. Genetic basis of resistance to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea). Mycological Research, 95(8):943-951

Faretra F, Pollastro S, 1993. Genetic basis of resistance to the phenylpyrrole fungicide CGA 173506 in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea). In: Lyr H, Polter C, eds. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium "Modern Fungicides and Antifungal Compounds". Wollgrasweg, Germany: Ulmer, 405-409.

Faretra F, Pollastro S, 1993. Genetics of sexual compatibility and resistance to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides in isolates of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) from nine countries. Plant Pathology, 42(1):48-57

Faretra F, Pollastro S, 1993. Isolation, characterization and genetic analysis of laboratory mutants of Botryotinia fuckeliana resistant to the phenylpyrrole fungicide CGA 173506. Mycological Research, 97(5):620-624

Faretra F, Pollastro S, 1996. Genetic studies of the phytopathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) by analysis of ordered tetrads. Mycological Research, 100(5):620-624; 32 ref.

Faretra F, Pollastro S, Tonno APdi, 1989. New natural variants of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) coupling benzimidazole-resistance to insensitivity toward the N-phenylcarbamate diethofencarb. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 28(2):98-104; 24 ref.

Fermaud M, 1991. Propagation du Botrytis: le rôle des larves d'eudémis. La Vigne, 14:36-37.

Fermaud M, Gaunt RE, 1995. Thrips obscuratus as a potential vector of Botrytis cinerea in kiwifruit. Mycological Research, 99(3):267-273

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