canine distemper virus
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Diseases Table
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Pathogen Characteristics
- Host Animals
- Pathway Vectors
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- canine distemper virus
Other Scientific Names
- distemper virus
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a paramyxovirus closely related to the measles and rinderpest viruses; it causes a highly contagious acute febrile disease. Canine distemper has been known since at least 1760 and has a worldwide distribution. The disease occurs in a wide variety of terrestrial carnivores including Canidae (dog, fox, wolf, raccoon dog), Mustelidae (ferret, mink, skunk, wolverine, marten, badger, otter), Procyonidae (raccoon, coatimundi), Viverridae (palm civet), Ailuridae (red panda), Ursidae (bear), and large Felidae (lions, tigers, leopards, cheetahs), as well as a few other mammals such as Asian elephants and some primates. Domestic and feral dogs are considered to be the main reservoir host species. Closely related viruses cause a similar disease in seals (phocine distemper virus) and in porpoises and dolphins (cetacean morbillivirus). CDV is a serious threat to endangered wildlife and this threat is expected to increase with increased encroachment of humans (along with their dogs) into undeveloped areas of the world. Recent large outbreaks in nonhuman primates suggest the virus has adapted to these animals and that the potential exists for it to infect humans.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Unknown: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Paramyxoviridae
- Genus: Morbillivirus
- Species: canine distemper virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that has been taxonomically assigned to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Morbillivirus. It is closely related to the viruses that cause measles in man and rinderpest in ungulates. At least eleven distinct genetic lineages of CDV are recognized – see Pathogen Characteristics section.
The origin of the word distemper is from the Middle English distemperen, meaning “to upset the balance of the humors,” which is originally from the Latin dis- and Latin temperare, meaning “to not mix properly.” The disease, canine distemper, is sometimes called “hardpad disease” in canines due to the hardening of the footpads and nose that can be occur in infected dogs.
Given that the virus can infect a variety of species other than canids, especially within the order Carnivora, some investigators have recently suggested that CDV should be renamed ‘carnivore distemper virus’ (Terio and Craft, 2013).
DistributionTop of page
Canine distemper is distributed worldwide (Creevy, 2013); a detailed distribution table is not provided for this datasheet.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
It has been suspected that canine distemper was imported from Peru into Spain during the 17th century. It was well-described in 1746 by Antonio de Ulloa; during the mid-18th century, it was first reported in Spain, followed by England, Italy (1764) and Russia (1770) (Blancou, 2004). Edward Jenner published an extensive description of the course and clinical features of the disease in dogs in 1809 (Jenner, 1809). The viral aetiology was demonstrated in 1906 by Henri Carre (Blancou, 2004). The domestic dog has largely been responsible for spreading the disease to new geographic areas and for introducing canine distemper to previously unexposed wildlife. As human populations expanded, increased domestic dog contact with wild carnivores exacerbated the risk for disease transmission (Butler et al., 2004; Cleaveland et al., 2000).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The distribution of canine distemper virus is worldwide. Rapidly expanding human populations increase domestic dog contact with wildlife, increasing disease transmission into new populations and new geographic regions. As the planet’s human population (and that of their domestic dogs) continues to grow and encroach upon the habitats of wildlife species, it is likely this disease will continue to be introduced into new animal populations.
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus within the genus Morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae) and is closely related to the viruses of measles and rinderpest. Similar to other members of the family, CDV virions are pleomorphic, 150-350 nm in diameter, enveloped and covered with large glycoprotein spikes 8-14 nm in length, and contain a “herringbone-shaped” helically symmetrical nucleocapsid, approximately 1 µm in length and 18 nm in diameter (MacLachlan and Dubovi, 2011). The genome consists of a single linear molecule of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA, ~16 kb in size. The RNA does not contain a 5’ cap and is not polyadenylated at the 3’ end, but does have functional 5’ and 3’ non-coding elements. The genome of CDV has 6 genes separated by conserved non-coding sequences that contain termination, polyadenylation, and initiation signals for transcribed mRNAs. The virion proteins include three nucleocapsid proteins (an RNA-binding protein (N), a phosphoprotein (P), and a large polymerase protein (L)) and three membrane proteins (an unglycosylated matrix protein (M), and two glycosylated envelope proteins – a fusion protein (F) and a hemagglutinin (H), which functions as an attachment protein (MacLachlan and Dubovi, 2011)). Viral replication occurs in the cell cytoplasm and virions exit the cell by budding from the plasma membrane. The enveloped virus is sensitive to lipid solvents and most disinfectants and has limited survivability outside the host animal.
At least eleven distinct genetic lineages of CDV are recognized worldwide, based on phylogenetic sequence analysis of the H gene. These CDV lineages are known as America-1, America-2, Arctic, Asia-1, Asia-2, Asia-3, Asia-4, Europe-1/South America-1, Europe wildlife, Rockborn-like, and Africa-1 (Panzera et al., 2012; Radtanakatikanon et al., 2013; Sarute et al., 2014; Zhao et al., 2010). The vaccine strains of CDV - Snyder Hill, Onderstepoort, Lederle – are all included in the America-1 lineage. Despite genetic differences among field strains of CDV, cross-neutralization studies show only minor antigenic differences (MacLachlan and Dubovi, 2011).
McCarthy et al. (2007), studying CDV from a variety of different hosts, found that molecular adaptation at known receptor-binding sites of the haemagglutinin gene was associated with independent instances of the spread of the virus to novel hosts.
Host AnimalsTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Host and vector organisms||Feral domestic dogs; wild animals||Yes||Yes|
Economic ImpactTop of page
While there may be little economic impact of canine distemper in terms of agriculture, there is certainly impact associated with declines in wildlife populations or individuals. These impacts can be felt most significantly in zoos and wildlife parks around the world, in addition to the increased efforts, and cost of operations, of various wildlife conservation groups. Additionally, pet owners spend a significant amount of money each year obtaining canine distemper vaccination for their dogs (or other domestic pets susceptible to the disease).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
Canine distemper virus can have a significant effect on wildlife populations.
The most intensively studied CDV outbreak has been in the African lions (Panthera leo) of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. In 1994, a large epidemic, which had probably spread from domestic dogs (Cleaveland et al., 2000), caused fatalities in ~30% of the population (Roelke-Parker et al., 1996). By 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies and the epidemic had spread north to lions in the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya; by 1996, it was estimated that only 2,000 Serengeti lions remained (Roelke-Parker et al., 1996), although the population recovered quickly (Gilbert et al., 2014). In addition to the lions, other carnivore species, including leopards (Panthera pardus), hyenas (Hyaenidae), bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis), jackals, and domestic dogs were affected during the 1994 CDV outbreak. Extinction of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Serengeti coincided with epizootic canine distemper in sympatric domestic dogs (Daszak et al., 2000).
As well as the species mentioned in the previous paragraph, studies cited by McCarthy et al. (2007) report mass mortalities in palm civets (Paguma larvata), red pandas (Ailurus fulgens), raccoons (Procyon lotor) and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes); the last remnant wild population of the latter species (before more recent reintroductions), in Wyoming, USA, was reportedly extirpated by CDV. Timm et al. (2009) conclude that CDV was probably the cause of a precipitous decline in the population of the endangered Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) on Santa Catalina island, California, USA (in contrast, elsewhere in California there is no evidence that disease has a significant impact on the endangered San Joaquin Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica [muticus], despite a high prevalence of antibodies to CDV – US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010).
Gilbert et al. (2014) modelled the effects of CDV on Amur Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), in which infection has recently been diagnosed, and concluded that the 50-year risk of extinction in their study area was between 6.3% and 55.8% higher (depending on the scenario used) in the presence of the virus than in its absence.
The Threatened Species table lists some more species considered to be threatened by the virus.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Ailurus fulgens||VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)||Pathogenic||Qin et al., 2007a; Qin et al., 2007b|
|Canis simensis||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Ethiopia||Pathogenic||Gordon et al., 2015|
|Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Pathogenic||Deem et al., 2000|
|Lynx pardinus||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Pathogenic||Meli et al., 2010|
|Mustela nigripes (Black-footed Ferret)||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||;||Pathogenic||Wimsatt et al., 2006||Reintroduced populations are vaccinated|
|Panthera tigris altaica||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Russian Far East||Pathogenic||Seimon et al., 2013|
|Panthera uncia||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)||Pathogenic||Fix et al., 1989||in Central and South Asia|
|Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)||USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||California||Pathogenic||Timm et al., 2009|
|Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)||USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Pathogenic||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Given the recent large outbreaks of canine distemper in various species of nonhuman primates (see the ‘Zoonoses and food safety’ section in the canine distemper datasheet), additional research should be focused on the potential of the virus to infect humans and become established as a human pathogen. Have humans been infected with CDV in the past? Are there chronic diseases in humans (or diseases thought to be of a non-infectious nature) that are the result of CDV infection?
Additionally, further epidemiological studies are needed to track the spread of this virus, particularly into endangered wildlife species.
ReferencesTop of page
American Canine Association, undated. Canine distemper. Clermont, Florida, USA: American Canine Association. https://acadogs.com/Canine_Distemper.html
Appel MJG, Yates RA, Foley GL, Bernstein JJ, Santinelli S, Spelman LH, Miller LD, Arp LH, Anderson M, Barr M, Pearce-Kelling S, Summers BA, 1994. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 6(3):277-288.
Bieringer M, Han JW, Kendl S, Khosravi M, Plattet P, Schneider-Schaulies J, 2013. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150. PLoS One, 8(3):e57488.
Blancou J, 2004. Dog distemper: imported into Europe from South America? Historia medicinae veterinariae, 29(2):35-41.
Bressem MF van, Duignan PJ, Banyard A, Barbieri M, Colegrove KM, Guise S de, Guardo G di, Dobson A, Domingo M, Fauquier D, Fernandez A, Goldstein T, Grenfell B, Groch KR, Gulland F, Jensen BA, Jepson PD, Hall A, Kuiken T, Mazzariol S, Morris SE, Nielsen O, Raga JA, Rowles TK, Saliki J, Sierra E, Stephens N, Stone B, Tomo I, Wang J, Waltzek T, Wellehan JF, 2014. Cetacean morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions. Viruses, 6(12):5145-5181.
Bronson E, Spiker H, Driscoll CP, 2014. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50(4):829-836. http://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/full/10.7589/2013-07-155
Butler JRA, Toit JT du, Bingham J, 2004. Free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as predators and prey in rural Zimbabwe: threats of competition and disease to large wild carnivores. Biological Conservation, 115:369-378.
Carpenter MA, Appel MJG, Roelke-Parker ME, Munson L, Hofer H, East M, O'Brien SJ, 1998. Genetic characterization of canine distemper virus in Serengeti carnivores. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 65(2/4):259-266.
Carvalho OV, Saraiva GL, Ferreira CGT, Felix DM, Fietto JLR, Bressan GC, Almeida MR, Silva Júnior A, 2014. In-vitro antiviral efficacy of ribavirin and interferon-alpha against canine distemper virus. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 78(4):283-289. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cvma/cjvr/2014/00000078/00000004/art00006
Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Chappuis G, Soulier M, Kikuchi Y, 1998. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 17(3):756-766.
Cleaveland S, Appel MGJ, Chalmers WSK, Chillingworth C, Kaare M, Dye C, 2000. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Veterinary Microbiology, 72(3/4):217-227.
Cottrell WO, Keel MK, Brooks JW, Mead DG, Phillips JE, 2013. First report of clinical disease associated with canine distemper virus infection in a wild black bear (Ursus americana). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49(4):1024-1027. http://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/abs/10.7589/2013-02-027
Creevy KE, 2013. Overview of Canine Distemper. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual [ed. by Aiello, S. E. \Moses, M. A.]. Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/generalized_conditions/canine_distemper/overview_of_canine_distemper.html
Duignan PJ, Bressem MF van, Baker JD, Barbieri M, Colegrove KM, Guise S de, Swart RL de, Guardo G di, Dobson A, Duprex WP, Early G, Fauquier D, Goldstein T, Goodman SJ, Grenfell B, Groch KR, Gulland F, Hall A, Jensen BA, Lamy K, Matassa K, Mazzariol S, Morris SE, Nielsen O, Rotstein D, Rowles TK (et al. ), 2014. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions. Viruses, 6(12):5093-5134. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/6/12/5093/htm
Elia G, Belloli C, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Caruso M, Martella V, Decaro N, Buonavoglia C, Ormas P, 2008. In vitro efficacy of ribavirin against canine distemper virus. Antiviral Research, 77(2):108-113. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01663542
Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Lorusso E, Trani L di, Buonavoglia C, 2006. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, 136(1/2):171-176. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal01660934
Fix AS, Riordan DP, Hill HT, Gill MA, Evans MB, 1989. Feline panleukopenia virus and subsequent canine distemper virus infection in two snow leopards (Panthera uncia). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 20(3):273-281.
Francesco CE di, Gentile L, Pirro V di, Ladiana L, Tagliabue S, Marsilio F, 2015. Serologic evidence for selected infectious diseases in Marsican brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in Italy (2004-09). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 51(1):209-213. http://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/full/10.7589/2014-01-021
Gilbert M, Miquelle DG, Goodrich JM, Reeve R, Cleaveland S, Matthews L, Joly DO, 2014. Estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the Amur tiger population (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia. PLoS ONE, 9(10):e110811. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0110811
Gordon CH, Banyard AC, Hussein A, Laurenson MK, Malcolm JR, Marino J, Regassa F, Stewart AME, Fooks AR, Sillero-Zubiri C, 2015. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(5):824-832. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/pdfs/vol21no5_pdf-version.pdf
Greene GE, Appel MJ, 1990. Canine distemper. In: Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat [ed. by Greene, G.]. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: W. B. Saunders, 226-241.
Guardo G di, Marruchella G, Agrimi U, Kennedy S, 2005. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A, 52(2):88-93. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=jva
Haines DM, Martin KM, Chelack BJ, Sargent RA, Outerbridge CA, Clark EG, 1999. Immunohistochemical detection of canine distemper virus in haired skin, nasal mucosa, and footpad epithelium: a method for antemortem diagnosis of infection. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 11(5):396-399.
Hvistendahl M, 2015. Captive pandas succumb to killer virus. Science, 347(6223):700-701.
Jenner E, 1809. Observations on the Distemper in Dogs. Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, 1:265-270.
Kapil S, Yeary TJ, 2011. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice, 41(6):1069-1086. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195561611001434
Kennedy S, Kuiken T, Jepson PD, Deaville R, Forsyth M, Barrett T, Bildt MWG van de, Osterhaus ADME, Eybatov T, Duck C, Kydyrmanov A, Mitrofanov I, Wilson S, 2000. Mass die-off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 6(6):637-639.
Leisewitz AL, Carter A, Vuuren M van, Blerk L van, 2001. Canine distemper infections, with special reference to South Africa, with a review of the literature. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72(3):127-136.
MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ, 2011. Fenner's Veterinary Virology. London, UK: Academic Press.
Matsubara Y, Morikawa Y, Yoshikawa Y, Nagashima K, Yamanouchi K, 1985. Encephalitis induced in non-human primates by canine distemper virus adapted to human neural cells. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 55(3):99-108.
Meli ML, Simmler P, Cattori V, Martínez F, Vargas A, Palomares F, López-Bao JV, Simón MA, López G, León-Vizcaino L, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Lutz H, 2010. Importance of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in free-ranging Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). Veterinary Microbiology, 146(1/2):138-143. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Muhlebach MD, Mateo M, Sinn PL, Prufer S, Uhlig KM, Leonard VH, Navaratnarajah CK, Frenzke M, Wong XX, Sawatsky B, Ramachandran S, McCray PB Jr, Cichutek K, Messling V von, Lopez M, Cattaneo R, 2011. Adherens junction protein nectin-4 is the epithelial receptor for measles virus. Nature, 480(7378):530-533.
Otsuki N, Sekizuka T, Seki F, Sakai K, Kubota T, Nakatsu Y, Chen S, Fukuhara H, Maenaka K, Yamaguchi R, Kuroda M, Takeda M, 2013. Canine distemper virus with the intact C protein has the potential to replicate in human epithelial cells by using human nectin4 as a receptor. Virology, 435(2):485-492. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682212005417
Panzera Y, Calderón MG, Sarute N, Guasco S, Cardeillac A, Bonilla B, Hernández M, Francia L, Bedó G, Torre J la, Pérez R, 2012. Evidence of two co-circulating genetic lineages of canine distemper virus in South America. Virus Research, 163(1):401-404. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702
Pardo MC, Bauman JE, Mackowiak M, 1997. Protection of dogs against canine distemper by vaccination with a canarypox virus recombinant expressing canine distemper virus fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 58(8):833-836.
Pratakpiriya W, Seki F, Otsuki N, Sakai K, Fukuhara H, Katamoto H, Hirai T, Maenaka K, Techangamsuwan S, Nguyen Thi Lan, Takeda M, Yamaguchi R, 2012. Nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for canine distemper virus and involved in neurovirulence. Journal of Virology, 86(18):10207-10210. http://jvi.asm.org/content/86/18/10207.abstract
Qin Qin, Loeffler IK, Li Ming, Tian KeGong, Wei FuWen, 2007. Sequence analysis of a canine parvovirus isolated from a red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China. Virus Genes, 34(3):299-302. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103010
Qin Qin, Wei FuWen, Li Ming, Dubovi EJ, Loeffler IK, 2007. Serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 38(1):42-50.
Qiu W, Zheng Y, Zhang S, Fan Q, Liu H, Zhang F, Wang W, Liao G, Hu R, 2011. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(8):1541-1543.
Radtanakatikanon A, Keawcharoen J, Charoenvisal NT, Poovorawan Y, Prompetchara E, Yamaguchi R, Techangamsuwan S, 2013. Genotypic lineages and restriction fragment length polymorphism of canine distemper virus isolates in Thailand. Veterinary Microbiology, 166(1/2):76-83. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Roelke-Parker ME, Munson L, Packer C, Kock R, Cleaveland S, Carpenter M, O'Brien SJ, Pospischil A, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Lutz H, Mwamengele GLM, Mgasa MN, Machange GA, Summers BA, Appel MJG, 1996. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature (London) 379(6564):441-445.
Sakai K, Nagata N, Ami Y, Seki F, Suzaki Y, Iwata-Yoshikawa N, Suzuki T, Fukushi S, Mizutani T, Yoshikawa T, Otsuki N, Kurane I, Komase K, Yamaguchi R, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Takeda M, Morikawa S, 2013. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008. Journal of Virology, 87(2):1105-1114. http://jvi.asm.org/content/87/2/1105.abstract
Sakai K, Yoshikawa T, Seki F, Fukushi S, Tahara M, Nagata N, Ami Y, Mizutani T, Kurane I, Yamaguchi R, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Komase K, Morikawa S, Takeda M, 2013. Canine distemper virus associated with a lethal outbreak in monkeys can readily adapt to use human receptors. Journal of Virology, 87(12):7170-7175.
Sarute N, Pérez R, Aldaz J, Alfieri AA, Alfieri AF, Name D, Llanes J, Hernández M, Francia L, Panzera Y, 2014. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America. Virus Genes, 48(3):474-478. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11262-014-1054-z
Seimon TA, Miquelle DG, Chang TY, Newton AL, Korotkova I, Ivanchuk G, Lyubchenko E, Tupikov A, Slabe E, McAloose D, 2013. Canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). mBio, 4(4):e00410-13. http://mbio.asm.org/content/4/4/e00410-13.full
Stephenson N, Higley JM, Sajecki JL, Chomel BB, Brown RN, Foley JE, 2015. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 15(2):116-123. http://online.liebertpub.com/vbz
Sun Z, Li A, Ye H, Shi Y, Hu Z, Zeng L, 2010. Natural infection with canine distemper virus in hand-feeding Rhesus monkeys in China. Veterinary Microbiology, 141(3-4):374-378.
Terio KA, Craft ME, 2013. Canine distemper virus (CDV) in another big cat: should CDV be renamed carnivore distemper virus? MBio, 4(5):e00702-13.
Timm SF, Munson L, Summers BA, Terio KA, Dubovi EJ, Rupprecht CE, Kapil S, Garcelon DK, 2009. A suspected canine distemper epidemic as the cause of a catastrophic decline in Santa Catalina Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 45(2):333-343. http://www.wildlifedisease.org
Wilkes RP, Sanchez E, Riley MC, Kennedy MA, 2014. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 26(1):27-34. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/26/1/27.short
Wimsatt J, Biggins DE, Williams ES, Becerra VM, 2006. The quest for a safe and effective canine distemper virus vaccine for black-footed ferrets. In: Recovery of the black-footed ferret: Progress and continuing challenges. Proceedings of the Symposium on the status of the black-footed ferret and its habitat, Fort Collins, CO, January 28-29, 2004. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: U.S. Geological Survey, 248-266. [Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5293.]
Yamanouchi K, Yoshikawa Y, Sato TA, Katow S, Kobune F, Kobune K, Uchida N, Shishido A, 1977. Encephalomyelitis induced by canine distemper virus in non-human primates. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 30(5):241-257.
Yoshikawa Y, Ochikubo F, Matsubara Y, Tsuruoka H, Ishii M, Shirota K, Nomura Y, Sugiyama M, Yamanouchi K, 1989. Natural infection with canine distemper virus in a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Veterinary Microbiology, 20(3):193-205.
Zhao JianJun, Yan XiJun, Chai XiuLi, Martella V, Luo GuoLiang, Zhang HaiLing, Gao Han, Liu YingXue, Bai Xue, Zhang Lei, Chen Tao, Xu Lei, Zhao ChunFei, Wang FengXue, Shao XiQun, Wu Wei, Cheng ShiPeng, 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China. Veterinary Microbiology, 140(1/2):34-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
ContributorsTop of page
11/08/15: Original text by:
Chris A. Whitehouse, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/