Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

actinomycosis

Toolbox

Datasheet

actinomycosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • actinomycosis
  • Pathogens
  • Actinomyces bovis
  • Actinomyces hyovaginalis
  • Actinomyces israelii
  • Actinomyces naeslundii
  • Actinomyces viscosus
  • Overview
  • Actinomyces spp. are Gram-positive anaerobes normally found in the upper respiratory tract, oral cavity and digestive tract of domestic animals and humans. Although part of the normal flora, the bacteria are op...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • actinomycosis

International Common Names

  • English: actinomycosis in cattle; actinomycosis, lumpy jaw in ruminants and horses; lumpy jaw; otitis media, externa, interna, middle and inner ear infections

Pathogen/s

Top of page Actinomyces bovis
Actinomyces hyovaginalis
Actinomyces israelii
Actinomyces naeslundii
Actinomyces viscosus

Overview

Top of page

Actinomyces spp. are Gram-positive anaerobes normally found in the upper respiratory tract, oral cavity and digestive tract of domestic animals and humans. Although part of the normal flora, the bacteria are opportunistic invaders; several species are associated with diseases in animals (Glinski and Chelminski, 2014).

In cattle, Actinomyces bovis causes pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis of the mandible and maxilla, known as ‘lumpy jaw’ (Henton and Collett, 2004; Militerno, 2008). Disease occurs when A. bovis is introduced to underlying soft tissue via penetrating wounds of the oral mucosa from coarse feed or foreign material. Involvement of adjacent bone may result in facial distortion, dislodgement of teeth, inability to chew, mandibular fractures and obstruction of the nasal cavity (Mas et al., 2008; Pal et al., 2008; Shah et al., 2016). A. bovis has also been isolated infrequently from infections in sheep (Antunes et al., 2012), pigs (Farinha et al., 1980; Hu and Lin, 1995), llamas (Camenzind, 2005) and buffaloes (Ayyappan et al., 1993; Ali, 2000; Vaja et al., 2015).

Actinomyces israelii is primarily associated with chronic granulomatous infections in humans but has been associated rarely with disease in cattle (Thompson, 1950; Ivanova et al., 1990) and mastitis in pigs (Englert, 1961; Franke, 1973).

Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated rarely from infections in livestock, including goats (Hirai et al., 2007) and aborted pigs (Palmer et al., 1979).

In pigs, Actinobaculum suis[previously Actinomyces suis, Eubacterium suis] is a significant cause of urinary tract infections (Wendt and Amtsberg, 1995; Kjelvik et al., 2002; Woldemeskel et al., 2002).

Actinomyces viscosus has been isolated from a case of actinomycosis in a West African Dwarf goat (Oyekunle et al., 2010), from a case of bovine haemorrhagic mastitis (Bakhiet et al., 1997) and from an aborted calf (Okewole et al., 1989).

Actinomyces hyovaginalis has been associated with abortion (Collins et al., 1993; Hogg et al., 2012) and lung lesions (Aalbæk et al., 2003; Reichel and Wragg, 2007) in pigs and with abscesses in sheep (Foster et al., 2012).

Systems Affected

Top of page bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
digestive diseases of large ruminants
mammary gland diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of pigs

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Acoustic Signs / Deafness Sign
Acoustic Signs / Purulent, mucoid discharge, excess wax, foul odour, ears Sign
Acoustic Signs / Rubbing ears, scratching Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Loose teeth, tooth Sign
Digestive Signs / Malocclusion of teeth, tooth Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Oral cavity, tongue swelling, mass in mouth Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Stiffness or extended neck Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Torticollis, twisted neck Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Head shaking, headshaking Sign
Nervous Signs / Head tilt Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal neovascularization, pannus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal ulcer, erosion Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased or absent menace response but not blind Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased tearing, lacrimation Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Miosis, meiosis, constricted pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Ptosis, lid droop Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Strabismus Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Ocular pain, eye Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, head, face, jaw, ears Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, testes Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Purulent discharge skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin fistula, sinus Sign

References

Top of page

Aalbæk B; Christensen H; Bisgaard M; Liljegren CH; Nielsen OL; Jensen HE, 2003. Actinomyces hyovaginalis associated with disseminated necrotic lung lesions in slaughter pigs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 129(1):70-77.

Ali HS, 2000. Clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic studies on mixed infection with Actinomyces bovis and Actinomyces pyogenes in buffaloes in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 44(87):112-121.

Antunes JMAP; Almeida ACS; Ribeiro MG; Amorim RL; Hussni CA; Listoni FJP; Megid J, 2012. Jaw actinomycosis in a sheep: case report. (Actinomicose mandibular em ovino: relato de caso.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 79(3):405-409. http://www.biologico.sp.gov.br/docs/arq/v79_3/antunes.pdf

Ayyappan S; Kumar BR; Manohar BM; Sundararaj A, 1993. Actinomycotic granuloma in a she buffalo- a case report. Indian Veterinary Journal, 70(3):265-266.

Bakhiet MR; Hadya EA; El-Amin EDM, 1997/1998. Isolation of Actinomyces viscosus from bovine haemorrhagic mastitis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15:15-20.

Camenzind D, 2005. Accumulation of actinomycosis in a llama herd in Switzerland. (Gehäuftes Auftreten von Aktinomykose in einem Lamabestand in der Schweiz.) SAT, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 147(8):351-356. http://verlag.hanshuber.com/ezm/index.php?ezm=SAT

Collins MD; Stubbs S; Hommez J; Devriese LA, 1993. Molecular taxonomic studies of Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated from purulent lesions in pigs and description of Actinomyces hyovaginalis sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 43(3):471-473.

Englert HK, 1961. Mammary actinomycosis insows. (Gesäugeaktinomykose beim Schwein.) Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 68:110-113.

Farinha FBN; Portugal MACS; Saliba AM; Rodrigues AJ; Calil EMB, 1980. Actinomycosis in swine. Report of three cases. (Actinomicose suina. Relato de tres casos.) Biologico, 46(9):185-190.

Foster G; Wragg P; Koylass MS; Whatmore AM; Hoyles L, 2012. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 157(3/4):471-475. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Franke F, 1973. Microbiological diagnosis of mammary actinomycosis in sows. (Die mikrobiologische Diagnostik der Gesaugeaktinomykose des Schweines.) Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 86(22):428-432.

Glinski Z; Cheminski A, 2014. Actinomyces infections in humans and animals. (Zakazenia zwierzat i ludzi wywoane przez Actinomyces.) Zycie Weterynaryjne, 89(6):499-504. http://www.vetpol.org.pl

Henton MM; Collett MG, 2004. Actinomyces bovis infections. In: Infectious diseases of livestock. Volume Three, Ed.2 [ed. by Coetzer, J. A. W.\Tustin, R. C.]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1942-1945.

Hirai T; Nunoya T; Azuma R, 2007. Actinomycosis of the brain and temporal bone in a goat. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 69(6):641-643. http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jsvs

Hogg RA; Wessels ME; Koylass MS; Whatmore AM; Hunt B, 2012. Porcine abortion due to infection with Actinomyces hyovaginalis. Veterinary Record, 170(5):127. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Hu WeiHua; Lin ChingChang, 1995. Pathomorphological studies on of actinomycosis in pigs. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 21(11):19-20.

Ivanova LG; Kudryashova EB; Glotova TI, 1990. Agents of actinomycosis of cattle: cultural, morphological and biological properties. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No. 4:155-159.

Kjelvik O; Hofmo PO; Karlberg K, 2002. Urinary tract diseases of sows with particular emphasis on cystitis. (Urinveislidelser hos purker, med hovedvekt pa cystitter.) Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift, 114(2):204-208.

Mas A; Sanes JM; Martínez-Gomariz F; Pallarés FJ; Bernabé A; Seva JI, 2008. Maxillary actinomycosis with obstruction of nasal cavity in a fighting bull. (Actinomicosis maxilar con obstrucción de cavidad nasal en un toro de lidia.) Anales de Veterinaria de Murcia, 24:103-108. http://www.um.es

Militerno G, 2008. Cytological features of mandibular actinomycotic osteomyelitis in a cow. Veterinary Record, 163(12):369-370. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Okewole PA; Odeyemi PS; Ocholi RA; Irokanulo EA; Haruna ES; Oyetunde IL, 1989. Actinomyces viscosus isolated from a case of abortion in a Friesian heifer. Veterinary Record, 124(17):464.

Oyekunle MA; Talabi AO; Agbaje M; Oni OO; Adebayo AO; Olude MA; Oyewusi IK; Akinduti PA, 2010. Actinomycosis in a West African Dwarf goat in Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 31(1):80-86.

Pal B; Mandial RK; Wadhwa DR; Thakur YP; Dhar P, 2008. Actinomycosis in cattle and its clinical management. Intas Polivet, 9(2):253-254. http://www.intaspharm.com/neovet

Palmer NC; Kierstead M; Wilson RW, 1979. Abortion in swine associated with Actinomyces spp. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 20(7):199.

Reichel R; Wragg P, 2007. . http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Shah AA; Memon M; Ali G; Khan AZ; Yuan XianJun; Liu QinHua; Shao Tao, 2016. Careful surgery, management and treatment of bovine calf actinomycosis (lumpy jaw). Academia Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(2):86-90. https://www.academiapublishing.org/journals/ajar/pdf/2016/Feb/Shah%20et%20al.pdf

THOMPSON L, 1950. Isolation and comparison of actinomyces from human and bovine infections. Proceedings of Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, 25:81-86.

Vaja VB; Parmar VL; Amit Prasad; Chaudhari GM; Nimavat VR, 2015. Clinico-therapeutic management of actinomycosis - a clinical study of 4 buffaloes. Intas Polivet, 16(2):371-372. http://www.intaspharma.com

Wendt M; Amtsberg G, 1995. Serological examinations for detection of antibodies against Eubacterium suis in pigs. (Serologische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Antikörpern gegen Eubacterium suis beim Schwein.) Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 137(4):129-136.

Woldemeskel M; Drommer W; Wendt M, 2002. Microscopic and ultrastructural lesions of the ureter and renal pelvis in sows with regard to Actinobaculum suis infection. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A, 49(7):348-352.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map