Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

actinomycosis

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Datasheet

actinomycosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • actinomycosis
  • Pathogens
  • Actinomyces bovis
  • Actinomyces hyovaginalis
  • Actinomyces israelii
  • Actinomyces naeslundii
  • Actinomyces viscosus
  • Overview
  • Actinomyces spp. are Gram-positive anaerobes normally found in the upper respiratory tract, oral cavity and digestive tract of domestic animals and humans. Although part of the normal flora, the bacteria are op...

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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • actinomycosis

International Common Names

  • English: actinomycosis in cattle; actinomycosis, lumpy jaw in ruminants and horses; lumpy jaw; otitis media, externa, interna, middle and inner ear infections

Pathogen/s

Top of page Actinomyces bovis
Actinomyces hyovaginalis
Actinomyces israelii
Actinomyces naeslundii
Actinomyces viscosus

Overview

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Actinomyces spp. are Gram-positive anaerobes normally found in the upper respiratory tract, oral cavity and digestive tract of domestic animals and humans. Although part of the normal flora, the bacteria are opportunistic invaders; several species are associated with diseases in animals (Glinski and Chelminski, 2014).

In cattle, Actinomyces bovis causes pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis of the mandible and maxilla, known as ‘lumpy jaw’ (Henton and Collett, 2004; Militerno, 2008). Disease occurs when A. bovis is introduced to underlying soft tissue via penetrating wounds of the oral mucosa from coarse feed or foreign material. Involvement of adjacent bone may result in facial distortion, dislodgement of teeth, inability to chew, mandibular fractures and obstruction of the nasal cavity (Mas et al., 2008; Pal et al., 2008; Shah et al., 2016). A. bovis has also been isolated infrequently from infections in sheep (Antunes et al., 2012), pigs (Farinha et al., 1980; Hu and Lin, 1995), llamas (Camenzind, 2005) and buffaloes (Ayyappan et al., 1993; Ali, 2000; Vaja et al., 2015).

Actinomyces israelii is primarily associated with chronic granulomatous infections in humans but has been associated rarely with disease in cattle (Thompson, 1950; Ivanova et al., 1990) and mastitis in pigs (Englert, 1961; Franke, 1973).

Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated rarely from infections in livestock, including goats (Hirai et al., 2007) and aborted pigs (Palmer et al., 1979).

In pigs, Actinobaculum suis[previously Actinomyces suis, Eubacterium suis] is a significant cause of urinary tract infections (Wendt and Amtsberg, 1995; Kjelvik et al., 2002; Woldemeskel et al., 2002).

Actinomyces viscosus has been isolated from a case of actinomycosis in a West African Dwarf goat (Oyekunle et al., 2010), from a case of bovine haemorrhagic mastitis (Bakhiet et al., 1997) and from an aborted calf (Okewole et al., 1989).

Actinomyces hyovaginalis has been associated with abortion (Collins et al., 1993; Hogg et al., 2012) and lung lesions (Aalbæk et al., 2003; Reichel and Wragg, 2007) in pigs and with abscesses in sheep (Foster et al., 2012).

Systems Affected

Top of page bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
digestive diseases of large ruminants
mammary gland diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of pigs

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Acoustic Signs / Deafness Sign
Acoustic Signs / Purulent, mucoid discharge, excess wax, foul odour, ears Sign
Acoustic Signs / Rubbing ears, scratching Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Loose teeth, tooth Sign
Digestive Signs / Malocclusion of teeth, tooth Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Oral cavity, tongue swelling, mass in mouth Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Stiffness or extended neck Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Torticollis, twisted neck Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Head shaking, headshaking Sign
Nervous Signs / Head tilt Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal neovascularization, pannus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal ulcer, erosion Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased or absent menace response but not blind Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased tearing, lacrimation Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Miosis, meiosis, constricted pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Ptosis, lid droop Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Strabismus Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Ocular pain, eye Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, head, face, jaw, ears Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, testes Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Purulent discharge skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin fistula, sinus Sign

References

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Aalbæk B; Christensen H; Bisgaard M; Liljegren CH; Nielsen OL; Jensen HE, 2003. Actinomyces hyovaginalis associated with disseminated necrotic lung lesions in slaughter pigs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 129(1):70-77.

Ali HS, 2000. Clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic studies on mixed infection with Actinomyces bovis and Actinomyces pyogenes in buffaloes in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 44(87):112-121.

Antunes JMAP; Almeida ACS; Ribeiro MG; Amorim RL; Hussni CA; Listoni FJP; Megid J, 2012. Jaw actinomycosis in a sheep: case report. (Actinomicose mandibular em ovino: relato de caso.) Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (São Paulo), 79(3):405-409. http://www.biologico.sp.gov.br/docs/arq/v79_3/antunes.pdf

Ayyappan S; Kumar BR; Manohar BM; Sundararaj A, 1993. Actinomycotic granuloma in a she buffalo- a case report. Indian Veterinary Journal, 70(3):265-266.

Bakhiet MR; Hadya EA; El-Amin EDM, 1997/1998. Isolation of Actinomyces viscosus from bovine haemorrhagic mastitis. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research, 15:15-20.

Camenzind D, 2005. Accumulation of actinomycosis in a llama herd in Switzerland. (Gehäuftes Auftreten von Aktinomykose in einem Lamabestand in der Schweiz.) SAT, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 147(8):351-356. http://verlag.hanshuber.com/ezm/index.php?ezm=SAT

Collins MD; Stubbs S; Hommez J; Devriese LA, 1993. Molecular taxonomic studies of Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated from purulent lesions in pigs and description of Actinomyces hyovaginalis sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 43(3):471-473.

Englert HK, 1961. Mammary actinomycosis insows. (Gesäugeaktinomykose beim Schwein.) Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 68:110-113.

Farinha FBN; Portugal MACS; Saliba AM; Rodrigues AJ; Calil EMB, 1980. Actinomycosis in swine. Report of three cases. (Actinomicose suina. Relato de tres casos.) Biologico, 46(9):185-190.

Foster G; Wragg P; Koylass MS; Whatmore AM; Hoyles L, 2012. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 157(3/4):471-475. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Franke F, 1973. Microbiological diagnosis of mammary actinomycosis in sows. (Die mikrobiologische Diagnostik der Gesaugeaktinomykose des Schweines.) Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 86(22):428-432.

Glinski Z; Cheminski A, 2014. Actinomyces infections in humans and animals. (Zakazenia zwierzat i ludzi wywoane przez Actinomyces.) Zycie Weterynaryjne, 89(6):499-504. http://www.vetpol.org.pl

Henton MM; Collett MG, 2004. Actinomyces bovis infections. In: Infectious diseases of livestock. Volume Three, Ed.2 [ed. by Coetzer, J. A. W.\Tustin, R. C.]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1942-1945.

Hirai T; Nunoya T; Azuma R, 2007. Actinomycosis of the brain and temporal bone in a goat. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 69(6):641-643. http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jsvs

Hogg RA; Wessels ME; Koylass MS; Whatmore AM; Hunt B, 2012. Porcine abortion due to infection with Actinomyces hyovaginalis. Veterinary Record, 170(5):127. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Hu WeiHua; Lin ChingChang, 1995. Pathomorphological studies on of actinomycosis in pigs. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 21(11):19-20.

Ivanova LG; Kudryashova EB; Glotova TI, 1990. Agents of actinomycosis of cattle: cultural, morphological and biological properties. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No. 4:155-159.

Kjelvik O; Hofmo PO; Karlberg K, 2002. Urinary tract diseases of sows with particular emphasis on cystitis. (Urinveislidelser hos purker, med hovedvekt pa cystitter.) Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift, 114(2):204-208.

Mas A; Sanes JM; Martínez-Gomariz F; Pallarés FJ; Bernabé A; Seva JI, 2008. Maxillary actinomycosis with obstruction of nasal cavity in a fighting bull. (Actinomicosis maxilar con obstrucción de cavidad nasal en un toro de lidia.) Anales de Veterinaria de Murcia, 24:103-108. http://www.um.es

Militerno G, 2008. Cytological features of mandibular actinomycotic osteomyelitis in a cow. Veterinary Record, 163(12):369-370. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Okewole PA; Odeyemi PS; Ocholi RA; Irokanulo EA; Haruna ES; Oyetunde IL, 1989. Actinomyces viscosus isolated from a case of abortion in a Friesian heifer. Veterinary Record, 124(17):464.

Oyekunle MA; Talabi AO; Agbaje M; Oni OO; Adebayo AO; Olude MA; Oyewusi IK; Akinduti PA, 2010. Actinomycosis in a West African Dwarf goat in Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 31(1):80-86.

Pal B; Mandial RK; Wadhwa DR; Thakur YP; Dhar P, 2008. Actinomycosis in cattle and its clinical management. Intas Polivet, 9(2):253-254. http://www.intaspharm.com/neovet

Palmer NC; Kierstead M; Wilson RW, 1979. Abortion in swine associated with Actinomyces spp. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 20(7):199.

Reichel R; Wragg P, 2007. . http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Shah AA; Memon M; Ali G; Khan AZ; Yuan XianJun; Liu QinHua; Shao Tao, 2016. Careful surgery, management and treatment of bovine calf actinomycosis (lumpy jaw). Academia Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(2):86-90. https://www.academiapublishing.org/journals/ajar/pdf/2016/Feb/Shah%20et%20al.pdf

THOMPSON L, 1950. Isolation and comparison of actinomyces from human and bovine infections. Proceedings of Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, 25:81-86.

Vaja VB; Parmar VL; Amit Prasad; Chaudhari GM; Nimavat VR, 2015. Clinico-therapeutic management of actinomycosis - a clinical study of 4 buffaloes. Intas Polivet, 16(2):371-372. http://www.intaspharma.com

Wendt M; Amtsberg G, 1995. Serological examinations for detection of antibodies against Eubacterium suis in pigs. (Serologische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Antikörpern gegen Eubacterium suis beim Schwein.) Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 137(4):129-136.

Woldemeskel M; Drommer W; Wendt M, 2002. Microscopic and ultrastructural lesions of the ureter and renal pelvis in sows with regard to Actinobaculum suis infection. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A, 49(7):348-352.

Distribution Maps

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