Acridotheres fuscus (jungle myna)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Acridotheres fuscus (Wagler, 1827)
Preferred Common Name
- jungle myna
International Common Names
- Spanish: mainá hindú
- French: martin forestier
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: majna hnedá
- Denmark: brun maina
- Finland: viidakkomaina
- Germany: Dschungelmaina
- Italy: maina della giungla indiana
- Japan: morihakka
- Netherlands: junglemaina
- Poland: majna szara
- Samoa: maina vao
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Acridotheres fuscus is native to India and south-east Asia and is now established in many Pacific islands. Acridotherea can be translated as "grasshopper hunter" - presumably an indication of its major food source in some parts of its native region. It is perceived as a problem to agricultural sectors dependant on crops. Both rural villages and urban areas are at risk of invasion. They feed off rubbish and food scraps and nest in any available spaces in houses and buildings. This behaviour and their close association with human habitations combine to cause a wide variety of problems for humans.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Aves
- Order: Passeriformes
- Family: Sturnidae
- Genus: Acridotheres
- Species: Acridotheres fuscus
DescriptionTop of page
The jungle myna is a 22 to 24cm grey-brownish bird with a tuft of feathers forming a small crest on the forehead and at the base of the bill which is not normally present on the common Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis). It has a black head with the upper areas being more grey-brown and the chin, breast and belly dark ashy-grey. It has a whitish underside, brownish wings and a typical yellow-orange beak. The jungle myna is sleeker than the common Indian myna and lacks the distinguishing yellow patch of skin on the posterior side of the eye. Interestingly, the colour of its iris is yellow in northern India, whereas in southern India, its bluish-white (Feare and Craig, 1999).
DistributionTop of page
Known introduced range: The jungle myna is now also established on some Pacific Islands, including Fiji, Tonga and Samoa (PIERCE 2005). There are new records of both the common myna (Acridotheres tristis) and the jungle myna on tropical islands, most recently on Kiribati (Teariki 2003, in Pierce 2005).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Present||Native||Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)|
|Fiji||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)|
|Samoa||Present||Introduced||1965||Invasive||Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)|
|Tonga||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)||First reported: early 1980s|
HabitatTop of page
Jungle mynas are known to inhabit altitudes as high 2000m above sea level. However, they prefer lowlands and foothills of well-wooded deciduous, spacious areas which primarily includes tea plantations, villages and coastal plains (Feare & Craig 1999).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Mynas are scavengers with a varied omnivorous diet consisting of insects, fruit, seeds and nectar. Mynas also devour insect pests on sheep and cattle, such as ticks (Oliver 1955, Roots 1976). Analysis showed that their stomach content consisted predominantly of grasshopper remains, as well as crickets, termites, beetles, ants, caterpillars and fly larvae. (Hails 1985; Kang et al. 1990; Feare & Craig 1999).
In southern India, breeding occurs during the months between February to May, while in the northern regions, April to June-July (Feare & Craig 1999). Typically, two broods are raised at one time with the clutch being 3-6 eggs in size. It is known that both sexes participate in the rearing of their young (Feare & Craig 1999).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Introduction pathways to new locations
Taken to botanical garden/zoo:
Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement:
Natural dispersal (local): Escaped mynas breed in the wild.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
UsesTop of page
Mynas are scavengers (Hails 1985, Kang et al. 1990). They can also kill numerous injurious insects, such as sheep and cattle ticks (Oliver 1955, Roots 1976).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Poisons such as avicides (starlacide DRC1339) were used against the jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) with highly promising outcomes, in contrast to narcotics (Alphachloralose), herbicide and pesticide. Trapping is a commonly employed tactic. A variety of foraging traps are used. These include the Tidemann trap, decoy trap and the Kadavu trap. In addition, shooting and netting methods are sometimes used (Pierce, 2005).
BibliographyTop of page
Avibase, undated. The world bird database: Jungle Myna (Acridotheres fuscus) (Wagler, 1827) http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/species.jsp?lang=EN&id=C8C378BB36C577B3&ts=1203996833593&sec=summary
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf
Feare, C., and A. Craig. 1999. Starlings and mynas. Illustrated by Barry Croucher, Chris Shields and Kamol Komolphalin. Princeton University Press Princeton New Jersey
Freifeld, H.B.; Steadman, D.W. and Sailerb, J.K. 2001. Landbirds on Offshore Islands in Samoa, Journal of Field Ornithology 72(1): 72–85.
Heather B.D.; Robertson H.A. 2000. The new field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Viking, Auckland.
Lever, C. 1987. Naturalized birds of the world. Wiley
Meyer, J. Y. 2000. Invasive plants in the Pacific Islands. In: The Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (tech. ed). Published in June 2000 by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).
Peacock, D.S., van Renburg, B.J., Robertson, M.P. 2007. The distribution and spread of the invasive alien common myna, Acridotheres tristis L. (Aves: Sturnidae), in southern Africa, South African Journal of Science 103(11-12): pp. 465-473.
Robson, C. 2000. A Guide to the birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. Princeton University Press.
Samoa's starlings. Unknown. In: P. Craig (Ed.), Natural History Guide To American Samoa. Dept. Marine and Wildlife Resources: Pago Pago, American Samoa
ReferencesTop of page
Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database
ContributorsTop of page
- Reviewed by: Dr. Charlotte Yap Aye May and Dr. Navjot S Sodhi, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore. Singapore
- Last Modified: Thursday, 19 November 2009
Distribution MapsTop of page
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