Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • bovid herpesvirus 3

International Common Names

  • English: alcelaphine BMC virus; malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated virus

English acronym

  • AHV-1
  • AlHV-1
  • MCFV
  • WA-MCFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Macavirus
  •                         Species: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) belongs to the Macavirus genus of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. The macaviruses are lymphotropic herpesviruses that share a common genome structure and are consistently associated with lymphoproliferation. They persist in nature as inapparent subclinical infections in their well-adapted hosts, usually causing disease only when they infect other, poorly-adapted hosts. It is becoming increasingly evident that the lymphocytes of most, if not all, species of ruminants are inhabited by their respective resident gammaherpesviruses (Reid and Buxton, 1989; Metzler, 1991; Li et al., 2001b).

As with most herpesviruses, these agents are fragile and quickly inactivated in harsh environments. Experimental transmission between members of clinically susceptible species, where feasible at all, requires viable cells from blood or tissue, which are killed by freezing. This suggests that the agent exists in a highly cell-associated, perhaps latent, form in the lymphocytes of clinically susceptible hosts, in a manner reminiscent of primate (Bergquam et al., 1999) and human rhadinoviruses (Moore et al., 1996).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Alcelaphus buselaphusWild host
Bos bison (American bison)Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos javanicusDomesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Cervus damaDomesticated host, Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host, Wild host
Connochaetes gnouWild host
Connochaetes taurinusWild host
DamaliscusWild host
Giraffa camelopardalisWild host
Hippotragus equinusWild host
Hippotragus nigerWild host
Mesocricetus auratusExperimental settings
Odocoileus hemionus (black-tailed deer)Wild host
Odocoileus virginianusWild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Experimental settings
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Rattus (rats)Experimental settings
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host

References

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Bergquam EP; Avery N; Shiigi SM; Axthelm MK; Wong SW, 1999. Rhesus rhadinovirus establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes in vivo. Journal of Virology, 73(9):7874-7876.

Li Hong; Keller J; Knowles DP; Crawford TB, 2001. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. Journal of General Virology, 82(1):227-232; 30 ref.

Metzler AE, 1991. The malignant catarrhal fever complex. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 14(2):107-124; 94 ref.

Moore PS; Gao SJ; Dominguez G; Cesarman E; Lungu O; Knowles DM; Garber R; Pellett PE; McGeoch DJ; Chang Y, 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's Sarcoma. Journal of Virology, 70(1):549-558.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Reid HW; Buxton D, 1989. Malignant Catarrhal Fever and the Gammaherpesvirinae of Bovidae. In: Wittmann G, ed. Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs. Boston, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 116-162.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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