alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ICTV)
Other Scientific Names
- bovid herpesvirus 3
International Common Names
- English: alcelaphine BMC virus; malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "ssDNA viruses"
- Group: "DNA viruses"
- Order: Herpesvirales
- Family: Herpesviridae
- Genus: Macavirus
- Species: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) belongs to the Macavirus genus of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. The macaviruses are lymphotropic herpesviruses that share a common genome structure and are consistently associated with lymphoproliferation. They persist in nature as inapparent subclinical infections in their well-adapted hosts, usually causing disease only when they infect other, poorly-adapted hosts. It is becoming increasingly evident that the lymphocytes of most, if not all, species of ruminants are inhabited by their respective resident gammaherpesviruses (Reid and Buxton, 1989; Metzler, 1991; Li et al., 2001b).
As with most herpesviruses, these agents are fragile and quickly inactivated in harsh environments. Experimental transmission between members of clinically susceptible species, where feasible at all, requires viable cells from blood or tissue, which are killed by freezing. This suggests that the agent exists in a highly cell-associated, perhaps latent, form in the lymphocytes of clinically susceptible hosts, in a manner reminiscent of primate (Bergquam et al., 1999) and human rhadinoviruses (Moore et al., 1996).
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Alcelaphus buselaphus||Wild host|
|Bos bison (American bison)||Wild host|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host|
|Bos javanicus||Domesticated host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)||Domesticated host|
|Cervus dama||Domesticated host, Wild host|
|Cervus elaphus (red deer)||Domesticated host, Wild host|
|Connochaetes gnou||Wild host|
|Connochaetes taurinus||Wild host|
|Giraffa camelopardalis||Wild host|
|Hippotragus equinus||Wild host|
|Hippotragus niger||Wild host|
|Mesocricetus auratus||Experimental settings|
|Odocoileus hemionus (black-tailed deer)||Wild host|
|Odocoileus virginianus||Wild host|
|Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)||Experimental settings|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host|
|Rattus (rats)||Experimental settings|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)||Domesticated host, Wild host|
ReferencesTop of page
Bergquam EP; Avery N; Shiigi SM; Axthelm MK; Wong SW, 1999. Rhesus rhadinovirus establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes in vivo. Journal of Virology, 73(9):7874-7876.
Li Hong; Keller J; Knowles DP; Crawford TB, 2001. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. Journal of General Virology, 82(1):227-232; 30 ref.
Metzler AE, 1991. The malignant catarrhal fever complex. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 14(2):107-124; 94 ref.
Moore PS; Gao SJ; Dominguez G; Cesarman E; Lungu O; Knowles DM; Garber R; Pellett PE; McGeoch DJ; Chang Y, 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's Sarcoma. Journal of Virology, 70(1):549-558.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Reid HW; Buxton D, 1989. Malignant Catarrhal Fever and the Gammaherpesvirinae of Bovidae. In: Wittmann G, ed. Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs. Boston, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 116-162.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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