Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • bovid herpesvirus 3

International Common Names

  • English: alcelaphine BMC virus; malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus; wildebeest-associated virus

English acronym

  • AHV-1
  • AlHV-1
  • MCFV
  • WA-MCFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Macavirus
  •                         Species: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) belongs to the Macavirus genus of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. The macaviruses are lymphotropic herpesviruses that share a common genome structure and are consistently associated with lymphoproliferation. They persist in nature as inapparent subclinical infections in their well-adapted hosts, usually causing disease only when they infect other, poorly-adapted hosts. It is becoming increasingly evident that the lymphocytes of most, if not all, species of ruminants are inhabited by their respective resident gammaherpesviruses (Reid and Buxton, 1989; Metzler, 1991; Li et al., 2001b).

As with most herpesviruses, these agents are fragile and quickly inactivated in harsh environments. Experimental transmission between members of clinically susceptible species, where feasible at all, requires viable cells from blood or tissue, which are killed by freezing. This suggests that the agent exists in a highly cell-associated, perhaps latent, form in the lymphocytes of clinically susceptible hosts, in a manner reminiscent of primate (Bergquam et al., 1999) and human rhadinoviruses (Moore et al., 1996).

References

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Bergquam EP; Avery N; Shiigi SM; Axthelm MK; Wong SW, 1999. Rhesus rhadinovirus establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes in vivo. Journal of Virology, 73(9):7874-7876.

Li Hong; Keller J; Knowles DP; Crawford TB, 2001. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. Journal of General Virology, 82(1):227-232; 30 ref.

Metzler AE, 1991. The malignant catarrhal fever complex. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 14(2):107-124; 94 ref.

Moore PS; Gao SJ; Dominguez G; Cesarman E; Lungu O; Knowles DM; Garber R; Pellett PE; McGeoch DJ; Chang Y, 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's Sarcoma. Journal of Virology, 70(1):549-558.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Reid HW; Buxton D, 1989. Malignant Catarrhal Fever and the Gammaherpesvirinae of Bovidae. In: Wittmann G, ed. Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs. Boston, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 116-162.

Distribution Maps

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