Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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African swine fever virus

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Datasheet

African swine fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • African swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Caudovirales
  •         Family: Asfarviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Electron micrographA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
TitleHistology
CaptionSwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
HistologySwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • African swine fever virus (Murphy et al., 1995)

English acronym

  • ASFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Caudovirales
  •                 Family: Asfarviridae
  •                     Genus: Asfivirus
  •                         Species: African swine fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninPresentJan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BurundiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdePresentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChadPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresentJan-Jun-2020
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauPresentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaPresentJan-Jun-2020
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MadagascarPresentJan-Jun-2019
MalawiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2020
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SenegalPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeonePresentJul-Dec-2020
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongPresentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LaosPresentJul-Dec-2020
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarPresentJul-Dec-2020
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2020
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresentJul-Dec-2020
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamPresentJul-Dec-2020
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJan-Jun-2020; in wild animals only
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaPresentJul-Dec-2020
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2020
GreecePresentJul-Dec-2020
HungaryPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
-SardiniaPresent
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaPresentJul-Dec-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJul-Dec-2020
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
RussiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SlovakiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkrainePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LestePresentJul-Dec-2020
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large enveloped virus containing a double stranded (ds) DNA of approximately 190 kilobase pairs. ASFV shares aspects of genome structure and replication strategy with other large dsDNA viruses, including the Poxviridae, Iridoviridae. Although initially classified as an iridovirus, based largely on virion morphology, increasing knowledge of ASFV molecular biology led to its reclassification as the sole member of a new DNA virus family, Asfarviridae (Dixon et al., 2005).

Virus particles have an average diameter of 200 nm (Breese and DeBoer, 1966) and are formed by several concentric coats with an external membrane which has a hexagonal outline. The DNA is double stranded; between 170 and 190 kbp, depending on the isolate. A conserved central region, of about 125 kbp is observed, but the ends of the stranded DNA are variable (Blasco et al., 1989) and the terminal areas show inverted repetitions (Sogo et al., 1984).

The complete DNA sequence of ASFV, isolate BA71v was reported by Yánez et al. (1995). This isolate was shown to be 170,101 nucleotides long, containing 151 open-reading frames and encoding five multigene families.

Twenty-eight structural proteins have been identified in intracellular virus particles (Tabares et al., 1980) and 110 infectious proteins have been described in pig-infected macrophages, of which at least 50 have been shown to react with sera from infected or recovered pigs (Alcaraz et al., 1992). Some of these proteins (VP 73, VP 54, VP 30, VP 12) are very antigenic and are used as antigens for diagnostic techniques, but unfortunately no protection appears to be induced by them (Sanchez-Vizcaino, 1999).

ASFV replicates predominantly in monocytes and macrophage cells (Malmquist and Hay 1960; Mínguez et al., 1988). Virus replication has also been observed in: endothelial cells (Wilkinson and Wardley, 1978), hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells (Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995) and neutrophils (Carrasco et al., 1996). No infection has been described in T or B porcine lymphocytes (Mínguez et al., 1988; Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995). ASFV has also been adapted to grow in several stable cell lines such as VERO, MS and CV (Hess et al., 1965).

ASFV is very resistant to low temperatures but a temperature of 56ºC for 70 minutes or 60ºC for 20 minutes can inactivate it. It is inactivated at a pH of less than 3.9, or more than 11.5, in serum-free medium; when serum or organic matter is presented resistance is increased. The ASFV is also susceptible to inactivation by ether and choloroform and to several disinfectants such as sodium hydroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, formalin, orthophenylphenol and iodine compounds.

ASFV remains viable for long periods in blood, faeces and tissues. It may persist for several weeks or months in frozen or uncooked meat. In products prepared by curing (such as Parma ham), infectivity was not demonstrated in ham after 300 days of processing and curing (McKercher et al., 1987). In Spanish dry-cured meat products such as Serrano hams and Iberian hams and shoulder, the virus survives for 140 days in hams and for 112 days in loin meat (Mebus et al., 1993).

ASFV can remain in an infectious state in the vector Ornithodoros ticks for months or occasionally years.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros erraticusTickGibraltar; Portugal; Spain
Ornithodoros erraticus erraticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubataTickCentral Africa; Southern Africa; West Africa
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata porcinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros parkeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros puertoricensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiTickAfrica
Simulium damnosumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium exiguumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Triatoma gerstaeckeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Triatoma infestansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, Nairobi, Kenya: African Union Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) 2011, xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Alcaraz C, Alvarez A, Escribano JM, 1992. Flow cytometric analysis of African swine fever virus-induced plasma membrane proteins and their humoral immune response in infected pigs. Virology (New York), 189(1):266-273; 42 ref

Arabyan, E., Kotsynyan, A., Hakobyan, A., Zakaryan, H., 2019. Antiviral agents against African swine fever virus. Virus Research, 270, 197669. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197669

Blasco R, Agüero M, Almendral JM, Vinuela E, 1989. Variable and constant regions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology (New York), 168(2):330-338; 40 ref

Breese S, De Boer CJ, 1966. Electron microscope observation of Africa swine fever virus in tissue culture cells. Virology, 28:420-428

Carrasco L, Chacón-M de Lara F, Martín de las Mulas J, Gómez-Villamanods JC, Hervás J, Wilkinson PJ, Sierra MA, 1996. Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever. Veterinary Research, 27(3):305-312; 26 ref

Dixon L. K., Escribano J. M., Martins C., Rock D. L., Salas M. L., Wilkinson P. J., 2005. Asfarviridae. In: Virus taxonomy. VIIIth Report of the ICTV, [ed. by Fauquet, C. M. , Mayo, M. A. , Maniloff, J. , Desselberger, U., Ball, L. A.]. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press. 135-143.

FAO, 2019. GIEWS Update. East and Southeast Asia - African Swine Fever is rapidly spreading in East and Southeast Asia threatening food security and livelihoods of households relying on pig farming, 2 July 2019. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/ca5273en/ca5273en.pdf

Gallardo, C., Fernández-Pinero, J., Pelayo, V., Gazaev, I., Markowska-Daniel, I., Pridotkas, G., Nieto, R., Fernández-Pacheco, P., Bokhan, S., Nevolko, O., Drozhzhe, Z., Pérez, C., Soler, A., Kolvasov, D., Arias, M., 2014. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1544-1547. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/pdfs/14-0554.pdf

Garigliany, M., Desmecht, D., Tignon, M., Cassart, D., Lesenfant, C., Paternostre, J., Volpe, R., Cay, A. B., Berg, T. van den, Linden, A., 2019. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Western Europe, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(1), 184-186. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/25/1/pdfs/v25-n1.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2501.181535

Goller, K. V., Malogolovkin, A. S., Katorkin, S., Kolbasov, D., Titov, I., Höper, D., Beer, M., Keil, G. M., Portugal, R., Blome, S., 2015. Tandem repeat insertion in African swine fever virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 731-732. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/pdfs/14-1792.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2104.141792

Gomez-Villamandos J, Hervas J, Mendez A, Carrasco L, Villeda C, Wilkinson P, Sierra M, 1995. Experimental African swine fever: apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in other cells. J. Gen. Virol., 76:2399-2405

Hess WL, Cox BF, Heuschele WP, Stone SS, 1965. Propagation and modification of African swine fever virus in cell cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 26:141-146

Jurado, C., Martínez-Avilés, M., Torre, A. de la, Štukelj, M., Ferreira, H. C. de C., Cerioli, M., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M., Bellini, S., 2018. Relevant measures to prevent the spread of African swine fever in the European Union domestic pig sector. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(April), 77. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00077/full doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00077

Kucínský, P., 2017. Occurrence of African swine fever in wild pigs in the Czech Republic. (Výskyt Afrického moru prasat v Ceské Republice). Veterinárství, 67(10), 815-820. http://www.vetweb.cz

Le, V. P. , Jeong, D. G., Yoon, S. W., Kwon, H. M. , Trinh, T. B. N., Nguyen, T. L. , Bui, T. T. N. , Oh, J., Kim, J. B. , Cheong, K. M. , Van Tuyen, N., Bae, E., Vu, T. T. H. , Yeom, M., Na, W., Song, D., 2019. Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27(7), 1433-1435. doi: 10.3201/eid2507.190303

Li XiangDong, Tian KeGong, 2018. African swine fever in China. Veterinary Record, 183(9), 300-301. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Malmquist WA, Hay D, 1960. Hemadsorption and cytophathic effect produced by African swine fever virus in swine bone marrow and buffy coat cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 21:104-108

McKercher PD, Yedloutschnig RJ, Callis JJ, Murphy R, Panina GF, Civardi A, Bugnetti M, Foni E, Laddomada A, Scarano C, Scatozza F, 1987. Survival of viruses in Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 20(4):267-272; 13 ref

Medbus CA, House C, Gonzalvo FR, Pineda JM, Tapiador J, Pire JJ, Bergada J, Yedloutschnig RJ, Sahu S, Becerra V, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1993. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and hog cholera viruses in Spanish Serrano cured hams and Iberian cured hams, shoulders and loins. Food Microbiology, 10(2):133-143; 6 ref

Mínguez I, Rueda A, Domínguez J, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1988. Double labeling immunohistological study of African swine fever virus-infected spleen and lymph nodes. Veterinary Pathology, 25(3):193-198; 25 ref

Mur, L., Atzeni, M., Martínez-López, B., Feliziani, F., Rolesu, S., Sanchez-Vizcaino, J. M., 2016. Thirty-five-year presence of African swine fever in Sardinia: history, evolution and risk factors for disease maintenance. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(2), e165-e177. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12264/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12264

Murphy F, Fauquet C, Bishop D, Ghabrial S, Harvis A, Martinelli G, Mayo M, Summer M, 1995. Virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Archives of Virology, Suplement 10

Nurmoja, I., Petrov, A., Breidenstein, C., Zani, L., Forth, J. H., Beer, M., Kristian, M., Viltrop, A., Blome, S., 2017. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(6), 2034-2041. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tbed.12614/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12614

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2005. African swine fever in Namibia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 18(1)

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Myanmar, (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(33) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31365

OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Philippines, (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(37) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health .https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31677

Olesen, A. S., Lohse, L., Boklund, A., Halasa, T., Belsham, G. J., Rasmussen, T. B., Bøtner, A., 2018. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65(4), 1024-1032. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tbed.12837

Olševskis, E., Guberti, V., Seržants, M., Westergaard, J., Gallardo, C., Rodze, I., Depner, K., 2016. African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: experience of Latvia. Research in Veterinary Science, 105, 28-30. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288 doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.01.006

Pejsak, Z., Truszczynski, M., Niemczuk, K., Kozak, E., Markowska-Daniel, I., 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 17(4), 665-672. http://www.uwm.edu.pl/pjvsci/content.html

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1999. African swine fever. In: Leman AD, Straw BE, Mengeling WL, Dallaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of swine. 8th edition. Iowa State University

Sogo JM, Almendral JM, Talavera A, Vinuela E, 1984. Terminal and internal inverted repetitions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology, 133(2):271-275; 14 ref

Štukelj, M., Plut, J., 2018. A review of African swine fever - disease that is now a big concern in Europe. Contemporary Agriculture, (No.2), 110-118. https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/contagri/contagri-overview.xml

Tabares E, Marcotegui MA, Fernandez M, Sanchez Botija C, 1980. Proteins specified by African swine fever virus I. Analysis of viral structural proteins and antigenic properties. Arch. Virol., 66:107-117

Wilkinson PJ, Wardley RC, 1978. The replication of ASFV in pig endothelial cells. Br. Vet. J., 134:280-282

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