Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

African swine fever virus

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Datasheet

African swine fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • African swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Caudovirales
  •         Family: Asfarviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Electron micrographA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
TitleHistology
CaptionSwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
HistologySwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • African swine fever virus (Murphy et al., 1995)

English acronym

  • ASFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Caudovirales
  •                 Family: Asfarviridae
  •                     Genus: Asfivirus
  •                         Species: African swine fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2005; OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USADisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaLast reported1980OIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicLast reported1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SardiniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported1978OIE Handistatus, 2005
Mediterranean countriesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and complex icosahedral DNA virus that presents features which are common to both Iridovirus and Poxvirus families, and which is often classified as the only member of the unnamed floating genus "African swine fever-like virus" (Murphy et al., 1995). Virus particles have an average diameter of 200 nm (Breese and DeBoer, 1966) and are formed by several concentric coats with an external membrane which has a hexagonal outline. The DNA is double stranded; between 170 and 190 kbp, depending on the isolate. A conserved central region, of about 125 kbp is observed, but the ends of the stranded DNA are variable (Blasco et al., 1989) and the terminal areas show inverted repetitions (Sogo et al., 1984).

The complete DNA sequence of ASF virus, isolate BA71v was reported by Yánez et al. (1995). This isolate was shown to be 170,101 nucleotides long, containing 151 open-reading frames and encoding five multigene families.

Twenty-eight structural proteins have been identified in intracellular virus particles (Tabares et al., 1980) and 110 infectious proteins have been described in pig-infected macrophages, of which at least 50 have been shown to react with sera from infected or recovered pigs (Alcaraz et al., 1992). Some of these proteins (VP 73, VP 54, VP 30, VP 12) are very antigenic and are used as antigens for diagnostic techniques, but unfortunately no protection appears to be induced by them (Sanchez-Vizcaino, 1999).

ASF virus replicates predominantly in monocytes and macrophage cells (Malmquist and Hay 1960; Mínguez et al., 1988). Virus replication has also been observed in: endothelial cells (Wilkinson and Wardley, 1978), hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells (Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995) and neutrophils (Carrasco et al., 1996). No infection has been described in T or B porcine lymphocytes (Mínguez et al., 1988; Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995). The ASF virus has also been adapted to grow in several stable cell lines such as VERO, MS and CV (Hess et al., 1965).

ASF virus is very resistant to low temperatures but a temperature of 56ºC for 70 minutes or 60ºC for 20 minutes can inactivate it. It is inactivated at a pH of less than 3.9, or more than 11.5, in serum-free medium; when serum or organic matter is presented resistance is increased. The ASF virus is also susceptible to inactivation by ether and choloroform and to several disinfectants such as sodium hydroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, formalin, orthophenylphenol and iodine compounds.

ASF remains viable for long periods in blood, faeces and tissues. It may persist for several weeks or months in frozen or uncooked meat. In products prepared by curing (such as Parma ham), infectivity was not demonstrated in ham after 300 days of processing and curing (McKercher et al., 1987). In Spanish dry-cured meat products such as Serrano hams and Iberian hams and shoulder, the virus survives for 140 days in hams and for 112 days in loin meat (Mebus et al., 1993).

ASF virus can remain in an infectious state in the vector Ornithodoros ticks for months or occasionally years.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Hylochoerus meinertzhageniWild host
Phacochoerus aethiopicusWild host
Potamochoerus porcusWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros erraticusTickSpain
Ornithodoros erraticus erraticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubataTickWest Africa
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata porcinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros parkeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros puertoricensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiTickAfrica
Simulium damnosumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium exiguumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Triatoma gerstaeckeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Triatoma infestansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Alcaraz C; Alvarez A; Escribano JM, 1992. Flow cytometric analysis of African swine fever virus-induced plasma membrane proteins and their humoral immune response in infected pigs. Virology (New York), 189(1):266-273; 42 ref.

Blasco R; Agüero M; Almendral JM; Vinuela E, 1989. Variable and constant regions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology (New York), 168(2):330-338; 40 ref.

Breese S; De Boer CJ, 1966. Electron microscope observation of Africa swine fever virus in tissue culture cells. Virology, 28:420-428.

Carrasco L; Chacón-M de Lara F; Martín de las Mulas J; Gómez-Villamanods JC; Hervás J; Wilkinson PJ; Sierra MA, 1996. Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever. Veterinary Research, 27(3):305-312; 26 ref.

Gomez-Villamandos J; Hervas J; Mendez A; Carrasco L; Villeda C; Wilkinson P; Sierra M, 1995. Experimental African swine fever: apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in other cells. J. Gen. Virol., 76:2399-2405.

Hess WL; Cox BF; Heuschele WP; Stone SS, 1965. Propagation and modification of African swine fever virus in cell cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 26:141-146.

Malmquist WA; Hay D, 1960. Hemadsorption and cytophathic effect produced by African swine fever virus in swine bone marrow and buffy coat cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 21:104-108.

McKercher PD; Yedloutschnig RJ; Callis JJ; Murphy R; Panina GF; Civardi A; Bugnetti M; Foni E; Laddomada A; Scarano C; Scatozza F, 1987. Survival of viruses in Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 20(4):267-272; 13 ref.

Medbus CA; House C; Gonzalvo FR; Pineda JM; Tapiador J; Pire JJ; Bergada J; Yedloutschnig RJ; Sahu S; Becerra V; Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1993. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and hog cholera viruses in Spanish Serrano cured hams and Iberian cured hams, shoulders and loins. Food Microbiology, 10(2):133-143; 6 ref.

Mínguez I; Rueda A; Domínguez J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1988. Double labeling immunohistological study of African swine fever virus-infected spleen and lymph nodes. Veterinary Pathology, 25(3):193-198; 25 ref.

Murphy F; Fauquet C; Bishop D; Ghabrial S; Harvis A; Martinelli G; Mayo M; Summer M, 1995. Virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Archives of Virology, Suplement 10.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2005. African swine fever in Namibia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 18(1).

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1999. African swine fever. In: Leman AD, Straw BE, Mengeling WL, Dallaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of swine. 8th edition. Iowa State University.

Sogo JM; Almendral JM; Talavera A; Vinuela E, 1984. Terminal and internal inverted repetitions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology, 133(2):271-275; 14 ref.

Tabares E; Marcotegui MA; Fernandez M; Sanchez Botija C, 1980. Proteins specified by African swine fever virus I. Analysis of viral structural proteins and antigenic properties. Arch. Virol., 66:107-117.

Wilkinson PJ; Wardley RC, 1978. The replication of ASFV in pig endothelial cells. Br. Vet. J., 134:280-282.

Yánez RJ; Rodríguez JM; Nogal ML; Yuste L; Enríquez C; Rodriguez JF; Vinuela E, 1995. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of African swine fever virus. Virology (New York), 208(1):249-278; many ref.

Distribution Maps

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