Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

African swine fever virus

Toolbox

Datasheet

African swine fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • African swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Caudovirales
  •         Family: Asfarviridae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
A micrograph of an ASF virus particle.
Electron micrographA micrograph of an ASF virus particle.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
TitleHistology
CaptionSwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
Copyright©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)
Swine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.
HistologySwine macrophages infected with ASF virus showing hemadsorption.©J.M. Sanchez-Vizcaino (CISA)

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • African swine fever virus (Murphy et al., 1995)

English acronym

  • ASFV

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Caudovirales
  •                 Family: Asfarviridae
  •                     Genus: Asfivirus
  •                         Species: African swine fever virus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdePresentOIE (2012)
ChadPresentOIE (2012)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)
GambiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE (2012)
LiberiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: AU-IBAR (2011)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MalawiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusPresentOIE (2012)
MozambiquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentNativeOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RwandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CambodiaPresentArabyan et al. (2019)
ChinaPresentLi XiangDong and Tian KeGong (2018)
GeorgiaPresentOIE (2009)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LaosPresentFAO (2019)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentFAO (2019)
MyanmarPresentOIE (2019)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaPresentFAO (2019)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE (2019a)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentLe et al. (2019)
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusPresentGallardo et al. (2014)
BelgiumPresentGarigliany et al. (2019)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kucínský (2017)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentNurmoja et al. (2017)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Štukelj and Plut (2018)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-SardiniaPresentMur et al. (2016)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Olševskis et al. (2016)
LithuaniaPresentGallardo et al. (2014)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresentJurado et al. (2018)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentPejsak et al. (2014)
RomaniaPresentOlesen et al. (2018)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkrainePresentGoller et al. (2015)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large enveloped virus containing a double stranded (ds) DNA of approximately 190 kilobase pairs. ASFV shares aspects of genome structure and replication strategy with other large dsDNA viruses, including the Poxviridae, Iridoviridae. Although initially classified as an iridovirus, based largely on virion morphology, increasing knowledge of ASFV molecular biology led to its reclassification as the sole member of a new DNA virus family, Asfarviridae (Dixon et al., 2005).

Virus particles have an average diameter of 200 nm (Breese and DeBoer, 1966) and are formed by several concentric coats with an external membrane which has a hexagonal outline. The DNA is double stranded; between 170 and 190 kbp, depending on the isolate. A conserved central region, of about 125 kbp is observed, but the ends of the stranded DNA are variable (Blasco et al., 1989) and the terminal areas show inverted repetitions (Sogo et al., 1984).

The complete DNA sequence of ASFV, isolate BA71v was reported by Yánez et al. (1995). This isolate was shown to be 170,101 nucleotides long, containing 151 open-reading frames and encoding five multigene families.

Twenty-eight structural proteins have been identified in intracellular virus particles (Tabares et al., 1980) and 110 infectious proteins have been described in pig-infected macrophages, of which at least 50 have been shown to react with sera from infected or recovered pigs (Alcaraz et al., 1992). Some of these proteins (VP 73, VP 54, VP 30, VP 12) are very antigenic and are used as antigens for diagnostic techniques, but unfortunately no protection appears to be induced by them (Sanchez-Vizcaino, 1999).

ASFV replicates predominantly in monocytes and macrophage cells (Malmquist and Hay 1960; Mínguez et al., 1988). Virus replication has also been observed in: endothelial cells (Wilkinson and Wardley, 1978), hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells (Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995) and neutrophils (Carrasco et al., 1996). No infection has been described in T or B porcine lymphocytes (Mínguez et al., 1988; Gomez-Villamandos et al., 1995). ASFV has also been adapted to grow in several stable cell lines such as VERO, MS and CV (Hess et al., 1965).

ASFV is very resistant to low temperatures but a temperature of 56ºC for 70 minutes or 60ºC for 20 minutes can inactivate it. It is inactivated at a pH of less than 3.9, or more than 11.5, in serum-free medium; when serum or organic matter is presented resistance is increased. The ASFV is also susceptible to inactivation by ether and choloroform and to several disinfectants such as sodium hydroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, formalin, orthophenylphenol and iodine compounds.

ASFV remains viable for long periods in blood, faeces and tissues. It may persist for several weeks or months in frozen or uncooked meat. In products prepared by curing (such as Parma ham), infectivity was not demonstrated in ham after 300 days of processing and curing (McKercher et al., 1987). In Spanish dry-cured meat products such as Serrano hams and Iberian hams and shoulder, the virus survives for 140 days in hams and for 112 days in loin meat (Mebus et al., 1993).

ASFV can remain in an infectious state in the vector Ornithodoros ticks for months or occasionally years.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

Top of page

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros erraticusTickSpain
Ornithodoros erraticus erraticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubataTickWest Africa
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata porcinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros parkeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros puertoricensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiTickAfrica
Simulium damnosumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Simulium exiguumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Triatoma gerstaeckeriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Triatoma infestansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

Top of page

African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, Nairobi, Kenya: African Union Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) 2011, xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Alcaraz C, Alvarez A, Escribano JM, 1992. Flow cytometric analysis of African swine fever virus-induced plasma membrane proteins and their humoral immune response in infected pigs. Virology (New York), 189(1):266-273; 42 ref

Arabyan, E., Kotsynyan, A., Hakobyan, A., Zakaryan, H., 2019. Antiviral agents against African swine fever virus. Virus Research, 270, 197669. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197669

Blasco R, Agüero M, Almendral JM, Vinuela E, 1989. Variable and constant regions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology (New York), 168(2):330-338; 40 ref

Breese S, De Boer CJ, 1966. Electron microscope observation of Africa swine fever virus in tissue culture cells. Virology, 28:420-428

Carrasco L, Chacón-M de Lara F, Martín de las Mulas J, Gómez-Villamanods JC, Hervás J, Wilkinson PJ, Sierra MA, 1996. Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever. Veterinary Research, 27(3):305-312; 26 ref

Dixon L. K., Escribano J. M., Martins C., Rock D. L., Salas M. L., Wilkinson P. J., 2005. Asfarviridae. In: Virus taxonomy. VIIIth Report of the ICTV, [ed. by Fauquet, C. M. , Mayo, M. A. , Maniloff, J. , Desselberger, U., Ball, L. A.]. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press. 135-143.

FAO, 2019. GIEWS Update. East and Southeast Asia - African Swine Fever is rapidly spreading in East and Southeast Asia threatening food security and livelihoods of households relying on pig farming, 2 July 2019. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/3/ca5273en/ca5273en.pdf

Gallardo, C., Fernández-Pinero, J., Pelayo, V., Gazaev, I., Markowska-Daniel, I., Pridotkas, G., Nieto, R., Fernández-Pacheco, P., Bokhan, S., Nevolko, O., Drozhzhe, Z., Pérez, C., Soler, A., Kolvasov, D., Arias, M., 2014. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(9), 1544-1547. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/pdfs/14-0554.pdf

Garigliany, M., Desmecht, D., Tignon, M., Cassart, D., Lesenfant, C., Paternostre, J., Volpe, R., Cay, A. B., Berg, T. van den, Linden, A., 2019. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Western Europe, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(1), 184-186. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/25/1/pdfs/v25-n1.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2501.181535

Goller, K. V., Malogolovkin, A. S., Katorkin, S., Kolbasov, D., Titov, I., Höper, D., Beer, M., Keil, G. M., Portugal, R., Blome, S., 2015. Tandem repeat insertion in African swine fever virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 731-732. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/pdfs/14-1792.pdf doi: 10.3201/eid2104.141792

Gomez-Villamandos J, Hervas J, Mendez A, Carrasco L, Villeda C, Wilkinson P, Sierra M, 1995. Experimental African swine fever: apoptosis of lymphocytes and virus replication in other cells. J. Gen. Virol., 76:2399-2405

Hess WL, Cox BF, Heuschele WP, Stone SS, 1965. Propagation and modification of African swine fever virus in cell cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 26:141-146

Jurado, C., Martínez-Avilés, M., Torre, A. de la, Štukelj, M., Ferreira, H. C. de C., Cerioli, M., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J. M., Bellini, S., 2018. Relevant measures to prevent the spread of African swine fever in the European Union domestic pig sector. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5(April), 77. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00077/full doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00077

Kucínský, P., 2017. Occurrence of African swine fever in wild pigs in the Czech Republic. (Výskyt Afrického moru prasat v Ceské Republice). Veterinárství, 67(10), 815-820. http://www.vetweb.cz

Le, V. P. , Jeong, D. G., Yoon, S. W., Kwon, H. M. , Trinh, T. B. N., Nguyen, T. L. , Bui, T. T. N. , Oh, J., Kim, J. B. , Cheong, K. M. , Van Tuyen, N., Bae, E., Vu, T. T. H. , Yeom, M., Na, W., Song, D., 2019. Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27(7), 1433-1435. doi: 10.3201/eid2507.190303

Li XiangDong, Tian KeGong, 2018. African swine fever in China. Veterinary Record, 183(9), 300-301. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Malmquist WA, Hay D, 1960. Hemadsorption and cytophathic effect produced by African swine fever virus in swine bone marrow and buffy coat cultures. Am. J. Vet. Res., 21:104-108

McKercher PD, Yedloutschnig RJ, Callis JJ, Murphy R, Panina GF, Civardi A, Bugnetti M, Foni E, Laddomada A, Scarano C, Scatozza F, 1987. Survival of viruses in Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 20(4):267-272; 13 ref

Medbus CA, House C, Gonzalvo FR, Pineda JM, Tapiador J, Pire JJ, Bergada J, Yedloutschnig RJ, Sahu S, Becerra V, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1993. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, and hog cholera viruses in Spanish Serrano cured hams and Iberian cured hams, shoulders and loins. Food Microbiology, 10(2):133-143; 6 ref

Mínguez I, Rueda A, Domínguez J, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1988. Double labeling immunohistological study of African swine fever virus-infected spleen and lymph nodes. Veterinary Pathology, 25(3):193-198; 25 ref

Mur, L., Atzeni, M., Martínez-López, B., Feliziani, F., Rolesu, S., Sanchez-Vizcaino, J. M., 2016. Thirty-five-year presence of African swine fever in Sardinia: history, evolution and risk factors for disease maintenance. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(2), e165-e177. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12264/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12264

Murphy F, Fauquet C, Bishop D, Ghabrial S, Harvis A, Martinelli G, Mayo M, Summer M, 1995. Virus taxonomy. Sixth report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Archives of Virology, Suplement 10

Nurmoja, I., Petrov, A., Breidenstein, C., Zani, L., Forth, J. H., Beer, M., Kristian, M., Viltrop, A., Blome, S., 2017. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(6), 2034-2041. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tbed.12614/abstract doi: 10.1111/tbed.12614

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2005. African swine fever in Namibia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 18(1)

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Myanmar, (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(33) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31365

OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Philippines, (Immediate notification). In: OIE World Animal Health Information System. Weekly Disease Information, 32(37) . Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health .https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31677

Olesen, A. S., Lohse, L., Boklund, A., Halasa, T., Belsham, G. J., Rasmussen, T. B., Bøtner, A., 2018. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65(4), 1024-1032. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tbed.12837

Olševskis, E., Guberti, V., Seržants, M., Westergaard, J., Gallardo, C., Rodze, I., Depner, K., 2016. African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: experience of Latvia. Research in Veterinary Science, 105, 28-30. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00345288 doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.01.006

Pejsak, Z., Truszczynski, M., Niemczuk, K., Kozak, E., Markowska-Daniel, I., 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 17(4), 665-672. http://www.uwm.edu.pl/pjvsci/content.html

Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, 1999. African swine fever. In: Leman AD, Straw BE, Mengeling WL, Dallaire S, Taylor DJ, eds. Diseases of swine. 8th edition. Iowa State University

Sogo JM, Almendral JM, Talavera A, Vinuela E, 1984. Terminal and internal inverted repetitions in African swine fever virus DNA. Virology, 133(2):271-275; 14 ref

Štukelj, M., Plut, J., 2018. A review of African swine fever - disease that is now a big concern in Europe. Contemporary Agriculture, (No.2), 110-118. https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/contagri/contagri-overview.xml

Tabares E, Marcotegui MA, Fernandez M, Sanchez Botija C, 1980. Proteins specified by African swine fever virus I. Analysis of viral structural proteins and antigenic properties. Arch. Virol., 66:107-117

Wilkinson PJ, Wardley RC, 1978. The replication of ASFV in pig endothelial cells. Br. Vet. J., 134:280-282

Yánez RJ, Rodríguez JM, Nogal ML, Yuste L, Enríquez C, Rodriguez JF, Vinuela E, 1995. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of African swine fever virus. Virology (New York), 208(1):249-278; many ref

Distribution References

Arabyan E, Kotsynyan A, Hakobyan A, Zakaryan H, 2019. Antiviral agents against African swine fever virus. Virus Research. 197669. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197669

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

FAO, 2019. GIEWS Update. East and Southeast Asia - African Swine Fever is rapidly spreading in East and Southeast Asia threatening food security and livelihoods of households relying on pig farming, 2 July 2019. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/ca5273en/ca5273en.pdf

Gallardo C, Fernández-Pinero J, Pelayo V, Gazaev I, Markowska-Daniel I, Pridotkas G, Nieto R, Fernández-Pacheco P, Bokhan S, Nevolko O, Drozhzhe Z, Pérez C, Soler A, Kolvasov D, Arias M, 2014. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and Central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (9), 1544-1547. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/9/pdfs/14-0554.pdf

Garigliany M, Desmecht D, Tignon M, Cassart D, Lesenfant C, Paternostre J, Volpe R, Cay A B, Berg T van den, Linden A, 2019. Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Western Europe, 2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 25 (1), 184-186. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/content/25/1/pdfs/v25-n1.pdf DOI:10.3201/eid2501.181535

Goller K V, Malogolovkin A S, Katorkin S, Kolbasov D, Titov I, Höper D, Beer M, Keil G M, Portugal R, Blome S, 2015. Tandem repeat insertion in African swine fever virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21 (4), 731-732. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/pdfs/14-1792.pdf DOI:10.3201/eid2104.141792

Jurado C, Martínez-Avilés M, Torre A de la, Štukelj M, Ferreira H C de C, Cerioli M, Sánchez-Vizcaíno J M, Bellini S, 2018. Relevant measures to prevent the spread of African swine fever in the European Union domestic pig sector. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5 (April), 77. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00077/full DOI:10.3389/fvets.2018.00077

Le V P, Jeong D G, Yoon S W, Kwon H M, Trinh T B N, Nguyen T L, Bui T T N, Oh J, Kim J B, Cheong K M, Van Tuyen N, Bae E, Vu T T H, Yeom M, Na W, Song D, 2019. Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 27 (7), 1433-1435. DOI:10.3201/eid2507.190303

Li XiangDong, Tian KeGong, 2018. African swine fever in China. Veterinary Record, 183 (9), 300-301. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Mur L, Atzeni M, Martínez-López B, Feliziani F, Rolesu S, Sanchez-Vizcaino J M, 2016. Thirty-five-year presence of African swine fever in Sardinia: history, evolution and risk factors for disease maintenance. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 63 (2), e165-e177. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12264/abstract DOI:10.1111/tbed.12264

Nurmoja I, Petrov A, Breidenstein C, Zani L, Forth J H, Beer M, Kristian M, Viltrop A, Blome S, 2017. Biological characterization of African swine fever virus genotype II strains from north-eastern Estonia in European wild boar. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 64 (6), 2034-2041. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tbed.12614/abstract DOI:10.1111/tbed.12614

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

OIE, 2019. African swine fever, Myanmar, (Immediate notification). Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31365

OIE, 2019a. African swine fever, Philippines, (Immediate notification). Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=31677

Olesen A S, Lohse L, Boklund A, Halasa T, Belsham G J, Rasmussen T B, Bøtner A, 2018. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 65 (4), 1024-1032. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tbed.12837

Pejsak Z, Truszczyński M, Niemczuk K, Kozak E, Markowska-Daniel I, 2014. Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 17 (4), 665-672. http://www.uwm.edu.pl/pjvsci/content.html

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map