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African horse sickness

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Datasheet

African horse sickness

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • African horse sickness
  • Overview
  • African horse sickness is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. It is characterized by respiratory and circulatory damage.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionA horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa.
CopyrightPhilip Mellor/Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK
A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa.
SymptomsA horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa.Philip Mellor/Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK
A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionA horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia.
CopyrightPhilip Mellor/Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK
A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia.
SymptomsA horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia.Philip Mellor/Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK
Foam from the nares is due to pulmonary oedema.
TitleExternal symptoms
CaptionFoam from the nares is due to pulmonary oedema.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Foam from the nares is due to pulmonary oedema.
External symptomsFoam from the nares is due to pulmonary oedema.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Depressed horse; note the bilateral supraorbital oedema.
TitleExternal symptoms
CaptionDepressed horse; note the bilateral supraorbital oedema.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Depressed horse; note the bilateral supraorbital oedema.
External symptomsDepressed horse; note the bilateral supraorbital oedema.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Congestion and oedema of the conjunctiva. Congestion is a consistent clinical finding in AHS.
TitleExternal symptoms
CaptionCongestion and oedema of the conjunctiva. Congestion is a consistent clinical finding in AHS.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Congestion and oedema of the conjunctiva. Congestion is a consistent clinical finding in AHS.
External symptomsCongestion and oedema of the conjunctiva. Congestion is a consistent clinical finding in AHS.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Excessive fluid in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary oedema; note the distended interlobular septa.
TitlePathology
CaptionExcessive fluid in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary oedema; note the distended interlobular septa.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Excessive fluid in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary oedema; note the distended interlobular septa.
PathologyExcessive fluid in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary oedema; note the distended interlobular septa.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Cut surface of an oedematous lung; note the distended interlobular septa.
TitlePathology
CaptionCut surface of an oedematous lung; note the distended interlobular septa.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Cut surface of an oedematous lung; note the distended interlobular septa.
PathologyCut surface of an oedematous lung; note the distended interlobular septa.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Petechial haemorrhages on the serosa are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
TitlePathology
CaptionPetechial haemorrhages on the serosa are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Petechial haemorrhages on the serosa are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
PathologyPetechial haemorrhages on the serosa are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Petechial haemorrhages on the diaphragm are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
TitlePathology
CaptionPetechial haemorrhages on the diaphragm are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Petechial haemorrhages on the diaphragm are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.
PathologyPetechial haemorrhages on the diaphragm are indicative of a viremic or septicemic condition.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Pathology. Pericardium.
TitlePathology
CaptionPathology. Pericardium.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Pathology. Pericardium.
PathologyPathology. Pericardium.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Supraorbital oedema.
TitleExternal symptoms
CaptionSupraorbital oedema.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Supraorbital oedema.
External symptomsSupraorbital oedema.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Oedema in the intermuscular fascia of the neck may be the only lesion in AHS.
TitlePathology
CaptionOedema in the intermuscular fascia of the neck may be the only lesion in AHS.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Oedema in the intermuscular fascia of the neck may be the only lesion in AHS.
PathologyOedema in the intermuscular fascia of the neck may be the only lesion in AHS.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • African horse sickness

English acronym

  • AHS

Overview

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African horse sickness is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. It is characterized by respiratory and circulatory damage.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Hosts/Species Affected

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A proven vector of the disease is Culicoides imicola (Mellor and Boorman, 1995). Other Culicoides spp., notably C. bolitinos may also play a role in transmission (Venter et al., 2000; Meiswinkel and Paweska, 2003).

Usual hosts of the disease include horses, mules, donkeys and zebra. Other occasional hosts include elephants, camels, and dogs (after eating infected blood or horsemeat).

Distribution

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It is endemic in the central tropical regions of Africa and regularly spreads to Southern Africa and occasionally to Northern Africa. Outbreaks outside Africa in the Near and Middle East (1959-63), Spain (1966 (serotype 9), 1987-90 (serotype 4)), Portugal (1989, serotype 4) and Morocco (1989-91, serotype 4) have occurred.

The disease has a seasonal occurrence and its prevalence is influenced by climatic and other conditions that favour the breeding of its insect vectors. Recent northward expansion of the main African vector, Culicoides imicola, and bluetongue virus (a similar Orbivirus) into the Mediterranean Basin of Europe now threatens that region and beyond to African horse sickness (Mellor, 1992; Mellor and Hamblin, 2004; Dufour et al., 2008; Calvo et al., 2009). Due to the similarities between bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses and their vectors, there are fears that if African horse sickness should appear again in Europe, it could spread as widely as bluetongue virus.

During 2011, a total of 627 outbreaks of AHS were reported to AU-IBAR by 6 countries, compared to 305 outbreaks reported from 5 countries in 2010 and 15 outbreaks reported from 7 countries in 2009. Although the disease has been reported over the past years in five of the affected countries, the appearance of AHS in Somalia is regarded as a new epidemiological event. The highest numbers of AHS outbreaks were reported from South Africa with 447 outbreaks followed by Ethiopia with 167 reported outbreaks. Overall a total of 2754 horses were affected with AHS with 1013 reported mortalities representing a 36.8% case fatality rate. The highest numbers of outbreaks were reported in the month of March with 255 outbreaks (AU-IBAR, 2011).

Countries reporting African horse sickness to the AU-IBAR 

Country

Outbreaks

Cases

Deaths

Slaughtered

Destroyed

Ethiopia

167

2678

982

0

3

Gambia

1

5

5

0

0

Namibia

9

37

13

0

0

Somalia

1

20

7

0

0

South Africa

447

       

Swaziland

2

14

6

0

0

Total (6)

627

2754

1013

0

3

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IranDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IraqDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JapanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JordanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LaosDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Middle EastPresentMellor and Boorman, 1995
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NepalDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
OmanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PakistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1966OIE, 2012
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
BurundiDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
CameroonDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
Cape VerdeLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Central AfricaWidespreadMellor and Boorman, 1995
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2012
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
EgyptDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EritreaPresentOIE, 2012
EthiopiaPresentOIE, 2012
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaPresentOIE, 2012
GhanaLast reported2010OIE, 2012
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
LesothoLast reported2011OIE, 2012
LibyaLast reported1964OIE, 2012
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
MalawiDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
MoroccoLast reported1991Mellor and Boorman, 1995; OIE, 2012
MozambiqueLast reported2006OIE, 2012
NamibiaLast reported2011OIE, 2012
NigeriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
North AfricaPresentMellor and Boorman, 1995
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalLast reported2009OIE, 2012
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
SomaliaLast reported2011OIE, 2012
South AfricaPresentMellor and Boorman, 1995; OIE, 2012
SudanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandPresentOIE, 2004a; OIE, 2012
TanzaniaLast reported2006OIE, 2012
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaLast reported1966OIE, 2012
UgandaDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
ZambiaNo information availableNULLOIE, 2004b; OIE, 2012
ZimbabweLast reported2004OIE, 2012

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
USADisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-GeorgiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CubaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JamaicaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MartiniqueDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ChileDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
FranceDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GreeceDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PolandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PortugalDisease not reported198911Mellor and Boorman, 1995; OIE, 2009
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SerbiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SpainDisease not reported199010Mellor and Boorman, 1995; OIE, 2009
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
UKDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathology

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The pulmonary form of the disease gives oedematous lungs, with abundant serous fluid present in the pleural cavity and occasionally in the pericardium. Affected animals also get enlarged thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes. There are petechial haemorrhages in the mucosa and serosa of the small and large intestines and pericardium. The renal cortex becomes congested and hyperaemic glandular fundus of the stomach occurs.

In the cardiac form of the disease, haemorrhages in the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium can be seen along the coronary vessels and beneath the bicuspid and tricuspid valves.

Diagnosis

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Differential diagnosis should include Anthrax, equine infectious anaemia, equine viral arteritis, trypanosomosis, equine encephalosis, piroplasmosis and purpura haemorrhagica.


Laboratory diagnosis


Virus isolation can be achieved by suckling mice or cell cultures. Virus identification is carried out using ELISA, virus neutralisation (Serotyping) and PCR. Serological diagnosis is carried out using ELISA, complement fixation tests and immunoblotting.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Other:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Other:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Other:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Oral cavity, tongue swelling, mass in mouth Other:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Other:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Other:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Other:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Other:All Stages Diagnosis

Disease Course

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Mortality rates are 50-95% (horses), 50% (mules) and 10% (donkeys). There are four classical forms of AHS, pulmonary (acute), cardiac (subacute), mixed, and horse sickness fever (House, 1992).

The acute (pulmonary) form is characterized by a fever (40-41°C) after an incubation period of 3-5d. This is accompanied by dyspnoea when the respiratory rate may increase to 60-75 breaths/minute. Animals also experience spasmodic coughing, have dilated nostrils with frothy fluid oozing out and redness of the conjunctivae. Animals often die from anoxia within 1 week (more than 95% cases).

The subacute (cardiac) form is characterized by a fever (39-41°C) following an incubation period of 7-14 d. Infected animals also experience swelling of the supraorbital fossa, eyelids, facial tissues, neck, thorax, brisket and shoulders. The animal finally becomes restless and may show signs of colic before death from cardiac failure, usually within 1 week (50% of cases). In recovering cases, swelling gradually subsides within a period of 3-8 days.

The mixed form (cardiac and pulmonary) of the disease occurs frequently and has an incubation period of 5-7 d. It is characterized by mild pulmonary signs that do not progress, oedematous swellings and effusions. Again, in more than 80% of cases, death from cardiac failure occurs, usually within 1 week. In the subclinical form ('Horse sickness fever') a fever (40-40.5°C) occurs following an incubation period of 5-14 days and a general malaise for 1-2 days is observed. Conjunctivae may be slightly congested, the pulse rate increased, and a certain degree of anorexia and depression may be present. A fifth, nervous form of the disease may occur, but this is rare.


Lesions


In the pulmonary form of the disease, oedema of the lungs, hydropericardium, pleural effusion, oedema of thoracic lymph nodes and petechial haemorrhages in the pericardium occur. With the cardiac form, subcutaneous and intramuscular gelatinous oedema, epicardial and endocardial ecchymoses, myocarditis, haemorrhagic gastritis are observed.

Prevention and Control

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Vaccines

Vaccines are used against African horse sickness in sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease is endemic. There are vaccines for all 9 serotypes of African horse sickness virus. These are either cell culture adapted or mouse brain attenuated and provide long-lasting protection. Inactivated vaccines are not readily available. As there are concerns over the use of live vaccines, the development of efficacious vaccines, suitable for use in both endemic and non-endemic regions is an important focus of research (MacLachlan et al., 2007).

References

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African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Calvo JH, Calvete C, Martinez-Royo A, Estrada R, Miranda MA, Borras D, Sarto i Monteys V, Pages N, Delgado JA, Collantes F, Lucientes J, 2009. Variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene indicate northward expanding populations of Culicoides imicola in Spain. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99(6):583-591. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6545284&next=true&jid=BER&volumeId=99&issueId=06

Coetzer JAW, Guthrie AJ, 2004. African horsesickness. In: Infectious Diseases of Livestock, Second Edition [ed. by Coetzer, J. A. W. \Tustin, R. C.]. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 1231-1246.

Dardiri AH, Brown CC, 1989. African horse sickness update. In: 11th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Microbiologists, Immunologists and Specialists in Infectious Diseases, Perugia, Mantova, Italy, October 2-6, 1989. 40131 Bologna, Italy: Società Editrice Esculapio, 287-289.

Dufour B, Moutou F, Hattenberger AM, Rodhain F, 2008. Global change: impact, management, risk approach and health measures - the case of Europe. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 27(2):541-550.

El-Husseini MM, Salama SA, Abdallah SK, Bakr HEA, Hassanein MM, 1986. Role of Culex pipiens L. in recovering latent African horse sickness virus from dogs. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 16(1):249-258.

Hamblin C, Salt JS, Mellor PS, Graham SD, Smith PR, Wohlsein P, 1998. Donkeys as reservoirs of African horse sickness virus. In: African horse sickness [ed. by Mellor, P. S.\Baylis, M.\Hamblin, C.\Calisher, C. H.\Mertens, P. P. C.]. Vienna, Austria: Springer-Verlag, 37-47.

House C, 1992. African Horse Sickness. In: Castro AE, Heuschele WP, eds., Veterinary Diagnostic Virology. Mosby Year Book, 165-159.

MacLachlan NJ, Balasuriya UB, Davis NL, Collier M, Johnston RE, Ferraro GL, Guthrie AJ, 2007. Experiences with new generation vaccines against equine viral arteritis, West Nile disease and African horse sickness. Vaccine [4th International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostic Conference, Oslo, Norway, 25-29 June 2006.], 25(30):5577-5582. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X

Meiswinkel R, Paweska JT, 2003. Evidence for a new field Culicoides vector of African horse sickness in South Africa. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 60(3):243-253.

Mellor PS, 1992. Culicoides as potential orbivirus vectors in Europe. In: Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium [ed. by Walton, T. E.\Osburn, B. I.]. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, Inc., 278-283.

Mellor PS, 1993. African horse sickness: transmission and epidemiology. Veterinary Research, 24(2):199-212.

Mellor PS, Boorman J, 1995. The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 89(1):1-15; 6 pp. of ref.

Mellor PS, Hamblin C, 2004. African horse sickness. Veterinary Research, 35(4):445-466.

Meyden CHvan der, Erasmus BJ, Swanepoel R, Porzesky OW, 1992. Encephalitis and chorioretinitis associated with neurotropic African horsesickness virus infection in laboratory workers. Part I. Clinical and neurological observations. South African Medical Journal, 81(9):451-454.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. African horse sickness in Swaziland. Disease Information, 17(21).

OIE, 2004. African horse sickness in Zambia. Disease Information, 17(19).

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Sailleau C, Hamblin C, Paweska JT, Zientara S, 2000. Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. Journal of General Virology, 81(3):831-837.

Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 2004. Control and eradication of African horse sickness with vaccine. In: Control of infectious animal diseases by vaccination [ed. by Schudel, A.\Lombard, M.]. Basel, Switzerland: S Karger AG, 255-258.

Theiler A, 1906. Transmission of horse sickness into dogs. Report of the Government Veterinary Bacteriologist. 160-162.

Venter GJ, Graham SD, Hamblin C, 2000. African horse sickness epidemiology: vector competence of South African Culicoides species for virus serotypes 3, 5 and 8. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 14(3):245-250.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CFSPH: Animal Disease Informationhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/index.php"Animal Disease Information" provides links to various information sources, including fact sheets and images, on over 150 animal diseases of international significance.
CIDRAP, African horse sicknesshttp://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/biosecurity/ag-biosec/anim-disease/ahs.htmlCenter for Infectious Disease Research & Policy, University of Minnesota
EFSA. Scientific report on African Horse Sicknesshttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/4e.pdfScientific report submitted to EFSA prepared by Boinas, F., Calistria, P., Domingo, M., Martínez-Avilés, M., Martínez-López, B., Rodríguez-Sánchez, B. and Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J.M. on African Horse Sickness. (2009), 1-61
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animalshttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products.
OIE Technical Disease Cardshttp://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/technical-disease-cards/An updated compilation of 33 technical disease cards, containing summary information, mainly directed to a specialised scientific audience, including 32 OIE-listed priority diseases. USDA-APHIS (USA) are also credited with contributing to the maintenance of the cards.
South Africa, African horse sickness trusthttp://www.africanhorsesickness.co.za/Represents industry stakeholders, gathers research data from all suspected cases reported.
USAHA: Foreign Animal Diseases. Seventh Editionhttp://www.aphis.usda.gov/emergency_response/downloads/nahems/fad.pdfCopyright © 2008 by United States Animal Health Association ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Library of Congress Catalogue Number 2008900990 ISBN 978-0-9659583-4-9. Publication with 472pp. aimed at providing information for practitioners within the USA to prevent and or mitigate the incursion of foreign animal diseases into that country. Contains general chapters on surveillance, diagnosis, etc. as well as 48 chapters covering individual diseases, mostly those notifiable to the OIE.

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