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Datasheet

Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aedes albopictus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian tiger mosquito
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tyre trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tyres when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be hig...
  • Principal Source
  • Global Invasive Species Database  

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, at rest. Maryland, USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, at rest. Maryland, USA.
Copyright©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, at rest. Maryland, USA.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, at rest. Maryland, USA.©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
Copyright©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
Copyright©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. Captive specimen. Brandywine, Maryland, USA.©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
Copyright©Jim Occi/BugPics/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.©Jim Occi/BugPics/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
Copyright©Jim Occi/BugPics/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, feeding on a human. August, 2010. USA.©Jim Occi/BugPics/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale Aedes mosquito
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
Female Aedes mosquitoAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); close-up of an adult female, inserting mouthparts to feed on a human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult *male at rest. Note the characteristic resting position of the hind legs, typical of Aedes spp. Also note the highly plumose antennae cf. female of the species. Captive specimen. USA. (*males do not bite)
TitleMale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult *male at rest. Note the characteristic resting position of the hind legs, typical of Aedes spp. Also note the highly plumose antennae cf. female of the species. Captive specimen. USA. (*males do not bite)
Copyright©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult *male at rest. Note the characteristic resting position of the hind legs, typical of Aedes spp. Also note the highly plumose antennae cf. female of the species. Captive specimen. USA. (*males do not bite)
MaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult *male at rest. Note the characteristic resting position of the hind legs, typical of Aedes spp. Also note the highly plumose antennae cf. female of the species. Captive specimen. USA. (*males do not bite)©Susan Ellis/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
TitleFemale
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.
FemaleAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); adult female, feeding on a human host. Note the hugely distended abdomen, indicating that she is almost fully engorged.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
TitleMated pair
CaptionAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.
Mated pairAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); a pair of mosquitoes during their mating ritual, while the partially engorged female continues to feed on her human host.Public Domain/released by Centers for Disease Control - original image by James Gathany.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian tiger mosquito

Other Scientific Names

  • Culex albopictus Skuse, 1895

International Common Names

  • English: forest day mosquito; tiger mosquito
  • Spanish: mosquito tigre
  • French: moustique tigre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: tigermücke
  • Italy: zanzare tigre

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tyre trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tyres when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Culicidae
  •                             Genus: Aedes
  •                                 Species: Aedes albopictus

Description

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Adults are known as tiger mosquitoes due to their conspicuous patterns of very black bodies with white stripes. Also, there is a distinctive single white band (stripe) down the length of the back. The body length is about 3/16-inch long. Like all mosquitoes, Asian tiger mosquitoes are small, fragile insects with slender bodies, one pair of narrow wings, and three pairs of long, slender legs. They have an elongate proboscis with which the female bites and feeds on blood.

Distribution

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Native range: Ae. albopictus occurs thoughout the Oriental Region from the tropics of Southeast Asia, the Pacific and Indian Ocean Islands, north through China and Japan and west to Madagascar.

Known introduced range: Ae. albopictus has been one of the fastest spreading animal species over the past two decades (Benedict et al. 2007). The mosquito has been introduced in North and South America, with more recent introductions having occurred in Africa, Australia and Europe, where it is established in Albania and Italy and where it has been detected in France (Eritja et al. 2005). In the United States, it is established in most states east of the Mississippi River as far as Minnesota and Delaware (Source: Novak). It has spread to at least 28 countries outside its native range around the globe (Benedict et al. 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-FujianPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuangdongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HainanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HebeiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-Hong KongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-JiangxiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MacauPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ShandongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ShanghaiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-YunnanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
India
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Indian PunjabPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-KeralaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MaharashtraPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-West BengalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Indonesia
-JavaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IsraelPresentIntroduced2003ISSG, 2011
JapanPresentNative Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Bonin IslandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HonshuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
LebanonPresentIntroduced2007 Invasive ISSG, 2011
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-SabahPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-SarawakPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MyanmarPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
OmanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PakistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PhilippinesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SingaporePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Sri LankaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SyriaPresentIntroduced2007ISSG, 2011
TaiwanPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
ThailandPresentISSG, 2011

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroduced2000ISSG, 2011
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced2001ISSG, 2011
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NigeriaPresentIntroduced1991 Invasive ISSG, 2011
RéunionPresentIntroduced1994 Invasive ISSG, 2011
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1991 Invasive ISSG, 2011

North America

CanadaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentIntroduced1985 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaEradicatedIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-DelawarePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedbefore 1902 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-KentuckyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-LouisianaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MarylandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MississippiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-South CarolinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TennesseePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TexasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-WashingtonEradicatedIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroduced1993ISSG, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1997 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
CubaPresentIntroduced1995 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1993 Invasive ISSG, 2011
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced1995 Invasive ISSG, 2011
HondurasPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
PanamaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1983ISSG, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BoliviaPresentIntroduced1995 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Brazil
-CearaPresentIntroduced Invasive Martins et al., 2006; Martins et al., 2010
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive Santos and Nascimento, 1998
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Invasive Ayres et al., 2002
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Lopes et al., 2004
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive Ayres et al., 2002
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive Ayres et al., 2002; Honório et al., 2009
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedJun-06 Invasive Aguiar et al., 2008; ISSG, 2011
-Sao PauloPresentCamargo-Neves et al., 2005
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1996 Invasive ISSG, 2011
ParaguayPresentIntroduced1998ISSG, 2011

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced1979 Invasive ISSG, 2011
BelgiumPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedSchaffner et al., 2004; ISSG, 2011
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
CroatiaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GreecePresentIntroduced~2004 Invasive ISSG, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroduced1990 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-SardiniaPresentIntroduced1994ISSG, 2011
MontenegroPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SerbiaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
SloveniaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
SpainPresentIntroducedArrival detected in August 2004 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
UKPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced1988ISSG, 2011
-QueenslandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Ritchie et al., 2006; ISSG, 2011
Caroline IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FijiPresentIntroduced1988 Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuamPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Marshall IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
New ZealandAbsent, intercepted onlyLaird et al., 1994; Derraik, 2004; Holder et al., 2010
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Solomon IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

History of Introduction and Spread

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Climate change will likely allow tiger mosquitoes to further increase their range by increasing areas of suitable climate. These areas could include Australia (Dr. Moira McKinnon pers. comm. in Beilharz 2009), New Zealand (Derraik, 2004) and further north in the United States (Phillips, 2008).

Habitat

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A. albopictus is a treehole mosquito, and so its breeding places in nature are small, restricted, shaded bodies of water surrounded by vegetation. It inhabits densely vegetated rural areas. However, its ecological flexibility allows it to colonize many types of man-made sites and urban regions. It may reproduce in cemetery flower pots, bird baths, soda cans and abandoned containers and water recipients. Tires are particularly useful for mosquito reproduction as they are often stored outdoors and effectively collect and retain rain water for a long time. The addition of decaying leaves from the neighboring trees produces chemical conditions similar to tree holes, which provides an excellent substrate for breeding. A. albopictus can also establish and survive throughout non-urbanized areas lacking any artificial containers, raising additional public health concerns for rural areas (Moore 1999, in Eritja et al. 2005).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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A. albopcitus obtains energy by feeding on plant nectar. Females require blood to produce eggs. Although primarily a mammalian feeder, will accept blood from a wide variety of hosts.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Horticulture: During the summer of 2001, containerised shipments from China of the plant known as Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena spp.) were found to contain A. albopictus on inspection by quarantine officers on arrival at Los Angeles, USA (Linthicum 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). This route of spread became an issue only after traders swapped from dry freight to low cost shipping routes (which required the plants to be shipped in standing water to preserve them for the longer voyage).
Nursery trade: The trade in "lucky bamboo" (Dracaena spp.) is increasing because it has cultural relevance within the Asiatic communities in the US and elsewhere, and it has also gained worldwide attention as a popular gift. Destination wholesale nurseries containing lucky bamboo in California were found to be infested by the tiger mosquito (Madon et al. 2002, in Eritja et al. 2005). Similarly large nurseries in the Guangdong province of China, where the climate is suitable for A. albopictus, should be kept under observation (Madon et al. 2002, in Eritja et al. 2005).
Road vehicles (long distance): The adult flight range is quite short. Therefore, most medium and long range colonization is the result of passive transportation by humans. This may occur, for example, in the movement of used tires in trucks (Eritja et al. 2005).
Ship: During the summer of 2001, containerised shipments from China of lucky bamboo (Dracaena spp.) were found to contain Aedes albopictus on inspection by quarantine officers on arrival at Los Angeles, USA (Linthicum 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). This route of spread only became an issue after traders changed from dry freight to low cost shipping routes (which required the plants to be shipped in standing water to preserve them for the longer voyage).
Transportation of habitat material: Movement of moist vegetation, wet tires or water containers that hold eggs or larvae.
Transportation of habitat material: Movement of moist vegetation, wet tyres or water containers that can hold eggs or larvae.

Local dispersal methods
Garden escape/garden waste:
Natural dispersal (local): The adult flight range is quite short, as expected for a scrub-habitat mosquito. The spreading of A. albopictus is quite slow; it has not spread along the Mediterranean coast from Italy to France, in spite of relatively short distances (Eritja et al. 2005).
Road vehicles: May be spread in trucks transporting used tyres.
Transportation of habitat material (local): Movement of moist vegetation, wet tyres or water containers that can hold eggs or larvae (Eritja et al. 2005).

 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Horticulture Yes
Nursery trade Yes
People sharing resourcesMovement of habitat material Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Human health Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

The tiger mosquito is an aggressive outdoor day biter that has a very broad host range and attacks humans, livestock, amphibians, reptiles and birds (Eritja et al. 2005). In one survey of biting rates a level of 30 to 48 bites per hour was recorded (Cancrini et al. 2003).

Mosquitoes are vectors of many relevant human diseases from Malaria to filariasis (caused by Dirofilaria immitis (Naya and Knight 1999, in Eritja et al. 2005)). Ae. albopictus may be a matter of particular concern as a bridge vector for the West Nile virus because it inhabits rural areas and has a wide host range including birds, so that it can readily pass enzootic cycles to humans.
There are a total of four Flaviviruses, ten Bunyaviruses and seven Alphaviruses that Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive to in laboratory conditions. These include Yellow Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Chikungunya and Sindbis (all of which are present in the Mediterranean). Of these Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive in field conditions to three Flaviviruses (Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis), six Bunyaviruses (Jamestown Canyon, Keystone, LaCrosse, Potosi, Cache Valley and Tensaw) and one Alphavirus (EEE). Other circulating viruses in the Mediterranean that are pathogenic to humans (but which the receptivity of Ae. albopictus has not been observed or tested in the laboratory) include Israel Turkey virus, Tahyna and Batai.

However the extent to which Ae. albopictus can transmit diseases in the real world is unclear and depends on many factors including numbers, whether it bites humans, whether it takes blood meals from multiple people and how effectively the virus makes it from the mosquito’s gut to its salivary glands. Currently there is solid evidence for the tiger mosquito’s role in the transmission of only two diseases: Dengue and Chikungunya (Enserink, 2008). However, the recent outbreak Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean vectored by Ae. albopictus has been shown to be caused by a single nucleotide mutation in the virus that allowed it to more effectively use the tiger mosquito as a vector. Similar scenarios could happen with Dengue and other viruses that the mosquito was shown to transmit in the lab (Enserink, 2008).

Ae. albopictus has been demonstrated to have a competitive advantage over a number of other mosquito species including Ae. Aegypti (O’Meara et al. 1995; Juliano, 1998; Lounibos, 2002; Braks et al. 2004 in Vezzani and Carbajo, 2008). Ae. aegypti is an even more important vector of diseases than Ae. albopictus. This is largely because Ae. albopictus has such as wide host range compared to Ae. aegypti which feeds almost exclusively on humans (Enserink, 2008). Because diseases like Dengue affect only primates, if Ae. albopictus feeds on a lizard or bird after a human, the disease is not transmitted. Thus the actual consequence of the potential displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in terms of diseases transmission remains unknown in many regions. Professor Gubler predicts that the spread of Ae. albopictus will actually result in a net gain for public health because in many places, it is displacing Ae. aegypti populations (Enserink, 2008). Indeed there are many studies that report Ae. albopictus outcompeting mosquito larvae of other species such as Ochlerotatus triseriatus, a vector for La Crosse Virus (Bevins, 2008) and Ae. japonicas (Armistead et al. 2008). However Didier Fontenille of the Institute of Research for Development in Montpellier, France disagrees with Gubler citing outbreaks of Chikungunya in the Indian Ocean Islands, La Reunion island and Italy as evidence of the tiger mosquito’s potential devastating impacts (Enserink, 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Causes allergic responses
  • Pest and disease transmission

Impact outcomes

  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts tourism

Invasiveness

  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Aedes aegypti cannot survive during cold winters. It is very similar in size and color with the same markings. It does not have the extended probosci that the Aedes albopictus has.

Prevention and Control

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Management Information

Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Preventative measures: Starting in 1992, several countries in South America (Venezuela, Chile, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Argentina and Brazil) have dictated embargoes on used tire importations, in an attempt to prevent mosquito and dengue introduction into areas where a potential vector, A. aegypti, is already present (Eritja et al. 2005).
Source reduction strategies (such as larval or adult control within tire dumps) have proven to be difficult and relatively inefficient due to the shape and abundance of the water surfaces (Eritja et al. 2005).

Quarantine and inspection measures in Australia have allowed detection of larval introductions of the tiger mosquito (Eritja et al. 2005). As immediate control measures have been applied, Ae. albopictus has not as of yet become established on the continent (R. Russell, pers. comm., in Eritja et al. 2005).

In the Netherlands horticultural companies have taken steps to reduce the risk, for instance, by treating shipments before they leave China (Enserink, 2008).

Predicting the potential spread of the tiger mosquito may be important in alerting the appropriate authorities to take preventative action. Areas at risk in Europe would have mean winter temperatures higher than 0°, at least 500mm rainfall per year and a warm month mean temperature of 20°. It is believed that less than 300mm rainfall per year would make establishment extremely unlikely. (Eritja et al. 2005).

Physical Control: Ae. albopictus is not readily captured by most traps, even those that catch other mosquito species. However, recently there are new traps being developed: BG-SentinelTM and the Collapsible Mosquito Trap (CMT-20TM). These traps use ammonia, fatty acids and lactic acids to produce a smell similar to that of a human body in an upward air current. The addition of carbon dioxide greatly improves the number of mosquitoes captured. When carbon dioxide is added these traps collect about 33 times more than standard light traps (Meeraus et al. 2008).

Biological Control: Bioengineering is a major focus of research in agricultural and public health entomology. Oxford Insect Technologies (http://www.oxitec.com/) have created a strain of Ae. aegypti with a dominant tetracycline-repressible gene. The aim is to release transgenic males in the field; the progeny of matings with wild females will die. Ultimately we will select a sex-linked strain that will kill only female progeny, providing a “driver” for the lethal gene in the field. Current research is studying the ‘fitness’ of such transgenic strains and will also attempt to engineer strains of Ae. albopictus (Insects and Infectious Diseases, 2006).

Another form of biological control that is currently being investigated is use of an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisoplia. Results from laboratory studies showed that longevity of M. anisopliae-infected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus is significantly lower than that of uninfected mosquitoes. The challenge is to find and apply an effective methodology that will result in reduced vectorial capacity of mosquitoes in the field (Scholte et al. 2008).

Integrated Management: In Switzerland, monitoring systems consisted of over 300 strategically positioned oviposition traps along main traffic axes, including parking lots within industrial complexes, border crossings and shopping centres.. Bi-weekly control visits to all traps were conducted between April and November 2007. As soon as eggs were detected, the surrounding vegetation within a perimeter of about 100 metres was sprayed with permethrin against adult mosquitoes. Stagnant water was treated with Bacillus thuringiensis and in some cases with diflubenzuron to control the larval stages (Wymann et al. 2008).

Bibliography

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Contributors

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Reviewed by: Dr. Roger Eritja Spain

    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) Updates on management information with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Tuesday, October 27, 2009

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