Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Boerhavia diffusa
(red spiderling)

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Datasheet

Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Boerhavia diffusa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red spiderling
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. diffusa is a fast-growing weed common in ruderal areas, agricultural land, and pastures. It has been listed as invasive in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Trinidad and Tobago, Hawaii, Japan and Cambodia where it is invading principally coa...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaves opposite, unequal, ex-stipulate; petiole distinctly sulcate above and convex beneath, lamina ovate-orbicular, triangular. Inflorescence axillary or terminal branched cymose; flowers small, 3.8-4.0 x 3-3.2 mm, 2-14 together.
TitleShoot with leaves and panicle
CaptionLeaves opposite, unequal, ex-stipulate; petiole distinctly sulcate above and convex beneath, lamina ovate-orbicular, triangular. Inflorescence axillary or terminal branched cymose; flowers small, 3.8-4.0 x 3-3.2 mm, 2-14 together.
CopyrightA. Bramadhayalaselvam
Leaves opposite, unequal, ex-stipulate; petiole distinctly sulcate above and convex beneath, lamina ovate-orbicular, triangular. Inflorescence axillary or terminal branched cymose; flowers small, 3.8-4.0 x 3-3.2 mm, 2-14 together.
Shoot with leaves and panicleLeaves opposite, unequal, ex-stipulate; petiole distinctly sulcate above and convex beneath, lamina ovate-orbicular, triangular. Inflorescence axillary or terminal branched cymose; flowers small, 3.8-4.0 x 3-3.2 mm, 2-14 together.A. Bramadhayalaselvam
Boerhavia diffusa, flowering shoot.
TitleFlowering shoot
CaptionBoerhavia diffusa, flowering shoot.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Boerhavia diffusa, flowering shoot.
Flowering shootBoerhavia diffusa, flowering shoot.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
B. diffusa is a terrestrial, prostrate, diffusely branched annual or perennial herb, 1-1.5 m long.
TitleGrowth habit
CaptionB. diffusa is a terrestrial, prostrate, diffusely branched annual or perennial herb, 1-1.5 m long.
CopyrightA. Bramadhayalaselvam
B. diffusa is a terrestrial, prostrate, diffusely branched annual or perennial herb, 1-1.5 m long.
Growth habitB. diffusa is a terrestrial, prostrate, diffusely branched annual or perennial herb, 1-1.5 m long.A. Bramadhayalaselvam

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Boerhavia diffusa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • red spiderling

Other Scientific Names

  • Axia cochinchinensis Lour.
  • Boerhavia adscendens Willd.
  • Boerhavia caespitosa Ridl.
  • Boerhavia ciliatobracteata Heimerl
  • Boerhavia coccinea var. leiocarpa (Heimerl) Standl.
  • Boerhavia coccinea var. paniculata Moscoso
  • Boerhavia friesii Heimerl
  • Boerhavia paniculata Rich.
  • Boerhavia paniculata f. esetosa Heimerl
  • Boerhavia paniculata var. guaranitica Heimerl
  • Boerhavia paniculata var. leiocarpa (Heimerl) Heimerl
  • Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb
  • Boerhavia repanda Wall.
  • Boerhavia repens var. diffusa (L.) Hook. f.

International Common Names

  • English: hogweed; pigweed; spreading hogweed
  • Spanish: escorian morado (Guatemala); hierba de cabro (Guatemala); hierba de puerco; mata pavo (Cuba); moradilla (Guatemala); pegajera (Bolivia); pega-pollo (Dominican Republic); raíz china (Bolivia); rodilla de pollo (Colombia); tripa de pollo (Colombia)
  • French: boerhaavia à fleurs rouges
  • Arabic: handakuki; sabaka
  • Chinese: huang xi xin
  • Portuguese: agarra-pinto; amarra-pinto; celidônia

Local Common Names

  • Persian Gulf States: devasapat
  • Brazil: erva-tostao; pega-pinto
  • Caribbean: ipeca
  • Dominican Republic: pega pollo cimarron; toston; yerba de puerco
  • Haiti: liane manger cochon; manger cochon
  • India: bashkhira; punarnava; sant
  • Sri Lanka: chattaranai; kancharanai; mukurattai

EPPO code

  • BOEDI (Boerhavia diffusa)
  • BOERE (Boerhavia repanda)

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. diffusa is a fast-growing weed common in ruderal areas, agricultural land, and pastures. It has been listed as invasive in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Trinidad and Tobago, Hawaii, Japan and Cambodia where it is invading principally coastal and ruderal areas (Wagner et al., 1999; Mito and Uesugi, 2004; Zuloaga et al., 2008; PIER, 2015). The sticky fruits of the plant facilitate dispersal. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Nyctaginaceae
  •                             Genus: Boerhavia
  •                                 Species: Boerhavia diffusa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Boerhavia diffusa belongs to the Tribe Nyctagineae of the Nyctagineaceae family (Stevens, 2015). Mukherjee (1984) has revised Indian Nyctaginaceae members. Bramadhayalaselvam (1991) made revisionary studies on the South Indian species of Nyctaginaceae. The spelling Boerhaavia has been widely used for this genus, but most recent texts use Boerhavia

Taxonomy of the genus is complex and interpreted in various ways. Some authors treat B. repens L. and B. diffusa L. as synonyms. Singh (1988) and Stemmerik (1964) conclude that there is too much variation to distinguish these two (and B. procumbens) and all three are treated as conspecific in Indian floras. B. diffusa is certainly a highly variable plant and Theodore Cooke (1958) refers to it as a 'protean' plant, changing its appearance according to soil and climate. Others (e.g. Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954) distinguish B. repens as a separate species with more prostrate stems, smaller flowers and smaller leaves than B. diffusa (= B. repens L. var. diffusa (L.) Hook. f.). Matters are also confused because the name B. diffusa has been misapplied by some authors to the closely related B. coccinea Mill. which is also a very widely distributed weed. In Holm et al. (1979)B. coccinea is treated as a synonym of B. diffusa. See Similarities to Other Species for means of separating these two species.

Description

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The genus Boerhavia can be recognised by its erect or diffused herbaceous habit, funnel-shaped, plicate limb of the perianth and paniculate inflorescence.

Prostrate or ascending herb, to 50 cm long, many-branched from a taproot; twigs cylindrical, glabrous.  Leaves in unequal pairs; blades 1.2-5.5 × 1.3-4 cm, ovate to wide ovate, chartaceous, sparsely pilose, especially on veins, lower side glaucous, the apex rounded to acute, shortly apiculate, the base rounded, truncate to nearly cordate, the margins wavy, ciliate; petioles pilose, 0.5-3 cm long.  Flowers nearly sessile, 2-4(-7) in terminal, subcapitate clusters on axillary racemes or terminal panicles, 10-30 cm long; the axes glabrous; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate.  Calyx base 0.5-1.5 mm, puberulent, the limb funnel-shaped, red or violet, 0.6-1 mm long; stamens usually 2, slightly exserted.  Anthocarp sessile, green, glandular pubescent, sticky, short club-shaped, 2-2.5 mm long, 5-ribbed.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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B. diffusa is pantropical in distribution. It is recorded in floras of India, Malaysia and West Pakistan, and in many of the Indian regional floras such as Madras (Gamble, 1957), Tamil Nadu Carnatic (Matthew, 1983), Goa, Diu, Daman and Nagarhaveli (Rolla Seshagiri Rao, 1986), Tamil Nadu (Henry et al., 1987), Cannanore (Ramachandran and Nair, 1988) and Eastern Karnataka (Singh, 1988). B. diffusa has also been recorded in much of Africa, tropical and temperate Asia, southern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America (see distribution table for details; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). Its native range is unclear, and it is widely naturalized (USDA-ARS, 2015).

Owing to the possible confusion with B. coccinea, it is possible that some of the records included here are more correctly attributed to the latter.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent, Widespread
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent
MalawiPresentNative
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresent
RwandaPresentNative
SenegalPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent, Widespread
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent, Widespread
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
CambodiaPresentInvasiveProbably native
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent, Widespread
-AssamPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent, Widespread
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent, Widespread
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Widespread
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
KuwaitPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresentNative

Europe

GermanyPresent

North America

AnguillaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentNative
-SabaPresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeTortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
CuraçaoPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeSt Thomas, St Croix, St John
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresentNative
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-PiauiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
-SergipePresent
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasive
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Habitat

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B. diffusa is a tropical species growing in various soil types in waste places, along roadsides, near habitations, in and along cultivated fields and in open cleared patches in forests. The weed is also noted in dry waste lands, cultivated land and pasture. In China it is found in open places near sea, and in dry and warm river valleys, at 100-1900 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Chromosome number n = 26 and 2n = 52 (Virendra Kumar and Subramaniam, 1986).

According to Nadkarni (1976), there are two types of B. diffusa, one with white flowers and the other with pink flowers; the former is used in medicine. The sizes of the leaf, petiole and fruit show a high degree of variation from region to region, probably due to ecological factors (Nadkarni, 1976). 

B. diffusa propagates by root stocks and by seed, although seeds only account for 21% of reproduction. It flowers and fruits throughout the year (Mathur and Bandari, 1983). The first flowers may appear 4 weeks after germination of the seeds (Muzila, 2006). 

Environmental Requirements 

B. diffusa grows as a weed in ruderal areas, preferring sunny sites, sandy soils and a slightly seasonal climate, from sea-level up to 1900 m altitude. It is also a weed in cultivated land and grazing pasture. It prefers soils with pH ranging from 6.6 to 7.8 (Muzila, 2006).

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Punarnavomyia boerhaaviaefoliae Parasite Growing point/Leaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several host-specific diseases have been identified in India on B. diffusa: (1) Passalora diffusa causing chlorotic leaf spots, and (2) Colletotrichum boerhaviae causing brown necrotic spots. Also in India, B. diffusa is recorded as a host for the virus causing aubergine mosaic disease (EMV), and in Costa Rica as a host of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV). In Cameroon B. diffusa is an alternative host for the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), and in Nigeria caterpillars of Aegocera rectilinea [Aegoceropsis rectilinea] and Hippotion celerio were found feeding on B. diffusa (Muzila, 2006). B. diffusa is also reported as an alternate host for rice nematode (Kumar, 1990). Mani (1973) reported a cecidomyiid insect natural enemy but could not specify the species.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The small fruit of B. diffusa are very sticky and grow close to the ground. They can therefore attach to human clothing or to animals and birds, enabling wide dispersal. Because this species grows as a weed, its seeds can also be dispersed accidentally as a contaminant (Wagner et al., 1999; Muzila, 2006; PIER, 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed on agricultural land Yes Yes Muzila, 2006
Disturbance Yes Yes Muzila, 2006
Medicinal usePlant parts used medicinally in Asia Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSticky fruits adhere to clothing Yes PIER, 2015
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesWeed in pastures and agricultural land Yes Yes Muzila, 2006
LivestockSticky fruits adhere to animal fur Yes PIER, 2015

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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B. diffusa is reported as one of the predominant weeds of cassava in Venezuela (Quiñones and Moreno, 1995). It is also recorded associated with Xylella fastidiosa in grape in Venezuela (Hernández-Garboza and Ochoa-Corona, 1994). It is the most common principal weed of date palm orchards in India (Josan et al., 1993) and is one of the most problematic weeds in mustard in India (Rajput et al., 1993), where it is also recorded as a weed in tobacco, pearl millet and groundnut (Singh and Prasad, 1987Murthy et al., 1991; Singh and Prasad, 1991; Kennedy et al., 1992). In Nigeria it is also recorded as a main weed in upland rice (Kehinde and Fagade, 1986). In Hawaii this species is a common weed spreading rapidly principally in coastal areas, disturbed places, and disturbed forests (Wagner et al., 1999).

B. diffusa indirectly limits crop production by serving as an alternative host to crop pests; the weed provides food, shelter and reproductive sites for insects, nematodes and pathogens (Kumar, 1990). B. diffusa is recorded as an alternative host for Aproaerema modicella (groundnut leaf miner) (Kennedy et al., 1992). Yield losses attributed to these factors are difficult to determine.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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The whole plant or its specific parts (leaves, stem, and roots) have a long history of use by indigenous and tribal people in India. The leaves of B. diffusa are eaten as a pot-herb and the root is employed in medicine to cure diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera (Kirtikar and Basu, 1975). Aqueous extracts of B. diffusa possess strong antiviral activity (Nagarajan et al., 1990). The roots contain a quinolone alkaloid which is the main medicinally active compound. The whole plant of B. diffusa is a very useful source of the drug punarnava, which is documented in Indian Pharmacopoeia as a diuretic.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. diffusa has a habit similar to Boerehavia repens, but B. repens differs by its flowers less than 1 mm across and leaves mostly less than 2.5 cm long. B. erecta is similar in habit but lacks the sticky fruits of B. diffusa. Confusion is most likely with B. coccinea which also has sticky fruits, but its flowers are in denser clusters, 4-12 per umbel (versus 2-4 in B. diffusa), paler (pink or mauve versus rich magenta or crimson in B. diffusa) and the inflorescence is more shortly branched, more leafy and less diffuse (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954). 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Introduction

The choice of control method depends upon the value of the crop and the severity of the weed.

Methods that are commonly used to control perennial herbs and that can be used for B. diffusa include preparation of a clean seed bed, crop rotation, tillage methods and physical methods (hand weeding and spade digging).

Chemical Control

Seedlings are relatively susceptible to 2,4-D and some control of established plants can also be expected (Ivens, 1967). There is little other direct information on susceptibility of B. diffusa to herbicides, but those which have been noted to give good control of mixed weed populations, including B. diffusa, include fluchloralin and oxyfluorfen in tobacco (Murthy et al., 1991) and atrazine in fodder maize (Singh and Prasad, 1988).

Hand Weeding

Hand weeding of B. diffusa resulted in a yield increase compared to the control in mustard (Rajput et al., 1993).

In chewing tobacco, yield without weed control yield was 1.39 t/ha and after controlling the weeds, including B. diffusa, by hand weeding and spade digging or by herbicides the yield was 2.83-2.99 t/ha (Murthy et al., 1991).

Yields were considerably improved by hand weeding 30 days after sowing in fodder maize (Singh and Prasad, 1988).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Azevedo DNP de; Beltrao NE de M, 1984. Weed control and herbicide selectivity in perennial cotton associated with maize and cowpea. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 19(5):583-590

Bramadhayalaselvam A, 1991. Revision of South Indian Nyctaginaceae, M.Phil. dissertation submitted to University of Madras, Tamilnadu, India.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gamble JS, 1957. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Vol. II. Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Henry AN; Kumari GR; Chitra V, 1987. Flora of Tamil Nadu, India. Vol. II. Coimbatore, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Hernandez Garboza L; Ochoa Corona F, 1994. Diagnosis of Xylella fastidiosa in grape and weeds associated with this crop. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 33:7-10

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hooker JD, 1885. Flora of British India. Ist edn. Vol. IV. Kent, UK: L. Reeve & Company Limited.

Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 1, Part 1 (revised by Keay RWJ). London, UK: Crown Agents.

IABIN, 2015. List of Alien Invasive Species occurring in Jamaica. The United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). ttp://i3n.iabin.net/

Ivens GW, 1967. East Africa Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Josan JS; Thatai SK; Monga PK, 1993. Principal weeds of date palm orchards. Punjab Horticultural Journal, 33(1-1):93-95; 6 ref.

Kamble SY; Pradhan SG, 1988. Flora of Akola District, Maharastra. Ser. 3. Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Kehinde JK; Fagade SO, 1986. Integrated weed control in upland rice. International Rice Research Newsletter, 11(5):37

Kennedy FJS; Lourduraj AC; Rajamanickam K, 1992. Weeds as alternate hosts for groundnut leaf miner. Groundnut News, 4(2):7

Kirtikar KR; Basu BD, 1975. Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. III. Dehradun, India: International Book Distributors.

Kumar S, 1990. Alternate hosts for rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 7(1):4

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Mani MS, 1973. Plant galls of India. Plant galls of India. Macmillan India. Delhi &c. India, ix + 354 pp.

Martin R; Pol C, 2009. Weeds of upland crops in Cambodia. Commonwealth of Australia, 81. [ACIAR Monograph No. 141.]

Mathew KT; Malallah G; Al-Dosari M, 2012. Eleven new weeds in Kuwait. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering, 39(1A):169-192.

Mathur A; Bandari MM, 1983. New Biosystematics varience in Boerhavia diffusa L. growing in different soil. GEOBIOS, NEW REP., 2(1):35-38.

Matthew KM, 1983. Flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. Vol.III. Tiruchirapalli, India: The Rapinat Herbarium.

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

Mukherjee AK, 1984. Revision of Nyctaginaceae, India. Journal Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 5:(3)581-582.

Murthy SK; Raghavaiah CV; Bhaskar AS; Arulswamy S, 1991. Pre-emergence herbicides on weed control and yield of chewing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in Tamil Nadu. Tobacco Research, 17(2):123-126

Muzila M, 2006. Boerhavia diffusa L. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale), [ed. by Schmelzer, G. H. \Gurib-Fakim, A.]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Nadkarni KM, 1976. The Indian Materia Medica. Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan Private Limited.

Nagarajan K; Murthy NS; Reddy TSN, 1990. Utilization of botanicals possessing antiviral principle against tobacco mosaic virus. Botanical pesticides in integrated pest management: Proceedings of National Symposium held on January 21-22, 1990 at Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry 533-105, India Rajahmundry, India; Indian Society of Tobacco Science, 407-412

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Rajput RL; Gautam DS; Verma OP, 1993. Studies on cultural and chemical weed control in mustard (Brassica campestris). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 18(2):1-5

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Schuester M, 1987. Blister beetle in Paraguay a potential biological control agent. Tropical Pest Management, 33(3):241

Shreemali JL, 1972. Two new pathogenic fungi causing diseases on Indian medicinal plants. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 2(1):84-85

Singh NP, 1988. Flora of Eastern Karnataka. Vol. II. Delhi, India: Mittal Publications.

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Singh PP; Prasad R, 1991. Studies on weed control in pearlmillet. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 36(2):286-288

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Distribution References

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Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

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Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

Nagarajan K, Murthy N S, Reddy T S N, 1990. Utilization of botanicals possessing antiviral principle against tobacco mosaic virus. In: Botanical pesticides in integrated pest management: Proceedings of National Symposium held on January 21-22, 1990 at Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry 533 105, India. [Botanical pesticides in integrated pest management: Proceedings of National Symposium held on January 21-22, 1990 at Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry 533 105, India.], Rajahmundry, India: Indian Society of Tobacco Science. 407-412.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quiñones V, Moreno N, 1995. Weed control in cassava in Barinas, Venezuela. (Control de malezas yuca en Barinas, Venezuela.). Agronomía Tropical (Maracay). 45 (1), 85-93.

Rajput R L, Gautam D S, Verma O P, 1993. Studies on cultural and chemical weed control in mustard (Brassica campestris). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal. 18 (2), 1-5.

Rao RS, 1986. Flora of Goa, Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagarhaveli., Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

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Singh NP, 1988. Flora of Eastern Karnataka., II Delhi, India: Mittal Publications.

Singh P P, Prasad R, 1991. Studies on weed control in pearlmillet. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 36 (2), 286-288.

Stemmerik JF, 1964. Flora of Malesiana., 6 Groningen, The Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoff Publishing.

Theodore C, 1958. Flora of the Presidency of Bombay., II Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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Verma S K, 1983. Host plants of Amsacta moorei Butler in the Rajasthan Desert. Bulletin of Entomology. 24 (1), 49-50.

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Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Zeeshan Ahmad, Khan S M, Shahab Ali, Inayat-ur-Rahman, Hussan Ara, Iram Noreen, Ayesha Khan, 2016. Indicator species analyses of weed communities of maize crop in District Mardan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 22 (2), 227-238. http://www.wssp.org.pk/SearchViaList/85f2b9507de3d718f94122555958c33a/8229716c1c1ad23b1ea10452ba59f128

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay))., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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06/03/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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