Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ameiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819)
Preferred Common Name
- brown bullhead
Other Scientific Names
- Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819)
International Common Names
- French: barbotte brune
Local Common Names
- North America: bullhead, mudcat, hornpout, catfish, common bullhead, horned pout
- France: poisson chat
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
A. nebulosus is a fish of the Ictaluridae family, commonly known as a brown bullhead. It has been introduced outside of its native range in North America to other areas of North America, Europe, Asia and Pacific islands (i.e. New Zealand, Hawaii). It was likely spread primarily for recreational angling opportunities. Its spread has been undoubtedly facilitated by its ability to survive low oxygen concentrations for prolonged periods (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Its establishment, once introduced, was likely assisted by its generalist, omnivore diet with feeding aided, even in turbid waters, by its chin barbels (Scott and Crossman, 1973). This diet results in predation on a wide variety of native invertebrates, small vertebrates and fish eggs. Conversely, its stout shape and strong dorsal and pectoral fin spines would minimize predation by native predators. Its parental care of eggs and young would also reduce mortality in the young (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The species is recognized within the Global Invasive Species Database (ISSG, 2009).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Siluriformes
- Family: Ictaluridae
- Genus: Ameiurus
- Species: Ameiurus nebulosus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Within its native range, two subspecies have been identified, Ameiurus nebulous nebulosus, north of a line between Viriginia and North Dakota, and Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus to the south (Hubbs and Lagler, 1957). Although initially of the Ictalurus genus, Robins et al. (1980) concluded that Ameiurus was valid and was subsequently recommended by Bailey and Robins (1988).
DescriptionTop of page
A. nebulosus was described thoroughly by Scott and Crossman (1973) using specimens sampled from Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada: “The species is a moderate-sized catfish with adult total lengths between 203-356 mm. Its greatest body depth occurs at the origin of the dorsal fin, typically 17.7-26.3% of total length. The caudal peduncle (tail fin) is moderately deep (depth 8.1-9.9% of total body length) with a straight or slightly rounded posterior edge. The head is massive and somewhat lengthy, usually 22.6-26.3% of total body length, and quite wide throughout. Its eyes are small, with diameter 10.0-18.7% of head length, round, and protruding. Lips are fleshy, but not prominent, with one pair of long flattened maxillary barbels, which are the longest of four pairs of barbels. Its gill rakers are moderately long and pointed. Fins are as follows: 1 dorsal, ahead of midpoint of body, which is soft-rayed but with a strong leading spine. Pectoral fins are high, broad, rounded, with anterior heavy spine with numerous barbs. Spines in dorsal and pectoral fins can be locked in erect position, presumably as a predation deterrence strategy. The adipose fin is small; pelvic fins inconspicuous; and, anal fin long and slender. The skin lacks scales throughout but is complete with taste glands. Its lateral line is complete throughout the midpoint of the body. The dorsal surface of the head and body may be yellow-brown, olive or grey. Sides are often mottled with vague brown blotches. The underside anterior of pelvic fins may be pale yellow or white. All barbels are dark brown or black, except chin barbels, which may be pale.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||1984||Hubei Province and Beijing|
|-Beijing||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||1984|
|-Hubei||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||1984|
|Belarus||Present||Introduced||1935||Released in lakes and ponds of Western Belorussia (in Lake Orekhovo in the upper reaches of the Pripet, etc.) Reared with the use of thermal waters of the cooling ponds at the power stations.|
|Czechia||Present||Introduced||Established in backwaters of Bohemian and Moravian rivers|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||Hjulby Sø on Bornholm|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Introduced|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||1922||Occurs on the coast East of Helsinki and in several small lakes in South Finland.|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||1885||Established in open waters. Also used as an ornamental fish in garden ponds.|
|Hungary||Present||Introduced||1902||Original citation: FAO (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (1997)|
|Italy||Present||Introduced||1906||Recently recorded in water bodies of the Piemonte region|
|Romania||Present||Introduced||1910||Original citation: FAO (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (1997)|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Occurs in the lower Fraser RIver and lakes on Vancouver Island between Victoria and Nanaimo|
|-New Brunswick||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Nova Scotia||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Ontario||Present, Widespread||Native||Southern Ontario|
|-Colorado||Present||Introduced||South Platte drainage; possibly other locations|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||1893||Introduced to Oahu and Hawaii, probably introduced for aquaculture|
|-Idaho||Present||Introduced||Clearwater and Bear drainages|
|-Kansas||Present||Introduced||Cherokee, Crawford and Linn counties|
|-Kentucky||Present||Introduced||Licking, Rolling Fork, Salt, Kentucky drainages|
|-Missouri||Present||Native||Lower Missouri drainage including the Chariton-Nishnabotna drainage|
|-Nebraska||Present||Introduced||Truman Reservoir (Osage River); private eastern ponds|
|-Nevada||Present||Introduced||Carson, Truckee, Humbolt, Muddy drainages|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Native||Androscoggin drainage|
|-New York||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Willamette, Klamath, Coos drainages; Devil’s Lake and Benton County|
|-South Carolina||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-South Dakota||Present, Widespread||Native|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Silver Lake (Castlerock); likely other localities|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||1877||Some 100-200 fish were released in a lake in Auckland in 1877 and were abundant there by 1885. Also released in a lake in Westland and in the lower reaches of the Waikato River. Widespread in rivers in Auckland, the Wanganui River and Lake Wairarapa as well as in Lake Taupo; Original citation: FAO (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (1997)|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||1908||Invasive||Found in the Angostura and Prado rivers but has recently become extinct in the Angostura|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
A. nebulosus was first introduced in the Pacific islands (1877) with the release of 100-200 individuals for angling in Auckland, New Zealand. These introductions resulted in local viable populations by 1885 (Holcík, 1991). Additional introductions for angling and sport occurred in Hawaii in 1893 (Welcomme, 1988). European introductions occurred concurrently, with individuals from North America introduced to Germany for angling, sport and aquaculture in 1885 (Scott and Crossman, 1973), leading to subsequent intentional and unintentional secondary spread to Poland (1885) (FAO, 1997), the United Kingdom (Bartley, 2006), Hungary (1902) (FAO, 1997), Finland (1922) (FAO, 1997), Belarus (1935) (Reshetnikov et al., 1997) and Bulgaria (1975) (Uzunova and Zlatanova, 2007). Recent introductions (1984) of A. nebulosus from North America to Hubei province and Beijing, China have occurred solely for aquaculture.
Within the United States, A. nebulosus was introduced west of its native Mississippi drainage for angling, sport and aquaculture purposes throughout the 1900s. Introductions within Canada have been concentrated within British Columbia, within the lower Fraser River and lakes within Vancouver Island (Crossman, 1991). The source population, date and reasons for introduction are uncertain for British Columbia populations.
IntroductionsTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Although A. nebulosus is not considered a quarantined pest, several countries (Switzerland (Wittenberg, 2005); Poland (FAO, 1997); Chile (Welcomme, 1988)) report adverse effects on native fish communities following its establishment. The risk of accidental introduction from aquaculture facilities (see Distribution Table for list of facilities) will be dependant upon the type of facility (e.g., enclosed versus wild pens) and proximity to natural waterbodies. Facilities that are physically connected to natural waterbodies likely pose the greatest risk of introduction. Of these facilities, the effectiveness of physical barriers (e.g., netting, electricity) will determine the likelihood of introduction due to potential escapement.
The risk of introduction of A. nebulosus for angling and sport purposes is dependant upon the goals and regulations of fishery management programs (e.g., the encouragement of non-native fish stocking for sport, or biological control) and the prevalence of unauthorized introductions within areas of potential introduction. Although angling for A. nebulosus within Canada is relatively unpopular (Scott and Crossman, 1973), the initial introduction to Europe and the Pacific islands for angling suggests almost global popularity as a sportfish; therefore, unauthorized introductions for angling purposes may occur.
Natural dispersal of wild populations through drainage networks will likely occur given the species’ moderate swimming ability (Scott and Crossman, 1973). In particular, the ability to travel throughout degraded waterbodies is facilitated by the species’ ability to withstand high water temperatures (up to 37.5°C), industrial pollution, and low oxygen concentrations for prolonged periods (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Over-winter survival is also likely high and may not hinder dispersal success, given the species’ ability to tolerate 0.2 ppm oxygen during winter (Scott and Crossman, 1973).
HabitatTop of page
A. nebulosus prefers warmwater habitats within lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. Coincident with its introduction for aquaculture and sport, it may also inhabit artificial channels (e.g., irrigation ditches; canals) that possess suitably warm water for spawning (21.1°C). Aquatic vegetation is usually necessary, as are mud or sand bottoms. The species is benthic and, therefore, persists most frequently in the nearshore area, but has been captured as deep as 12 m in offshore habitats (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The physiological tolerances of the species allow colonization of very warm (up to 37.5°C) waters with low (as little as 0.2 ppm) dissolved oxygen. The species is frequently found within waters containing substantial domestic and industrial pollution, but may bury within mud substrates to avoid continual exposure to pollutants (Scott and Crossman, 1973).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Freshwater||Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Freshwater||Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Hybridization between brown bullhead and black bullhead may occur where the species frequently co-occur (Scott and Crossman, 1973). No other hybrids are known within North America. A. nebulosus has been sequenced and is described in Arai et al. (2001), Hardman and Page (2003), Hubert et al. (2008) and Sullivan et al. (2006).
The spawning behaviour of A. nebulosus was described in detail by Scott and Crossman (1973): “Spawning occurs in late spring and summer in Canada, when water temperatures reach 21.1°C. Regions lacking a yearly cooling period may have repeated spawning events within a single year. During spawning, one or both sexes clear a shallow nest in mud or sand, usually near aquatic vegetation or other available cover (rocks, stumps). Water depth may be between 15 cm and several meters. Spawning sites are usually contained within protected waters (coves, bays, etc.), with spawning occurring during the day. Male and female circle the nest, caressing with barbels. Following deposition, eggs are pale in colour and coated with mucus, 3 mm in diameter. Between 2000-13,000 eggs may be deposited by mature females. Egg care is provided by one or both parents, during which the eggs are fanned continuously with paired fins to increase oxygen concentrations. In Ontario, Canada, eggs take 6-9 days to hatch at 20.6-23.3°C. Immediately following hatching young are 6 mm in length and pale, but soon darken and swim and feed actively. Of note is the spherical swimming pattern that young will follow, which occurs immediately above one or both of the resting parents, until young are 51 mm total length. Growth is rapid with young reaching 51-122 mm by the end of the first growing season.”
Physiology and Phenology
Physiological specializations allow A. nebulosus to tolerate waters contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The species may also adapt to extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations and warm waters (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The specific physical mechanisms of these physiological specializations are unknown. Little documentation exists regarding phenological variation in native and exotic ranges.
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||Optimum||As low as 0.2 tolerated|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||0||Optimum||8-15 tolerated|
|Turbidity (JTU turbidity)||Optimum||Variable; 100 NTU tolerated (estimated)|
|Velocity (cm/h)||Optimum||Low(<0.1 m/s)|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||Optimum||Preferred unknown; 36.1 tolerated; 37.5 lethal|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Esox lucius||Predator||not specific||Scott and Crossman (1973)|
|Esox masquinongy||Predator||not specific||Scott and Crossman (1973)|
|Esox niger||Predator||not specific||Scott and Crossman (1973)|
|Sander canadensis||Predator||not specific||Scott and Crossman (1973)|
|Sander vitreus||Predator||not specific||Scott and Crossman (1973)|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
By virtue of its strong pectoral and dorsal spines, the adult A. nebulosus is well protected from predation by all but the largest fish predators in their native range in Canada (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Although present in juveniles, the spines are less robust making juveniles more susceptible to predation by fishes with a wider range in size. Within its native range, predators include members of the pike family (Esox spp.) and pike perches (Sander spp.) (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Where introduced on the Gulf Islands of British Columbia in Canada, there are no other piscivorous fishes present and, hence, no native predators to introduced A. nebulosus.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A. nebulosus is a moderately strong swimmer (Scott and Crossman, 1973) that is capable of surviving degraded, warmwater freshwater environments; therefore, the species will undoubtedly increase its introduced range through natural dispersal within drainage networks. The magnitude of spread will be dependant upon the spatial configuration of potential habitats and their connectivity via drainage networks. Most natural dispersal within the native range of Canada and the USA has occurred at local levels (Fuller et al., 1999).
Although A. nebulosus are predated upon by larger fishes, the likelihood of long-distance dispersal resulting from this vector is low. Most piscivorous fishes are unable to utilize A. nebulosus for food due to their sharp, strong dorsal and pectoral spines that may lock into an erect position when predated upon.
Introduction via fisheries (angling/sport purposes) and aquaculture are the dominant long-distance (national; international) vectors. Intentional introductions by fisheries managers may result in long-distance travel events via stocking from source populations. Aquaculture introductions may have similar magnitudes of spread. For example, China (Beijing and Hubei province) stocked A. nebulosus for aquaculture purposes from USA broodstock (Welcomme, 1988). Unauthorized introductions by anglers also has the potential to contribute to local, national or international events but may be constrained by the effectiveness of certain legal restrictions that prohibit import of live organisms across borders.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Hunting, angling, sport or racing||Yes|
|Live food or feed trade||Known within native range in Canada (N Mandrak, DFO Canada, personal communication, 2009)||Yes|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
To date, economic impacts resulting from A. nebulosus introductions have not been quantified. In certain cases of wild establishment, A. nebulosus introductions have the potential to hinder local commercial and sport fisheries through competition with target species.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
A. nebulosus introductions may lead to competition for food or space and predation on small fishes, invertebrates or other small food items. Of particular concern is the potential for altered energetic pathways within recipient ecosystems, given their omnivorous diet and a body structure that precludes predation from but all of the largest fishes. Scott and Crossman (1973) describe the following parasites known from within the species, which have the potential to infect recipient fish communities following A. nebulosus introductions: Protozoa, Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, leeches, Mollusca, and Crustacea.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Gasterosteus||National list(s)||British Columbia||Competition - monopolizing resources; Predation|
|Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Predation||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009)|
Social ImpactTop of page
A. nebulosus populations may hinder local native sport fisheries by out-competing target fishes, resulting in reduced angling opportunities and their social impacts. Alternatively, introductions may be encouraged locally if A. nebulosus are favoured for sport. Introduction into previously fishless waters may provide new or valued angling opportunities. Current estimates of social impacts resulting from introductions have not been documented.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has high genetic variability
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Canadian environmental monitoring programs have used A. nebulosus for contaminant biomonitoring within degraded and recovering ecosystems (Arcand-Hoy and Metcalfe, 1999). No other environmental services have been reported.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Laboratory use
- Pet/aquarium trade
- Research model
- Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
The brown bullhead (A. nebulosus) is frequently confused with black bullhead Ameiurus melas (southern Canada, USA and parts of Mexico), yellow bullheadAmeiurus natalis (southern Canada, parts of USA), snail bullhead Ameiurus brunneus (southern USA), spotted bullhead Ameiurus serracanthus (southern USA) and flat bullhead Ameiurus platycephalus (southern USA).
A. nebulosus is immediately distinguishable from spotted bullhead by the lack of obvious darkened blotches running the length of the body, whereas a strongly depressed head distinguishes the flat bullhead. Differences between brown, black and yellow bullhead are more conspicuous and concern the morphology of anal rays and pectoral spines. While the yellow bullhead’s anal fin overlaps anterior rays of its caudal fin, both brown bullhead and black bullhead have anal fins that do not reach anterior rays of the caudal fin. Yellow bullhead have relatively smooth pectoral spines; black bullhead possess barbs that point towards head when fins are closed against the body; whereas, the barbs of brown bullhead point towards the caudal fin when closed (Scott and Crossman, 1973; Fuller et al., 1999).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Prevention
Eradication may involve the use of chemical agents (e.g., rotenone) to induce mortality within introduced populations, although such methods should be evaluated for their potential effects on non-target fishes. Other measures (e.g., physical removal using fish sampling gears: fyke nets, seines, boat and backpack electrofishers) may also be effective.
Monitoring and Surveillance
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Several authors have described A. nebulosus introductions to broad geographical areas (e.g., Welcomme, 1988), but such reports typically lack details of specific biological and economic impacts due to their substantial geographic scope. Therefore, future research should describe the complete biological and economic impacts associated with local A. nebulosus introductions, which would allow for better understanding of the risks associated with intentional or unintentional A. nebulosus introductions. Determining the economic benefits of A. nebulosus aquaculture should also be described, which would allow fishery managers to evaluate its use given the potential for inadvertent biological and economic harm.
ReferencesTop of page
Amori G, Angelici FM, Frugis S, Gandolfi G, Groppali R, Lanza B, Relini B, Vicini G, 1993. [English title not available]. (Vertebrata) In: Checklist Delle Specie Della Fauna Italiana [ed. by Minelli A, Ruffo S, Posta La] Calderini, Bologna, , 83 pp
Arcand-Hoy LD, Metcalfe CD, 1999. Biomarkers of exposure of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) to contaminants in the lower Great Lakes, North America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18:740-749
Csavas I, 1995. Status and perspectives of culturing catfishes in East and Southeast Asia. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Biological Bases for Aquaculture of Siluriformes, Montpellier, France, 23-27 May 1994
FAO (Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 1997. FAO database on introduced aquatic species. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en
Fuller PL, Nico LG, Williams JD, 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society. [American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27]
Hubert N, Hanner R, Holm E, Mandrak NE, Taylor E, Burridge M, Watkinson D, Dumont P, Curry A, Bentzen P, Zhang J, April J, Bernatchez L, 2008. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes. Plos One, 3(6):e2490
ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group), 2009. ISSG database on global invasive species. Auckland, New Zealand: Invasive Species Specialist Group and IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
Maya Arai, Assil IQ, Abou-Samra AB, 2001. Characterization of three corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in catfish: a novel third receptor is predominantly expressed in pituitary and urophysis. Endocrinology, 142(1):446-454
Reshetnikov YS, Bogutskaya N, Vasil'eva E, Dorofeeva E, Naseka A, Popova O, Savvaitova K, Sideleva V, Sokolov L, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology, 37:687-736
Robins CR, Bailey RM, Bond CE, Brooker JR, Lachner EA, Lea RN, Scott WB, 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada., Ed. 4:174pp
Sullivan JP, Lundberg JG, Hardman M, 2006. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 41(3):636-662. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10557903
Tan Y, Tong HE, 1989. The status of the exotic aquatic organisms in China. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fisheries Society Special Publication [ed. by Silva SSDe], 35-43
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis, 5-year review: Summary and evalution. In: Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis, 5-year review: summary and evalution : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp.
Wittenberg R, 2005. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. The environment in practice 0629. Bern, : Federal Office for the Environment, 155
Yamamoto MN, 1992. Occurrence, distribution and abundance of accidentally introduced freshwater aquatic organisms in Hawaii. State of Hawaii, Freshwater Fisheries Research and Surveys, Proj. No. F-14-R-16
Amori G, Angelici F M, Frugis S, Gandolfi G, Groppali R, Lanza B, Relini B, Vicini G, 1993. Vertebrata. (Vertebrata.). In: Checklist Delle Specie Della Fauna Italiana. [ed. by Minelli A, Ruffo S, Posta La]. Bologna, Italy: Calderini. 83 pp.
Bartley D M, 2006. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control. In: Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control, Rome, Italy: FAO.
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Csavas I, 1995. Status and perspectives of culturing catfishes in East and Southeast Asia. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Biological Bases for Aquaculture of Siluriformes, Montpellier, France, 23-27 May 1994 [Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Biological Bases for Aquaculture of Siluriformes, Montpellier, France, 23-27 May 1994],
Frier J O, 1994. [English title not available]. (Danske ferskvandsfisk og deres udbredelsesomrǻde.). In: Truede ferskvandsfiskearter i Norden. TemaNord 1994. 625 [ed. by Frier J O]. København, Denmark: Nordisk Ministerr?d. 4-6, 83-99.
Reshetnikov Y S, Bogutskaya N, Vasil'eva E, Dorofeeva E, Naseka A, Popova O, Savvaitova K, Sideleva V, Sokolov L, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology. 687-736.
Tan Y, Tong H E, 1989. The status of the exotic aquatic organisms in China. In: Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. [Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia.], [ed. by Silva S S De]. 164.
Wittenberg R, 2005. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. In: CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. The environment in practice 0629, Bern, Federal Office for the Environment. 155.
OrganizationsTop of page
USA: United States Geological Survey: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), Gainesville, FL 32653
ContributorsTop of page
16/03/09 Original text by:
Nicholas Mandrak, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Canada
Andrew Drake, University of Toronto, Canada
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/