Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ameiurus melas
(black bullhead)

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Datasheet

Ameiurus melas (black bullhead)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ameiurus melas
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black bullhead
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. melas, commonly known as the black bullhead, is a species of bullhead catfish native to Canada, USA and Mexico. It has been introduced into numerous countries in Europe, South America and many states in the...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead); artwork of adult fish.
TitleAdult
CaptionAmeiurus melas (black bullhead); artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead); artwork of adult fish.
AdultAmeiurus melas (black bullhead); artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque, 1820)

Preferred Common Name

  • black bullhead

Other Scientific Names

  • Ameirus melas Rafinesque, 1820
  • Ameiurus melas melas (Rafinesque, 1820)
  • Ameiurus vulgaris Thompson, 1842
  • Ictalurus melas Rafinesque, 1820
  • Ictalurus melas melas Rafinesque, 1820
  • Silurus melas Rafinesque, 1820

International Common Names

  • English: black catfish; bullhead; catfish; catfish, black; homedpout; hornedpout; poisson-chat; yellow belly bullhead
  • Spanish: bagre; bagre torito negro
  • French: barbotte noire; poisson-chat

Local Common Names

  • Albania: peshku mace e zezë
  • Austria: schwarzer zwergwels
  • Canada/Quebec: barbotte noire
  • Denmark: sort dværgmall
  • Finland: mustapiikkimonni
  • Germany: schwarzer katzenwels; Schwarzer zwergels; Schwarzer Zwergwels
  • Italy: pesce gatto
  • Netherlands: zwarte Amerikaanse dwergmeerval; zwarte Amerikaanse dwergmeerval
  • Poland: sumik czarny
  • Portugal: peixe-gato
  • Sweden: svart dvärgmal

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. melas, commonly known as the black bullhead, is a species of bullhead catfish native to Canada, USA and Mexico. It has been introduced into numerous countries in Europe, South America and many states in the USA and is now established in at least 15 countries (Nijssen and De Groot, 1974; Wheeler, 1978; Copp et al., 2005Cvijanovic et al., 2005Musil et al., 2008; Nowak et al., 2010). This species is normally considered a detritivore but recent studies suggest its diet could include fish and fish eggs (Boet, 1980). Therefore, this species might be reducing the amount of available prey for native predators. Black bullhead may also have an indirect effect by increasing turbidity (Braig and Johnson, 2003), potentially modifying the feeding efficiency of visual predators (Reid et al., 1999; Utne-Palm, 2002). Black bullheads tend to be found in high local abundance, their behaviour could therefore interfere with accompanying species and negatively affect the behaviour of native predators and prey. A. melas is listed as a species of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2015). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Siluriformes
  •                         Family: Ictaluridae
  •                             Genus: Ameiurus
  •                                 Species: Ameiurus melas

Description

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It is difficult to distinguish between sexes although the female is noticeably fuller in the breeding season. Head is large and rounded above, with small eyes. Barbels at corners of mouth are about twice as long as those near nostrils. Chin barbels are dark or black. Mouth is terminal and jaws are equal in length, or with the lower one longer; distance between isthmus and lower jaw notches almost equal to distance from lower jaw notch to tip of lower jaw. Area between head and origin of dorsal compressible, no bony ridge.

Dorsal Fins: Adipose fin short, fleshy, free at posterior end, obviously well separated from the caudal fin dorsal inter-ray membranes usually noticeably darkened.

Caudal fin: round, square, or slightly indented, never deeply forked.

Anal fin does not reach anterior rays of caudal fin; anal fin rays 17 to 24.

Tail squarish, not deeply forked. Barbs on trailing edge of pectoral spines weak or absent, especially near tip; if present near base, barbs usually catch fingernail only when moved toward base.

Coloration: variable, dorsal surface greenish, yellowish, brownish or slate grey-olive, sides lighter, ventral body bright yellow, yellow or milk-white. Fins normally conspicuously darker than the adjacent parts of the body. Anal base pale, distal two-thirds between the rays black; in young fish less than 10 cm in length, the entire fins may be black.

A. melas usually weigh less than 400 g, occasionally approaching 1 kg (2.2 pounds). It is common for them to reach lengths of 254-318 mm (10-12 inches) although specimens as big as 457 mm (18 inches) have been reported. A. melas can live for 4-5 years, although not many live beyond 3 years.

Distribution

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Native to Canada, USA and Mexico, black bullhead have been introduced to Europe, South America and many states in the USA and the species is now established in at least 15 countries (Nijssen and De Groot, 1974; Wheeler, 1978; Copp et al., 2005Cvijanovic et al., 2005Musil et al., 2008; Nowak et al., 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedScott and Crossman , 1973; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-ManitobaPresentNativeRobins and et al. , 1980
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeRobins and et al. , 1980
MexicoPresentNativePage and Burr , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
USAPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-AlabamaPresentNativeDarr , 2004
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedLee and et al. , 1980
-ArkansasPresentNativeArkansas Game and Fish Commission, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedCurtis , 1949
-ColoradoPresentNativeEverhart and Seaman , 1971
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedBehnke and Wetzel , 1960
-GeorgiaPresentNativeDahlberg and Scott , 1971
-IdahoPresentIntroducedIdaho Fish and Game, 1990
-IllinoisPresentNativeSmith , 1979
-IndianaPresentNativeIndiana Department of Conservation, 1964
-IowaPresentNativeIowa Department of Natural Resources, 2004
-KansasPresentNativeCross , 1967
-KentuckyPresentNativeKinman , 1993
-LouisianaPresentNativeHardy and LeGrande , 1979
-MarylandPresentIntroducedLee and et al. , 1980
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedHartel , 1992
-MichiganPresentNativeBailey and Smith , 1958
-MinnesotaPresentNativeSiems and et al. , 2001
-MississippiPresentNativeHole RB Jr, 2003
-MissouriPresentNativePflieger , 1975
-MontanaPresentNativeBrown , 1971
-NebraskaPresentNativeJones , 1963
-NevadaPresentIntroducedDeacon and Williams , 1984
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedNew Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, 2000
-New MexicoPresentNativeKoster , 1957
-New YorkPresentSmith , 1985
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedMenhinick , 1991
-North DakotaPresentNativeNorth Dakota Game and Fish Department, 1994
-OhioPresentNativeTrautman , 1981
-TennesseePresentNativeEtnier and Starnes , 1993
-TexasPresentNativeHubbs and et al. , 1991
-UtahPresentIntroducedUtah Department of Natural Resources, UTDNR
-VirginiaPresentNativeLee and et al. , 1980
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedWydoski and Whitney , 1979
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedBurkhead and et al. , 1980
-WisconsinPresentBecker , 1983
-WyomingPresentBaxter and Simon , 1970

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BelgiumPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FrancePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
HungaryPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IrelandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ItalyPresentIntroducedGandolfi and et al. , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NorwayPresentIntroducedElvira , 2001
PolandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PortugalPresentIntroducedConvention on the Conservation of European Wildlif, 2002
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
SpainPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UKPresentIntroducedWheeler , 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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Introductions of black bullhead have historically been for either aquaculture, recreational fishing or as an ornamental species. This species was first recorded in the UK in 1885, although no location details are held. Black bullhead was introduced into France from North America in 1871 and is now widespread in Europe (Wheeler, 1978). In Poland, it is suggested that the black bullhead was co-introduced into Polish waters with the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), at the end of the nineteenth century. In European waters, the dispersal mechanism is not clear but spread could be as a result of accidental and illegal introductions or natural dispersion between countries via watercourses (Nowak et al., 2010; Copp et al., unpublished).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Albania Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Belgium North America 1882, 1892 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No Welcomme (1988)
British Columbia Washington Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Scott and Crossman (1973); Scott and Crossman (1973)
Chile USA 1907 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
France USA 1871 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Germany USA 1885 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Hungary Italy 1902 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997); Welcomme (1988)
Hungary 1902 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997); Welcomme (1988)
Ireland Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Italy North America 1900s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Bianco and Ketmaier (2001); Bianco and Ketmaier (2001)
Netherlands USA 1900 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Netherlands France 1900 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Netherlands Germany 1900 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Norway USA 1890 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Elvira (2001)
Portugal 1990s Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No No Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlif (2002)
Russian Federation Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Spain 1980s Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Switzerland Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
UK Italy Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) USA 1905 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)

Risk of Introduction

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In European waters, the dispersal mechanism is not clear and could be as a result of accidental and illegal introductions or natural dispersion between countries via watercourses (Copp et al., unpublished); however, in Poland it is presumed that their spread is a result of unregistered, illegal introduction by recreational fishers (Nowak et al., 2010). It has also been suggested that A. melas has been introduced as both an ornamental species and possibly as escapees from aquaculture. Legislature in France has identified this species as a ‘species liable to cause biological disequilibrium’ (Cucherousset et al., 2007) and as such strict rules prohibit its introduction.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The modal number of chromosomes in the black bullhead is 60 (Clark and Mathis, 1982).

Reproductive Biology

In its native range in North America, the spawning season for the black bullhead starts in late April and goes through to early June, when water temperatures are about 20-21°C (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The females scoop out a small hole or depression in the lake floor usually in water about 0.6-1.2 m (2-4 ft.) deep in soft substrate, like silt or mud (Wallace, 1967). Females produce between 2000 and 3800 eggs (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Spawning occurs five times over a one-hour period. The males fertilize the eggs and then watch over the nest for up to ten days. When the eggs hatch, both parents will watch over the fry (Scott and Crossman, 1973).

Longevity

A. melas live for 4-5 years, although not many live beyond 3 years.The maximum reported age for black bullhead is 10 years (Froese and Pauly, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >7.0 Optimum Adult S = summer; W = winter
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) (W) <0.2 (W) 0.3 (S) <3.0 Harmful Adult S = summer; W = winter
Salinity (part per thousand) >8000 Harmful Egg
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) >20 Optimum Broodstock
Suspended solids (mg/l) 100 600 Optimum Adult (total dissolved solids)
Water pH (pH) <3.4 Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.0 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >27 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 22 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 22 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 23 24 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 23 24 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 35 39 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 35 39 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 35 39 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 35 39 Harmful Fry

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Micropterus dolomieu Predator Adult/Fry
Micropterus salmoides Predator Adult/Fry
Morone chrysops Predator All Stages

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. melas have large sharp spines on both their dorsal and pectoral fins; when attacked they straighten them making them difficult to swallow and as such very few predators are able to consume them (Becker, 1983). This species also produces a mild poison that runs down the spines and into the wound. These spines combined with the species' nocturnal feeding regime make black bullheads an uncommon prey item for other fish species. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), herons as well as some turtle species occasionally consume the young and small adults (Becker, 1983), with their main predator being humans.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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In European waters, the dispersal mechanism is not clear and could be as a result of accidental and illegal introductions or natural dispersion between countries via watercourses (Copp et al., unpublished). 

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes
Pets and aquarium species Yes Yes
Water Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Economic Impact

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There is potential that this species can have a negative economic impact on communities as this fish can be a 'nuisance' species taking lines/bait intended for other species. Anglers not targeting this species might therefore move on to black bullhead free waters taking not only the money from recreational fishing but tourism (food, accommodation and transportation) all of which may provide economic opportunities locally.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Of the countries where it has been introduced in Europe there may be impacts on habitat (direct or indirect), potentially through increased turbidity related to reduced macrophyte growth and reduced stability of substrates.

Impact on Biodiversity

Impacts such as competition (for food and/or space) with native species, and predation of native species have been reported. This species is normally considered a detritivore but recent studies suggest its diet could include fish and fish eggs (Boet, 1980). Therefore, this species might be reducing the amount of available prey for native predators. Due to the generalist and opportunistic feeding habits of this species, Leunda et al. (2008) analyzed data from Spain and Portugal indicating impacts on a wide range of potential prey species as well as impacts through competition. In this study, black bullheads consumed plant material, terrestrial prey and co-occurring fish species (native or exotic), taking the most abundant and available prey. According to Marsh and Douglas (1997), introduced A. melas feed on endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha, in the Little Colorado River (USA) and may exert a negative impact on the population there. Minckley (1973) reported that A. melas is considered a pest in Arizona as it forms large populations which compete with more desirable fishes for space and food. They are also voracious predators of newly hatched gamefish (Whitmore, 1997). According to Rosen et al. (1995), introduced predatory fishes, including A. melas, are probably partially responsible for the decline of the Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) in south-eastern Arizona. 

Black bullhead may also have an indirect effect by increasing turbidity (Braig and Johnson, 2003), potentially modifying the feeding efficiency of visual predators (Reid et al., 1999; Utne-Palm, 2002). Black bullheads tend to be found in high local abundance, their behaviour could therefore interfere with accompanying species and negatively affect the behavior of native predators and prey. 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gila cyphaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Arizona; New MexicoPredationMarsh and Douglas , 1997
Hyla wrightorum (Arizona treefrog)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)ArizonaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Ptychocheilus lucius (Colorado pikeminnow)No DetailsColoradoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011
Rana chiricahuensis (Chiricahua leopard frog)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)ArizonaRosen et al., 1995

Social Impact

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There is potential for the black bullhead to cause a negative social impact as it can be a 'nuisance' species taking lines/bait intended for other species, because of this anglers not targeting this species might move on to black bullhead free waters. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A close congener to the black bullhead is the brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819). One of the main distinguishing features separating the two species is that the black bullhead is with rough or irregular small barbs on the trailing edge of the pectoral spines weak; whereas for the brown bullhead, the pectoral spike edge is with regular saw-like barbs. Other distinguishing features include the number of anal ray fins; the black bullhead has 15-21 anal ray fins, the brown bullhead 21-24. The colour pattern also varies with black bullhead being mainly solid and dark, with a white or yellow belly; faint pale yellow vertical bar at base of tail while the brown bullhead is usually mottled, but may be solid, generally yellow brown or grayish, belly usually cream or tan; no bar at base of tail.

Prevention and Control

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Eradication 
 
Eradication through piscicides, such as rotenone or through mechanical removal by fishing/angling; the species is reportedly easy to catch. Mass removal has also been considered as a possibility.
 
Physical/Mechanical Control 
Removal by fishing/angling; the species reportedly easy to catch. Mass removal has also been considered as a possibility.
 
Movement Control
 
Public awareness and regional regulations.
 
Chemical Control
 
The only effective method of fish eradication is the application of rotenone, a piscicide that is also toxic to non-target species.
 
Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing) 
 
Potential use of acoustic and radio tagging also PIT tagging.

References

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Amin OM, 1975. Acanthocephalus parksidei sp.n. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from Wisconsin fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 61(2):301-306.

Amin OM, 1980. Fessisentis tichiganensis sp. nov. (Acanthocephala: Fessisentidae) from Wisconsin fishes, with a key to species. Journal of Parasitology, 66(6):1039-1045.

Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, 2003. Arkansas Fishing Guidebook. Online at www.agfc.state.ar.us/pdf/2003fishregs.pdf. Accessed 7 September 2004.

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Bailey RM, Smith GR, 1958. [revised 2002] Names Of Michigan Fishes. Fisheries Division, Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Online at www.michigandnr.com/PUBLICATIONS/PDFS/fishing/names_of_MIfishes.pdf. Accessed 7 September 2004.

Bauer BH, Harley JP, 1973. Intestinal parasites from two species of catfishes (Ictaluridae) from Wilgreen Lake in Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science., 34(3/4):55-56.

Baxter GT, Simon JR, 1970. Wyoming Fishes. Bulletin 4. Cheyenne, Wyoming: Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 168 pp.

Becker GC, 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

Behnke RJ, Wetzel RM, 1960. A preliminary list of the fishes found in the fresh waters of Connecticut. Copeia, 1960(1):141-143.

Bianco PG, Ketmaier V, 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. Journal of Fish Biology, 59(Supplement A):190-208.

Boet P, 1980. The catfish feed ( Ictalurus melas Raf. ) In Lake Creteil. (L'alimentation du poisson-chat (Ictalurus melas Raf.) dans le lac de Creteil.) Annales de Limnologie, 16(3):255-270.

Braig EC, Johnson DL, 2003. Impact of black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) on turbidity in a diked wetland. Hydrobiologia, 490:11-21.

Breder CM, Rosen DE, 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, 941 pp.

Brown CJD, 1971. Fishes of Montana. Bozeman, Montana: Montana State University.

Burkhead NM, Jenkins RE, Maurakis EG, 1980. New records, distribution and diagnostic characters of Virginia ictalurid catfishes with an adnexed adipose fin. Brimleyana, 4:75-93.

Clark B, Mathis P, 1982. Karyotypes of middle Tennessee bullheads: Ictalurus melas and Ictalurus natalis (Cypriniformes, Ictaluridae). Copeia, 2:457-460.

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 2002. Report of the Group of Experts on Invasive Alien Species, Horta (Azores, Portugal), 12 October 2002, 61 pp.

Cooper EL, 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, 183 pp.

Copp GH, Bianco PG, Bogutskaya N, Ero?s T, Falka I, Ferreira MT, Fox MG, Freyhof J, Gozlan RE, Grabowska J, Kovàc V, Moreno-Amich R, Naseka AM, Penàz M, Povz M, Przybylski M, Robillard M, Russell IC, Stakenas S, Sumer S, Vila-Gispert A, Wiesner C, 2005. To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21:242-262.

Copp GH, Tarkan AS, Godard MJ, Novomeska A, Miranda R, Valente E, Cucherousset J, Pedicillo G, Blackwell B, Unpublished. A review of growth and life-history traits of black bullhead Ameiurus melas in its native north american and introduced European ranges.

Cross FB, 1967. Handbook of Fishes of Kansas. Topeka, Kansas: State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 45.

Cucherousset J, Paillisson JM, Carpentier A, Chapman LJ, 2007. Fish emigration from temporary wetlands during drought: the role of physiological tolerance. Fundamental and Applied Limnology-Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 168:169-178.

Curtis B, 1949. The warmwater game fishes of California. California Fish and Game, 35(4):255-273.

Cvijanovic G, Lenhardt M, Hegediš A, 2005. The first record of black bullhead Ameiurus melas (Pisces, Ictaluridae) in Serbian waters. Archives of Biological Science, Belgrade, 57:21-22.

Dahlberg MD, Scott DC, 1971. Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, 29:245-252.

Darr D, 2004. Fishing, Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Online at www.conservation.alabama.gov/agfd/fish/fishing.pdf. Accessed 9 September 2004.

Deacon JE, Williams JE, 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 97(1):103-118.

Dronen NOJr, Underwood HT, 1980. Pseudomagnivitellinum ictalurum gen. et sp.n. (Digenea: Macroderoididae) from the black bullhead of south-central Texas. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 47(1):52-54.

Elvira B, 2001. Identification of non-native freshwater fishes established in Europe and assessment of their potential threats to the biological diversity, Convention On The Conservation Of European Wildlife And Natural Habitats Standing Committee 21st Meeting Strasbourg, 26-30 November 2001, 20 pp.

Etnier DA, Starnes WC, 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.

Everhart WH, Seaman WR, 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division, Denver, Colorado, 75 pp.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Ameiurus melas. Main ref. Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 13 October 2004.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Fishes of Minnesota, General College of the University of Minnesotahttp://www.gen.umn.edu/research/fish/fishes/

Contributors

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25/05/15 Updated by: 

Michael Godard, Consultant, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada 

26/04/04 Original text by:

Uma Sabapathy Allen, Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK

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