Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bean common mosaic virus
(common mosaic of beans)

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Datasheet

Bean common mosaic virus (common mosaic of beans)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bean common mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common mosaic of beans
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Light and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
TitleMosaic symptoms on leaf
CaptionLight and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
CopyrightNicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Light and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
Mosaic symptoms on leafLight and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Light and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
TitleMosaic symptoms - detail
CaptionLight and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
CopyrightNicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Light and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.
Mosaic symptoms - detailLight and dark-green patches on the leaf, chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic.Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Leaf necrosis induced by BCMV.
TitleNecrosis on leaves
CaptionLeaf necrosis induced by BCMV.
CopyrightNicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Leaf necrosis induced by BCMV.
Necrosis on leavesLeaf necrosis induced by BCMV.Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Symptoms associated with common mosaic include leaf rolling or blistering, light and dark-green patches on the leaf (green mosaic), chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic and growth reduction.
TitleSymptoms on leaves
CaptionSymptoms associated with common mosaic include leaf rolling or blistering, light and dark-green patches on the leaf (green mosaic), chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic and growth reduction.
CopyrightNicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Symptoms associated with common mosaic include leaf rolling or blistering, light and dark-green patches on the leaf (green mosaic), chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic and growth reduction.
Symptoms on leavesSymptoms associated with common mosaic include leaf rolling or blistering, light and dark-green patches on the leaf (green mosaic), chlorotic vein banding, yellow mosaic and growth reduction.Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Symptoms on leaves include blistering and leaf roll.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionSymptoms on leaves include blistering and leaf roll.
CopyrightNicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Symptoms on leaves include blistering and leaf roll.
Symptoms on leafSymptoms on leaves include blistering and leaf roll.Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Stunted bean plants.
TitleSymptoms on bean plants
CaptionStunted bean plants.
CopyrightISU
Stunted bean plants.
Symptoms on bean plantsStunted bean plants.ISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bean common mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • common mosaic of beans

Other Scientific Names

  • bean common mosaic potyvirus
  • bean mosaic virus
  • bean virus 1
  • bean western mosaic virus
  • common bean mosaic virus Martyn, 1968
  • mungbean mosaic virus
  • Phaseolus virus 1

International Common Names

  • English: black root of beans
  • Spanish: mosaico común de los frijoles
  • French: mosaïque commune du haricot

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohnenmosaik-Virus, Gewöhnliches

English acronym

  • BCMV

EPPO code

  • BCMV00 (Bean common mosaic potyvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Bean common mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCMI, 1974
-BeijingPresentLi et al., 2014
-HebeiPresentWang and Wang, 2006
-JiangsuPresentCui et al., 2014
-ZhejiangPresentChen et al., 2001; Zheng et al., 2002
IndiaPresentCMI, 1974
-DelhiPresentCMI, 1974
-JharkhandPresentPrasad et al., 2006
-KarnatakaPresentNalini et al., 2004; Udayashankar et al., 2011
IndonesiaPresentCMI, 1974; Damayanti et al., 2010
-Irian JayaPresentDavis et al., 2002
-JavaPresentCMI, 1974
IranPresentCMI, 1974
IraqPresentAl-Fadhil & Al Ani, 1987
IsraelPresentCMI, 1974
JapanPresentCMI, 1974
-HokkaidoPresentHagita et al., 1975
KazakhstanPresentCMI, 1974
Korea, Republic ofPresentKoo BongJin et al., 2002; Seo et al., 2015
LebanonPresentCMI, 1974
PakistanPresentBashir et al., 2002
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl and Shahwan Abdalla, 1991
ThailandPresentTsuchizaki, 1986
TurkeyPresentCMI, 1974
VietnamPresentHa et al., 2008
YemenPresentWalkey, 1992

Africa

BurundiPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCMI, 1974; Spence and Walkey, 1995
EgyptPresentCMI, 1974
EthiopiaPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
KenyaPresentCMI, 1974; Spence and Walkey, 1995
LesothoPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
MalawiPresentCMI, 1974; Spence and Walkey, 1995
MauritiusPresentCMI, 1974
MoroccoPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
MozambiquePresentCMI, 1974
NigeriaPresentOdedara et al., 2007
RwandaPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
Sierra LeonePresentCMI, 1974
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1974
SudanPresentVetten and Allen, 1991
SwazilandPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
TanzaniaPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995; Njau and Lyimo, 2000
TogoPresentCMI, 1974
UgandaPresentSpence and Walkey, 1995
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1974; Spence and Walkey, 1995

North America

BermudaPresentCMI, 1974
CanadaPresentCMI, 1974
-OntarioPresentTu, 1986
MexicoPresentSilbernagel, 1969; CMI, 1974
USAPresentCMI, 1974
-IdahoPresentMyers et al., 1990
-IowaMartin et al., 2014strain NL1
-MichiganPresentKelly et al., 1982; Kelly et al., 1984
-New YorkPresentProvvidenti et al., 1984
-WashingtonPresentBurke, 1964

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentCMI, 1974
CubaPresentBlanco-Sanchez et al., 1984
Dominican RepublicPresentCMI, 1974
El SalvadorPresentGamez, 1973
GuatemalaPresentCMI, 1974
HaitiPresentCMI, 1974
JamaicaPresentCMI, 1974
NicaraguaPresentGamez, 1973
Puerto RicoPresentCMI, 1974
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCMI, 1974
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCMI, 1974

South America

ArgentinaPresentCMI, 1974
BrazilPresentTrinidade et al., 1987; CMI, 1974
-Minas GeraisPresentCastillo-Urquiza et al., 2006
ChilePresentCMI, 1974
ColombiaPresentCMI, 1974
EcuadorPresentCMI, 1974
GuyanaPresentCMI, 1974
PeruPresentCMI, 1974
VenezuelaPresentCMI, 1974

Europe

BelgiumPresentCMI, 1974
BulgariaPresentCMI, 1974
CroatiaPresentHalupecki et al., 2003
Czech RepublicPresentCMI, 1974
FinlandPresentCMI, 1974
FrancePresentCMI, 1974
GermanyPresentCMI, 1974
GreecePresentCMI, 1974
HungaryPresentCMI, 1974
ItalyPresentCMI, 1974
LithuaniaPresentCMI, 1974
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1974
NorwayPresentCMI, 1974
PolandPresentCMI, 1974
PortugalPresentBorges et al., 1981
RomaniaPresentCMI, 1974
Russian FederationPresentCMI, 1974
-Russian Far EastPresentGnutova et al., 2000
SerbiaPresentPetrovic et al., 2008
SpainPresentCMI, 1974
SwedenPresentCMI, 1974
UKPresentCMI, 1974
UkrainePresentCMI, 1974
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCMI, 1974

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCMI, 1974
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCMI, 1974
-New South WalesPresentCMI, 1974
-QueenslandPresentCMI, 1974
-South AustraliaPresentCMI, 1974
-TasmaniaPresentCMI, 1974
-VictoriaPresentCMI, 1974
-Western AustraliaPresentCMI, 1974
FijiPresentCMI, 1974
New ZealandPresentCMI, 1974
Solomon IslandsPresentSouth Pacific Commissionpersonal communication

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Seeds / rot
Stems / internal red necrosis
Whole plant / dwarfing

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Acyrthosiphon pisumMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Aphis craccivoraMalone, 1978. Insect
Aphis fabaeMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Aphis gossypiiMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Aphis medicaginisMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Hayhurstia atriplicisMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Lipaphis erysimiBlackman and Eastop, 2000. Insect
Macrosiphum euphorbiaeMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Myzus persicaeMorales and Bos, 1988. Insect
Uroleucon ambrosiaeInsect

References

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Agarwal VK; Nene YL; Beniwal SPS, 1979. Location of bean common mosaic virus in urdbean seed. Seed Science and Technology, 7(3):455-458

Agarwal VK; Nene YL; Beniwal SPS; Verma HS, 1979. Transmission of bean common mosaic virus through urdbean (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 7(1):103-108

Al-Fadhil FH; Al-Ani RA, 1987. Identification of common bean mosaic virus and evaluated of some bean cultivars for resistance in middle of Iraq. Journal of Agriculture and Water Resources Research, Plant Production, 6:99-114

Allen DJ, 1983. The Pathology of Tropical Food Legumes: Disease Resistance in Crop Improvement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Al-Shahwan IM; Abdalla OA, 1991. Natural infection of broad bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in Saudi Arabia. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 98(5):478-483

Anon., 1987. Plant Pathology. Report of the cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, 1986. Nicosia, Cyprus: Ministry of Agriculture & Natural Resources, 40-43.

Ariyarathne HM; Coyne DP; Jung G; Skroch PW; Vidaver AK; Steadman JR; Miklas PN; Bassett MJ, 1999. Molecular mapping of disease resistance genes for halo blight, common bacterial blight, and bean common mosaic virus in a segregating population of common bean. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 124(6):654-662; 43 ref.

Bashir M; Iqbal MS; Ghafoor A; Ahmad Z; Qureshi AS, 2002. Variability in cowpea germplasm for reaction to virus infection under field conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 34(1):47-48.

Berger PH; Wyatt SD; Shiel PJ; Silbernagel MJ; Druffel K; Mink GI, 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the Potyviridae with emphasis on legume-infecting potyviruses. Archives of Virology, 142(10):1979-1999; 94 ref.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref.

Blanco-Sanchez N; Lastres-Gonzalez N; Bencomo I, 1984. Incidence of virus diseases of bean in Cuba. Ciencias de la Agricultura, 19:21-32.

Bock KR; Guthrie EJ; Figuieredo GC, 1980. Bean common mosaic virus. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Agricultural Research Department Record of Research Annual Report 1977-1980, Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.

Borges M de LV; Sequeira JC; Louro D, 1981. Potyviruses recorded in Portugal. Purification, serology and host-virus ultrastructural relationships. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, 2, 53(2):933-942

Boswell KF; Gibbs AJ, 1983. Viruses of legumes 1983. Descriptions and keys from Virus Identification Data Exchange. Viruses of legumes 1983. Descriptions and keys from Virus Identification Data Exchange. Australian National University Canberra Australia, 139 pp.

Burke DW, 1964. Time of planting in relation to disease incidence and yields of beans in Central Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:789-793.

Buruchara RA; Gathuru EM, 1979. Preliminary information on a severe strain of common bean mosaic virus isolated from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Symposium on Grain Legume Improvement in East Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi, 2 pp.

Camacho LH; Dana S; Hudson LH; Wallace DH, 1977. Report of the bean germplasm committee. Gene symbol nomenclature. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 20:1-3.

Castillo-Urquiza GP; Maia FGM; Carvalho MG; Pinto CMF; Zerbini FM, 2006. Characterization of a Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) isolate from Minas Gerais, and yield loss estimate in beans upon single infection and double infection with BCMV. (Caracterização de um isolado do Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) de Minas Gerais e estimativa de perdas em feijoeiro em infecção simples ou em conjunto com o BCMV.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(5):455-461. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n5/04.pdf

CHAMBERLAIN EE, 1939. Bean-mosaic. (Phaseolus virus 1 of Smith, 1937.). New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Section A, xxA(6).

Chen J; Chen J; Adams MJ, 2001. A universal PCR primer to detect members of the Potyviridae and its use to examine the taxonomic status of several members of the family. Archives of Virology, 146(4):757-766; 21 ref.

Christie SR; Crawford WE, 1978. Plant virus range of Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):20-22

CIAT, 1973. Bean Production Program Annual Report. Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

CIAT, 1974. Bean Production Program Annual Report. Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

CIAT, 1975. Bean Production Program Annual Report. Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

CMI, 1974. Distrubution maps of plant diseases, No. 213, Edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cui XY; Shen L; Yuan XX; Gu HP; Chen X, 2014. First report of Bean common mosaic virus infecting mungbean (Vigna radiata) in China. Plant Disease, 98(11):1590. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Damayanti TA; Alabi OJ; Rauf A; Naidu RA, 2010. The occurrence of Bean common mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in yardlong beans in Indonesia. Plant Disease, 94(4):478. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Davis JHC; Morales F; Castano M, 1987. Resistance to black root. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 30:14-15.

Davis RI; Thomas JE; McMichael LA; Dietzgen RG; Callaghan B; James AP; Gunua TG; Rahamma S, 2002. Plant virus surveys on the island of New Guinea and adjacent regions of northern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 31(4):385-390; 34 ref.

Dessert JM, 1987. Changes overtime in the proportion of beans in a varietal mixture. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 30:79-80.

Drijfhout E, 1978. Genetic interaction between Phaseolus vulgaris and bean common mosaic virus with implications for strain identification and breeding for resistance. Verslagen van Landbouwkundige Onderzoekingen, 872:1-89

Drijfhout E; Bos L, 1977. The identification of two new strains of bean common mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(1):13-25

Dusi AN; Carvalho MG; Zambolim EM, 1988. Use of ELISA and single radial diffusion to detect bean common mosaic virus on bean seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 13(3):282-283

Edeme J; Hanson J, 2000. First report of alfalfa mosaic, bean common mosaic, and broad bean stain viruses in Macrotyloma axillare. Plant Disease, 84(5):594; 1 ref.

Edington BR; Whitlock VH, 1988. Identification of an isolate of bean common mosaic virus from the Transvaal and Natal. Annals of Applied Biology, 113(3):645-648

Ekpo EJA; Spttler AW, 1974. Distribution pattern of bean common mosaic virus in developing bean seed. Phytopathology, 64(2):269-270

Faris-Mukhayyish S; Makkouk KM, 1983. Detection of four seed-borne plant viruses by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 106(2):108-114

Flor HH, 1971. Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annual Review of Plant Pathology, 9:275-296.

Frencel I; Pospieszny H, 1979. Viruses in natural infections of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) in Poland IV. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(3/4):279-284

Galvez GE, 1980. Aphid-transmitted viruses. In: Schwartz HF, Galvez GE, eds. Bean common mosaic virus in bean production problems. Cali, Colombia: CIAT, 211-233.

Gamez R, 1973. The viruses of beans in Central America. III. Races of common bean mosaic virus from El Salvador and Nicaragua. Turrialba, 23(4):475-476

Gnutova RV; Kakareka NN; Pleshkova TI; Sibirykova II, 2000. Far-Eastern strains of Bean common mosaic virus and methods of their immunodiagnostics. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 33(3):207-217.

Green SK; Lee DR; Horne NM, 1988. Survey for viruses of soybean, mung bean and peanut in Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease, 72(11):994

Green SK; Lee DR; Vetten HJ; Lesemann DE, 1986. Occurrence of an unidentified potyvirus of soybean in Taiwan. International symposium on virus diseases of rice and leguminous crops in the tropics Yatabe, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Tropical Agriculture Research Centre, 108-114

Ha C; Revill P; Harding RM; Vu M; Dale JL, 2008. Identification and sequence analysis of potyviruses infecting crops in Vietnam. Archives of Virology, 153(1):45-60. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/90316764184520r2/fulltext.pdf

Hagita T; Senboku T; Kojima M; Shikata E; Murayama D, 1975. Studies on legume virus diseases in Hokkaido. II. Seed transmission of bean common mosaic virus. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, 9(2):160-164

Halupecki E; Cvjetkovic B; Ban D; Boro?ic J, 2003. Detection of viruses in selected lines of dwarf dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus Martens) using ELISA-test. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 6. Slovenskega Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, Zrece, Slovenije, 4-6 marec 2003 . Ljubljana, Slovenia: Dru?tvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije, 478-481.

Hampton RO, 1975. The nature of bean yield reduction by bean yellow and bean common mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 65(12):1342-1346

Hari V, 1981. The RNA of tobacco etch virus: further characterization and detection of protein linked to RNA. Virology, 112(2):391-399

Hari V; Siegel A; Rozek C; Timberlake WE, 1979. The RNA of tobacco etch virus contains poly(A). Virology, 92(2):568-571

Hollings M; Brunt AA, 1981. Potyvirus group. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 245, 6 pp. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology.

Horvath J, 1986. New data on the susceptibility of plants to viruses. 5. Chenopodiaceae (Chenopodium species). Botanikai Kozlemenyek, 73(3-4):229-242

Innes NL; Walkey DGA, 1980. The genetics of resistance to two strains of bean common mosaic virus in three cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Agricultural Science, 95(3):619-630

Jeyanandarajah P; Brunt AA, 1993. Occurrence of bean common mosaic virus in mung bean in Sri Lanka. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41(2):107-112

Kaiser WJ; Mossahebi GH, 1974. Natural infection of mungbean by bean common mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 64: 1209-1214.

Kelly JD; Hosfield GL; Varner GV; Uebersax MA; Taylor J, 1999. Registration of `Kodiak' pinto bean. Crop Science, 39(1):292.

Kelly JD; Saettler AW; Adams MW, 1982. A new necrotic strain of bean common mosaic virus in Michigan. Michigan Dry Bean Digest, 7:8-9.

Kelly JD; Saettler AW; Morales M, 1984. New necrotic strain of bean common mosaic virus in Michigan. Annual report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 27:49.

Kennedy JS; Day MF; Eastop VF, 1962. A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.

Khaemba BM; Latigo MWO, 1981. Effects of infestation and transmission of the common bean mosaic virus (CBMV) by the black bean aphid A. fabae on the common bean P. vulgaris. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 47(1/4):1-4

Kirkby RA, 1987. Research on grain legumes in eastern and central Africa. Summary proceedings of the consultative group meeting for eastern and central Africa regional research on grain legumes, 8-10 December 1986, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT.

Klein RE; Wyatt SD; Kaiser WJ, 1988. Incidence of bean common mosaic virus in USDA Phaseolus germ plasm collection. Plant Disease, 72(4):301-302

Klein RE; Wyatt SD; Kaiser WJ, 1989. Influence of propagation on incidence of seedborne bean common mosaic virus in the USDA Phaseolus germ plasm collection. Plant Disease, 73(9):759-761

Klein RE; Wyatt SD; Kaiser WJ; Mink GI, 1992. Comparative immunoassays of bean common mosaic virus in individual bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed and bulked bean seed samples. Plant Disease, 76(1):57-59

Koo BongJin; Shin HyeYoung; Sung JungHyun; Kang DongKyon; Chang MooUng, 2002. Bean common mosaic virus and Peanut mottle virus isolated from peanut in Korea. Research in Plant Disease, 8(2):92-100; 23 ref.

Kostova D; Poryazov I, 1989. Preliminary results on snap bean resistance to BCMV in Bulgaria. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 32:88-89.

Kyle MM; Dickson MH; Provvidenti R, 1986. Linkage analysis of hypersensitive resistance to four viruses in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 29:80-81.

Lange L; Jomantor A; Heide M, 1989. Testing seeds for viruses by dot immuno binding (DIB) directly on plain paper. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 93(1):93-96

Li YQ; Liu ZP; Yang K; Li YS; Zhao B; Fan F; Wan P, 2014. First report of Bean common mosaic virus infecting Azuki bean (Vigna angularis) in China. Plant Disease, 98(7):1017. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lima JAA; Florindo MI; Kitajima EW, 1993. Some properties of a Potyvirus isolated from Clitoria ternatea. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):213-218

Lockhart BEL; Fischer HU, 1974. Chronic infection by seedborne bean common mosaic virus in Morocco. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:307-308.

Maiss E; Timpe U; Brisske A; Jelkmann W; Casper R; Himmler G; Mattanovich D; Katinger HWD, 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus RNA. Journal of General Virology, 70(3):513-524

Malone MT, 1978. Resistance of green beans to aphid-borne viruses in New Zealand. In: Hartley MJ, ed. Proceedings of the Thirty-First New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Devon Motor Lodge, New Plymouth, August 8th to 10th, 1978. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. Palmerston North New Zealand, 85-88

Martin K; Hill JH; Cannon S, 2014. Occurrence and characterization of Bean common mosaic virus strain NL1 in Iowa. Plant Disease, 98(11):1593. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Martyn EB, 1968. Plant virus names, an annotated list of names and synonyms of plant viruses and diseases. Phytopathological Papers No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mattos L; Fernandez-Northcote EN, 1987. Characterization of strains of bean common mosaic virus on the central coast of Peru. Fitopatologia, 22(1):10-14

McKern NM; Mink GI; Barnett OW; Mishra A; Whittaker LA; Silbernagel MJ; Ward CW; Shukla DD, 1992. Isolates of bean common mosaic virus comprising two distinct potyviruses. Phytopathology, 82(9):923-929

McKern NM; Shukla DD; Barnett OW; Vetten HJ; Dijkstra J; Whittaker LW; Ward CW, 1992. Coat protein properties suggest that azuki bean mosaic virus, blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, peanut stripe virus, and three isolates from soybean are all strains of the same potyvirus. Intervirology, 33(3):121-134

Meiners JP; Gillaspie AG Jr; Lawson RH; Smith FF, 1978. Indentification and partial characterization of a strain of bean common mosaic virus from Rhynchosia minima. Phytopathology, 68(3):283-287

Miklas PN; Beaver JS; Steadman JR; Silbernagel MJ; Freytag GF, 1997. Registration of three bean common mosaic virus-resistant navy bean germplasms. Crop Science, 37(3):1025; 5 ref.

Mink GI; Vetten HJ; Ward CW; Berger PH; Morales FJ; Myers JM; Silbernagel MJ; Barnett OW, 1994. Taxonomy and classification of legume-infecting potyviruses. A proposal from the Potyviridae Study Group of the Plant Virus Subcommittee of the ICTV. Archives of Virology, 139:231-235.

Mink GI; Vetten HJ; Wyatt SD; Berger PH; Silbernagel MJ, 1999. Three epitopes located on the coat protein amino terminus of viruses in the bean common mosaic potyvirus subgroup. Archives of Virology, 144(6):1173-1189; 28 ref.

Morales FJ, 1989. Bean common mosaic virus: Screening for disease resistance. Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

Morales FJ; Bos; L, 1988. Bean common mosaic virus. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 337, 6 pp. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology.

Morales FJ; Castano M, 1987. Seed transmission characteristics of selected bean common mosaic virus strains in differential bean cultivars. Plant Disease, 71(1):51-53

Msuku WAB; Edje OT, 1982. Effect of mixed cropping of maize and bean on bean diseases. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 25:16-18.

Mukishi P; Trutmann P, 1988. Can diseases be effectively controlled in traditional varietal mixtures using resistant varieties? Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 31:104-105.

Myers JR; Forster RL; Silbernagel MJ; Mink G, 1990. The 1989 bean common mosaic virus epidemic in Idaho. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Co-operative, 33:169-170.

Myers JR; Stewart-Williams KD; Hayes RE; Lancaster MW; Kolar JJ, 1997. Registration of 'UI 137' navy bean. Crop Science, 37(1):286; 7 ref.

Myers JR; Stewart-Williams KD; Hayes RE; Lancaster MW; Kolar JJ, 1997. Registration of 'UI 911' black bean. Crop Science, 37(1):285; 6 ref.

Nalini MS; Prakash HS; Shetty HS; Prabhakar M, 2006. Reaction of French bean accessions and varieties to Bean common mosaic potyvirus and seed transmission of the virus. Legume Research, 29(2):126-129.

Nalini MS; Prakash HS; Shylaja MD; Shetty HS, 2004. Indexing French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Bean common mosaic virus infection. Seed Research, 32(2):200-206.

Nelson R, 1922. Transference of the bean mosaic virus by Macrosiphum solanifolii. Science, 56:342-344.

Njau PJR; Lyimo HFJ, 2000. Incidence of bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and wild legume seedlots in Tanzania. Seed Science and Technology, 28(1):85-92.

Njau PJR; Lyimo HFJ, 2000. Incidence of bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and wild legume seedlots in Tanzania. Seed Science and Technology, 28(1):85-92; 16 ref.

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