Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Diplazium esculentum
(vegetable fern)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2020. Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.93234022.20203483481

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Datasheet

Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Diplazium esculentum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • vegetable fern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Polypodiales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Diplazium esculentum is a herbaceous fern native to Asia. It has been introduced into a number of countries in Africa, Oceania and North America as an ornamental and as a food source. As it produces a large number of spores it can easily...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond. Hilo, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleFrond
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond. Hilo, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond. Hilo, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
FrondDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond. Hilo, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond, upper surface. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleFrond
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond, upper surface. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond, upper surface. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
FrondDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond, upper surface. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleFrond
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
FrondDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand, lower surface, showing sori. Garden of Eden, Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleFrond
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand, lower surface, showing sori. Garden of Eden, Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand, lower surface, showing sori. Garden of Eden, Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
FrondDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); frond in hand, lower surface, showing sori. Garden of Eden, Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit, with identification plate. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit, with identification plate. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit, with identification plate. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.
HabitDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit, with identification plate. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern); habit. Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • vegetable fern

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) C.Presl
  • Anisogonium serampurens C.Presl
  • Asplenium ambiguum Sw.
  • Asplenium esculentum (Retz.) C.Presl
  • Asplenium malabaricum Mett.
  • Asplenium moritzii Mett.
  • Asplenium pubescens Mett.
  • Asplenium vitiense Barker
  • Athyrium ambigua (Sw.) Milde
  • Athyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel.
  • Callipteris ambigua (Sw.) T.Moore
  • Callipteris esculenta (Retz.) J.Sm. ex T.Moore & Houlston
  • Callipteris malabarica J.Sm.
  • Callipteris serampurens Fée
  • Digrammaria ambigua (Sw.) C.Presl.
  • Digrammaria esculenta J.Sm.
  • Diplazium malabaricum Spreng.
  • Diplazium pubescens Link
  • Diplazium serampurens Spreng.
  • Diplazium vitiense Carruth.
  • Gymnogramma edulis Ces.
  • Hemionitis esculenta Retz.
  • Microstegia ambigua (Sw.) C.Presl.

International Common Names

  • English: edible fern; fiddle head fern
  • French: fougère végétale

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: dheki shak; paloi shak; teria shak
  • China: cai jue
  • India: denkir shaak; dhekia; dhekishak; howkapada-ow; lindra; lingri; luglugi; maikhando; ningru; okang; paloi; paloi saag; sikiomamoidu
  • Indonesia: paku-sayur
  • Japan: kuware-shida
  • Malaysia: paku tanjung; pucuk paku
  • Nigeria: akwukwo nni
  • Philippines: pacó; pako
  • Thailand: phak khut
  • USA: hoi’o
  • Vietnam: rau don

Summary of Invasiveness

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Diplazium esculentum is a herbaceous fern native to Asia. It has been introduced into a number of countries in Africa, Oceania and North America as an ornamental and as a food source. As it produces a large number of spores it can easily escape cultivation and rapidly spread into new areas. The species is reported as having escaped cultivation and become invasive in Hawaii, USA, New Zealand and Australia.

In Hawaii, D. esculentum grows abundantly in wet valleys and in sheltered moist areas at dry sites. It is also a frequent volunteer in gardens. In New Zealand it has escaped from cultivation, spreading rapidly and aggressively in riverbanks at an average rate of spread of 1 m per year. In Australia the species is widely cultivated for food and as an ornamental, naturalising in swampy areas of Queensland. Its impacts on other habitats or species are unknown.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Polypodiales
  •                     Family: Athyriaceae
  •                         Genus: Diplazium
  •                             Species: Diplazium esculentum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Diplazium is a pantropical fern genus of about 350 to 400 species. The delimitation of the genus has been the subject of some debate, with some authors segregating Diplazium into various genera. Wei et al. (2013) proposed keeping all the species in Diplazium and recognising four subgenera (Pseudallantodia, Diplazium, Sibirica and Callipteris) based on DNA, morphological and geographic evidence.

Diplazium esculentum is regarded as the most important edible fern worldwide (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). The epithet ‘esculentum’ is from the Latin for ‘edible’, in reference to its use as a food source (Flora of New Zealand, 2020). 

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020):

Rhizome erect, up to 15 cm tall, densely scaly; scales brown, narrowly lanceolate, ca. 10 × 1 mm, thin, toothed at margin; fronds caespitose. Fertile fronds 60-120 cm; stipe brown-stramineous, 50-60 cm, 3-5 mm in diam. at base, sparsely scaly, upward glabrous or hairy; lamina 1-pinnate or 2-pinnate, deltoid or broadly lanceolate, 60-80 cm or longer, 30-60 cm wide, apex acuminate; pinnae 12-16 pairs, alternate, ascending, lower pinnae stipitate, broadly lanceolate, 16-20 × 6-9 cm, pinnatilobate or 1-pinnate; upper pinnae subsessile, linear-lanceolate, 6-10 × 1-2 cm, base truncate, margin serrate or pinnatilobate (lobes minutely serrate), apex acuminate; veins per lobes pinnate, veinlets 8-10 pairs, ascending, lower 2 or 3 pairs usually conjoined. Lamina stiffly herbaceous, glabrous or hairy, rachis glabrous or hairy; costae shallowly grooved, glabrous or occasionally with light brown short hairs. Sori mostly linear, slightly curved, from near midribs to laminar margin; indusia yellow-brown, linear, membranous, entire. Spore surface with large granular or tuberculate projections.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Diplazium esculentum is native to tropical and subtropical areas of Asia (HEAR, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020). It is now present in Africa, Asia, Oceania and North America (See Distribution Table for details: Rana and Samant, 2009; Irudayaraj, 2011; Dash et al., 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2020; PIER, 2020). It is cultivated in parts of its distribution (PIER, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

NigeriaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-TibetPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeListed as a species to be protected
-KeralaPresentNative
-SikkimPresentNative
-UttarakhandPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-KyushuPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

United StatesPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1955Griffith Park, Los Angeles
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1937As possibly escaping from cultivation from a nursery
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveIntroduced in the 1900s. Also in cultivation. Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

American SamoaPresentGrowing in damp places in forests
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNaturalized in swampy areas of south-eastern Queensland. Widely cultivated as an ornamental and for food
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveNaturalized in swampy areas of south-eastern Queensland
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

PeruPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1953At Lima Botanical Garden

History of Introduction and Spread

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Diplazium esculentum is widely used in Asia and Oceania as a food source (HEAR, 2020). It is reported from Hawaii since the early 1900’s (Wilson, 2002), and is currently present on the islands of Kaua'i, O’ahu, Moloka'i, Lāna'i, Maui and Hawai'i (Vernon and Ranker, 2013). It is available from nurseries and local markets (Badola, 2010). The species is also used as an ornamental, which is likely the means of introduction into the continental USA around the 1930’s (Diddell, 1948). D. esculentum has escaped from cultivation in Florida, Louisiana and Hawaii (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2020; HEAR, 2020), facilitated by its air-borne spores (HEAR, 2020).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA Early 1900’s Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Diddell (1948) Early 1900’s in Hawaii
Peru 1953 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)

Risk of Introduction

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Diplazium esculentum is widely used in Asia and the Pacific as a vegetable and for traditional medicinal purposes (Chawla et al., 2015; HEAR, 2020). It has a high risk of introduction in the tropics and the subtropics, especially in areas with communities from countries that traditionally use the species as a food source. It produces a large number of spores which are easily dispersed by wind and water, increasing its risk of introduction, especially into moist or marshy soils. D.esculentum is frost-sensitive, which limits its establishment in temperate areas (HEAR, 2020).

Habitat

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Diplazium esculentum is found growing in wet valleys, sheltered spots in dry areas, open places on wet ground, marshy areas, secondary forests, rainforests and by riverbanks and canals at elevations from sea level to 2300 m (Hyndman and Menzies, 1990; Irudayaraj, 2011; India Biodiversity Portal, 2020; PIER, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Diplazium esculentum is listed as a weed of rubber plantations, but details on its precise impact or the rubber species are not given (HEAR, 2020).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome numbers reported for D. esculentum are 2n= 82 (HEAR, 2020). Germplasm collections are available at the National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) of India (Sharma and Goel, 1994).

Reproductive Biology

Diplazium esculentum is propagated both by spores and vegetatively by dividing the rhizomes (HEAR, 2020). The spores will germinate and develop quickly (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Physiology and Phenology

The leaves of D. esculentum are rich in iron, phosphorus, potassium and proteins (Badola, 2010).

Longevity

Diplazium esculentum is a perennial herbaceous fern (HEAR, 2020).

Activity Patterns

Diplazium esculentum grows to form dense thickets of clonal colonies (HEAR, 2020; India Biodiversity Portal, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Diplazium esculentum is adapted for tropical and subtropical conditions. It is killed by frosts (HEAR, 2020). It prefers moist to swampy soils with a pH of 5.5 to 7.5 (HEAR, 2020). D. esculentum grows bests in soils that are rich in organic matter but it is also reported growing on ultrabasic soils and occasionally over limestone rocks (Takeuchi, 2003; Dash et al., 2017; HEAR, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
33 -39

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -9
Mean annual temperature (ºC) -9 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7252500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Diplazium esculentum spores are dispersed by air. Water is also a possible vector, as it grows near waterways in moist or wet soils (HEAR, 2020).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Although there is no specific evidence, it is possible the spores of D. esculentum are dispersed in mud adhered to animals (HEAR, 2020).

Accidental Introduction

 Diplazium esculentum spreads from where it is cultivated into nearby areas (PIER, 2020). Although the leaves are sold in local markets there is no evidence of contamination of other products (HEAR, 2020).

Intentional Introduction

Diplazium esculentum is used as an ornamental and is sold online and in and nurseries worldwide (Huttleston, 1962; Badola, 2010; PIER, 2020).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationAvailable for sale at nurseries and over the internet as an ornamental Yes Yes Huttleston (1962); PIER (2020)
Crop productionCultivated in Australia for food Yes Yes PIER (2020)
DisturbanceAt disturbed sites Yes HEAR (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes PIER (2020)
Flooding and other natural disastersPossibly dispersed by water as it grows near waterways Yes HEAR (2020)
FoodMarketed locally for food and as an ornamental Yes Badola (2010); HEAR (2020)
ForageIt is usually foraged from the wild for food and for use as green manure Yes Gaur and Bhatt (1994); Badola (2010); HEAR (2020)
Garden waste disposalAlthough no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
HitchhikerPossible in mud attached to animals Yes HEAR (2020)
HorticultureUsed as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2020)
Interconnected waterwaysIts dispersal by water is possible as it grows near waterways Yes HEAR (2020)
Internet salesAvailable for sale online Yes Yes
Live food or feed tradeAvailable at local markets Yes Badola (2010)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Nursery tradeUsed as an ornamental and available in nurseries Yes Yes Huttleston (1962)
Off-site preservation Germplasm collections available in India Yes Yes Sharma and Goel (1994)
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2020)
People foragingIt is usually foraged from the wild for food Yes Badola (2010); HEAR (2020)
Seed tradeSpores available for sale Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsAlthough no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesAlthough no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental and food Yes
Floating vegetation and debrisPossible as it occurs near waterways Yes HEAR (2020)
GermplasmGermplasm collections available in India Yes Yes Sharma and Goel (1994)
MailPlants and spores are available over the internet Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelAlthough no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
WaterPossible as it occurs near waterways. Yes HEAR (2020)
WindSpores are dispersed by wind. Yes HEAR (2020)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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Diplazium esculentum is listed as a weed of rubber plantations, but no further details are given on the impact it has on this crop (HEAR, 2020).

Environmental Impact

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Diplazium esculentum is an invasive weed of open areas, capable of colonising riverbanks and spreading at a rate of 1 m per year (Flora of New Zealand, 2020). Although no details are available on the precise impact D. esculentum has on biodiversity, it can forms dense thickets and compete with native species for resources (HEAR, 2020).

Social Impact

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Sarkar et al. (2018) report that the species might induce male infertility.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

The leaves of D. esculentum are sold at local markets throughout Asia and the Pacific (Badola, 2010; Ghorbani et al., 2012; HEAR, 2020; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). It is particularly significant as an income source for some local communities in the Himalayas (Badola, 2010; Sarkar et al., 2018). Most of its use as a vegetable is from plants harvested from the wild (Badola, 2010; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Diplazium esculentum is also used as an ornamental with plants and spores sold online and in local nurseries (Huttleston, 1962; Badola, 2010).

Social Benefit

Diplazium esculentum is considered the most important edible fern worldwide, being rich in iron, phosphorus, potassium and proteins (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). Its use as a vegetable is especially popular in Asia and Oceania, and it is widely used in the Himalayas (Badola, 2010; Chawla et al., 2015).

Some traditional medicinal uses reported for D. esculentum are to treat fever, dermatitis, measles, headaches, pains, coughs, wounds, dysentery, glandular swellings, toothaches and diarrhoea (Nwosu, 2002; Badola, 2010; Chawla et al., 2015; Dash et al., 2017). The species is reported to have laxative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities (Badola, 2010; Dash et al., 2017). Norhayati et al. (2013) found D. esculentum extracts exhibited in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. A tonic from the leaves is used for difficult childbirths and the leaves are given to the elderly to maintain their health (Nwosu, 2002; Dash et al., 2017; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

The dried rhizomes are used as an insecticide and the leaves as green manure and as cattle bedding (Gaur and Bhatt, 1994; Badola, 2010).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Diplazium esculentum is similar to D. zanzibaricum and D. nemorale. It can be distinguished from both by the triangular, 2- to 3-pinnate lamina with anastomosing veins below the sinus lobes (Hyde et al., 2019).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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According to Badola (2010) research on the population biology, habitat dynamics, the propagation and cultivation prospects of D. esculentum is needed, especially in the context of the emerging threats from global warming and climate change. Also needed is more information on the effect naturalized populations of D. esculentum have on habitats and native species.

References

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Atlas of Living Australia, 2020. Atlas of Living Australia. In: Atlas of Living Australia Canberra, ACT, Australia: GBIF.http://www.ala.org.au

Badola, HK, 2010. A vegetable fern, Diplazium esculentum – potential for food security and socioeconomic development in the Himalaya. Non-wood News, 20, 10-11.

Baishakhi Sarkar, Mridushree Basak, Monoranjan Chowdhury, Das, A. P., 2018. Importance of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (Athyriaceae) on the lives of local ethnic communities in Terai and Duars of West Bengal - a report. Plant Archives, 18(1), 439-442. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%20181/439-442%20(PA3%203994).pdf

Dash, GK, Khadijah, S, Khadidi, J, Shamsuddin, AF, 2017. Pharmacognostic studies on Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 9(3), 113-120.

Dave's Garden, 2020. Dave's Garden. In: Dave's Garden El Segundo, California, USA: Internet Brands.http://davesgarden.com

Diddell MW, 1948. Diplazium esculentum in Florida. American Fern Journal, 38(1), 16-19.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2020. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of New Zealand, 2020. Flora of New Zealand. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research.http://www.nzflora.info/index.html

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Gangwar, A. K., Ramakrishnan, P. S., 1990. Ethnobiological notes on some tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Economic Botany, 44(1), 94-105. doi: 10.1007/BF02861071

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Irudayaraj, V, 2011. Diplazium esculentum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011 : IUCN.https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T194150A8883499.en

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PIER, 2020. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rana, M. S., Samant, S. S., 2009. Prioritization of habitats and communities for conservation in the Indian Himalayan Region: a state-of-the-art approach from Manali Wildlife Sanctuary. Current Science, 97(3), 326-335. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

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Distribution References

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Badola HK, 2010. A vegetable fern, Diplazium esculentum – potential for food security and socioeconomic development in the Himalaya. Non-wood News. 10-11.

Baishakhi Sarkar, Mridushree Basak, Monoranjan Chowdhury, Das A P, 2018. Importance of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (Athyriaceae) on the lives of local ethnic communities in Terai and Duars of West Bengal - a report. Plant Archives. 18 (1), 439-442. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%20181/439-442%20(PA3%203994).pdf

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Dash GK, Khadijah S, Khadidi J, Shamsuddin AF, 2017. Pharmacognostic studies on Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 9 (3), 113-120.

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Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Gangwar A K, Ramakrishnan P S, 1990. Ethnobiological notes on some tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Economic Botany. 44 (1), 94-105. DOI:10.1007/BF02861071

Ghorbani A, Langenberger G, Liu JingXin, Wehner S, Sauerborn J, 2012. Diversity of medicinal and food plants as non-timber forest products in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve (China): implications for livelihood improvement and biodiversity conservation. Economic Botany. 66 (2), 178-191. DOI:10.1007/s12231-012-9188-1

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Irudayaraj V, 2011. Diplazium esculentum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011, IUCN. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T194150A8883499.en

Nwosu M O, 2002. Ethnobotanical studies on some pteridophytes of Southern Nigeria. Economic Botany. 56 (3), 255-259. DOI:10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0255:ESOSPO]2.0.CO;2

PIER, 2020. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rana M S, Samant S S, 2009. Prioritization of habitats and communities for conservation in the Indian Himalayan Region: a state-of-the-art approach from Manali Wildlife Sanctuary. Current Science. 97 (3), 326-335. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2020. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections, Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Wilson KA, 2002. Continued pteridophyte invasion of Hawaii. American Fern Journal. 92 (2), 179-183.

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09/02/20 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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