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Aphanomyces astaci

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Aphanomyces astaci

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 January 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphanomyces astaci
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Saprolegniales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. astaci is the cause of crayfish plague in freshwater crayfish species susceptible to the disease, such as European and Australian freshwater crayfish. In contrast, in North American crayfish species, A. astaci acts as a benign par...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aphanomyces astaci; mycelial filaments observed on the membranes of Pacifastacus leniusculus dead from crayfish plague.
TitleMycelial filaments
CaptionAphanomyces astaci; mycelial filaments observed on the membranes of Pacifastacus leniusculus dead from crayfish plague.
Copyright©Théo Duperray/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Aphanomyces astaci; mycelial filaments observed on the membranes of Pacifastacus leniusculus dead from crayfish plague.
Mycelial filamentsAphanomyces astaci; mycelial filaments observed on the membranes of Pacifastacus leniusculus dead from crayfish plague.©Théo Duperray/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Aphanomyces astaci; crayfish plague, sporulation.
TitleSporulation
CaptionAphanomyces astaci; crayfish plague, sporulation.
Copyright©Bram Koese/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Aphanomyces astaci; crayfish plague, sporulation.
SporulationAphanomyces astaci; crayfish plague, sporulation.©Bram Koese/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. astaci is the cause of crayfish plague in freshwater crayfish species susceptible to the disease, such as European and Australian freshwater crayfish. In contrast, in North American crayfish species, A. astaci acts as a benign parasite and these species can act as carriers of the pathogen. A. astaci is thought to have been introduced into Europe in the middle of the 19th century (Cornalia, 1860; Alderman, 1996). Since then it has spread across large parts of Europe, leading to several outbreaks of crayfish plague in European crayfish populations and being considered the most important reason for the decline of these species across Europe.The source of the original infections in the 19th century was never established; but the post-1960s spread is largely linked to the introduction and spread of North American crayfish introduced for purposes of crayfish farming.

Crayfish plague is notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Saprolegniales
  •                     Family: Leptolegniaceae
  •                         Genus: Aphanomyces
  •                             Species: Aphanomyces astaci

Distribution

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The natural range of A. astaci is likely to be North America. It has been found in North American crayfish sampled in North America (Unestam and Weiss, 1970). Any occurrence of A. astaci outside of North America is currently considered as an exotic appearance of the pathogen. 

The first evidence for the arrival of A. astaci in Europe is the first large crayfish mortalities, which were first observed in Italy in 1859 (Ninni, 1865; Seligo, 1895). These were followed by further reports of crayfish mortalities, where no other aquatic species were affected, in the Franco-German border region in the third quarter of the 19th century. From there a steady spread of infection occurred, principally in two directions: down the Danube into the Balkans and towards the Black Sea, and across the North German plain into Russia and from there south to the Black Sea and north-west to Finland and, in 1907, to Sweden. In the 1960s, the first outbreaks were reported in Spain and in the 1980s the disease spread further to the British Isles, Turkey, Greece and Norway (Alderman, 1996). The source of the original infections in the 19th century was never established. The spread of the disease post-1960s is largely linked to introductions of North American crayfish for crayfish farming (Alderman, 1996). Pacifastacus leniusculus, Faxonius limosus and Procambarus clarkii are now widely naturalised in many parts of Europe. Since North American crayfish serve as a reservoir of A. astaci, any areas where North American crayfish species are found have to be considered as areas where A. astaci is present (unless shown otherwise). Australia and New Zealand have not experienced any outbreaks of crayfish plague to date and are currently considered free of the disease (OIE, 2011). 

Some North American crayfish species, such as Procambarus clarkii, have been introduced for aquaculture purposes into many areas around the globe, like Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, China and other parts of east and south Asia. In most cases where P. clarkii has been introduced, it has escaped to the wild and established reproducing populations. It is not known whether all of these populations would still be carriers of A. astaci, but North American crayfish populations tested for carrier status in Europe have usually been found to be infected (Oidtmann et al., 2006; Kozubíková et al., 2009). The actual distribution of A. astaci is therefore likely to be far broader than the distribution table would suggest and is more likely to more or less coincide with the distribution of North American crayfish worldwide. If there are no susceptible species in the area to which the North American crayfish are introduced, there may be no impact of such introductions associated with A. astaci

Details for introductions of North American crayfish species into new geographic areas can be obtained from Gherardi and Holdich (1999).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoroccoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkeyPresentIntroducedInvasive
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1880
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DenmarkAbsentJul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
FinlandPresentIntroducedInvasive
FrancePresentIntroducedInvasive
GermanyPresentIntroducedInvasive
GreeceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentIntroducedInvasive
ItalyPresentIntroduced
LatviaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2013)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2013)
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2013)
NorwayPresentIntroducedInvasive
PolandPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2013)
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwedenPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2013)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United StatesAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

History of Introduction and Spread

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The early history of the introduction of Aphanomyces astaci into areas outside of its natural range in North America is based on cases of large mortalities of European crayfish species, which appeared to be associated with a pathogen, rather than pollution incidents. Initially, it was thought that the disease was caused by a bacterium, Bacillus pestis astaci (Hofer, 1898). However, in 1903 Schikora identified a fungus, an Aphanomyces species, as the disease agent. It was not until 1934 that A. astaci was finally determined to be the true infectious agent. Therefore, what are described as the early cases of crayfish plague in Europe are based on observations of large-scale mortalities of European crayfish species that appeared to be the result of a highly virulent pathogen. 

Cultivation methods were accompanied by several problems, and it was difficult to obtain A. astaci in pure culture. With the development of molecular methods for the diagnosis of crayfish plague, the pathogen has been diagnosed more frequently. 

Based on circumstantial evidence, it is thought that the first likely introduction of A. astaci outside North America was in the middle of the 19th century, when large scale mortalities of native crayfish were observed in Northern Italy (Cornalia, 1860). The next cases of crayfish plague appeared in 1874-75 on the Plateau de Langres, which is located in central-eastern France (Raveret-Wattel, 1885; Vivier, 1951). The outbreaks in France seem to have been the source for the further spread of the disease across Europe in the following decades. From France, the disease seems to have spread to neighbouring Germany in 1877, and from Germany to Austria in 1879 and Switzerland in 1881. In the following decades, the pathogen reached eastern Europe (Poland, 1893; Slovenia, 1885; Latvia 1886; Russia 1890), and Scandinavia (Finland in 1900, Sweden in 1907). The early outbreaks of the disease were probably associated with the movement of infected European crayfish or movement of A. astaci-contaminated equipment. 

Crayfish plague was reported from new geographical areas again in the 1950s, when it was reported for the first time from Spain. In 1971, it was detected for the first time in Norway, in 1981 it reached England, in 1982 Greece, in 1984 Turkey and in 1987 Ireland and the Czech Republic (Alderman, 1996; Kozubíková et al., 2006).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Austria Germany 1879 No No Anon (1879)
Belgium 1880 No No Seligo (1895)
Czech Republic   No No Kozubíková et al. (2006)
Denmark   No No OIE (2011); OIE (2011b)
Finland 1900 No No Viljamaa-Dirks (2006)
France 1874 No No Raveret-Wattel (1885) Probably introduced from North America
Germany France 1877 No No Tzukerzis (1964)
Greece 1982 No No Theocharis (1986)
Ireland   No No Reynolds (1988) Possibly introduced on angling equipment
Italy 1859 No No Cornalia (1860) Probably introduced from North America
Italy 2009 No No Cammà et al. (2010)
Latvia 1886 No No Tzukerzis (1964) Probably introduced from Prussia
Lithuania 1967 No No Mazylis and Grigelis (1979)
Luxembourg 1880 No No Seligo (1895)
Norway Sweden 1971 No No Hastein and Unestam (1971)
Poland circa 1890 No No Seligo (1895) Possibly introduced from Germany
Russian Federation 1890 No No Arnold (1900)
Slovenia 1885 No No Franke (1894)
Spain 1956 No No Cuellar and Coll (1984) Probably introduced from Germany
Sweden Finland 1907 Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) No No Alm (1929)
Switzerland Germany 1881 No No Roch (1881)
Turkey 1984 No No Rahe (1987)
UK Sweden 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Alderman et al. (1984)

Risk of Introduction

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In principle, spread of crayfish plague can be through 3 pathways: 1) independent of crayfish host tissue (usually as zoospores or cysts), 2) infected cuticle / tissue of the highly susceptible crayfish species (e.g. any of the European species) and 3) spread with infected carrier (=North American) crayfish. 

Spread independent of crayfish host tissue can be through contaminated water, and mechanical vectors or fomites that have been in contact with contaminated water. The likelihood of spread depends on several factors including the number of spores transmitted, the presence of susceptible crayfish at the site of release, the conditions the spores/cysts are exposed to during transfer, etc. (Oidtmann et al., 2002; Oidtmann et al., 2005). The mechanical spread route is more relevant for relatively short durations of transfer due to the limited survival of the pathogen outside a crayfish host. Examples of fomites that may be involved in mechanical transmission are: contaminated crayfish traps, angling equipment, and boots. It may also be possible that animals can carry the spores or cysts in their fur / feathers. Spread of A. astaci via water may occur for example during fish transport, or in ballast water of ships. Fish themselves may also serve as vectors in several ways: two independent studies have shown that A. astaci spores germinate on fish scales in vitro (Hall and Unestam, 1980; Ahne and Halder, 1988). However, it still remains to be shown that transmission via fish skin occurs in vivo (Oidtmann et al., 2002). Mechanical spread would be most relevant from sites of current crayfish plague outbreaks during which high numbers of spores and cysts would be present in the water. 

Outbreaks of crayfish plague in the highly susceptible species are also a period during which spread via infected highly susceptible crayfish would be likely. Crayfish could be harvested without the person harvesting recognizing that there was an ongoing outbreak; the crayfish may also be emergency-harvested, or be preyed upon. In the course of the disease, susceptible crayfish become progressively paralysed and show abnormal behaviour such as daytime activity (normally crayfish are predominantly nocturnal). This makes them easy prey for an increased range of predators, which may eat the crayfish or abduct them to other locations. If eaten by fish, the pathogen may survive the gut passage and be released with the fish faeces (Oidtmann et al., 2002). 

American crayfish species carrying the pathogen as an unapparent infection can spread the disease into new areas by colonising new habitats. Commercial trade of live crayfish for human consumption, accidental co-transport during fish transport, and use of crayfish as bait for fishing may assist colonisation of new areas. Data from North American crayfish populations tested to date suggest that the majority of populations are carriers of the pathogen (Oidtmann et al., 2006; Kozubíková et al., 2009). Therefore every translocation of North American crayfish into previously A. astaci-free areas converts those areas into crayfish-plague-endangered areas; usually it is only a matter of time until susceptible crayfish in such areas develop the disease. 

The risk of further spread of A. astaci varies depending on geographical region. It is already fairly widespread in many parts of continental Europe due to the spread of North American crayfish species, which may carry it as a subclinical infection. A broad range of potential pathways of spread exists in areas with North American crayfish presence in the wild. The range of transmission pathways is more limited in areas where North American crayfish do not occur in the wild. The extent of spread of North American crayfish species varies between European countries; accordingly the level of risk associated with the presence of carriers of the pathogen will vary. 

Potential pathways of spread were summarized in a preliminary study.  Sources of spread of carrier crayfish were identified for England and Wales, where they included fish farms, natural waters, crayfish farms, garden ponds, restaurants and aquaria. Modes of spread of A. astaci that were identified included live fish movements (anthropogenic), release of North American crayfish by the general public, crayfish migration, effluent water from rearing facilities, angling with crayfish bait, escapees, bulk water transfer, survey work, use of leisure equipment, angling equipment, birds, migratory fish, and construction works (Oidtmann et al., 2005). Depending on customs in other countries these routes may vary. 

Routes of introduction into new geographic areas will be most likely through the import of North American crayfish for food, the aquarium trade or for aquaculture purposes.

Pathogen Characteristics

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Vegetative hyphae of A. astaci are aseptate and usually 7–9 μm in diameter. Actively growing hyphae are densely packed with coarsely granular cytoplasm with numerous highly refractile globules (Alderman and Polglase, 1986). Older hyphae are largely vacuolated with the cytoplasm mainly restricted to the periphery. Old hyphae appear devoid of contents. Hyphae branch profusely. 

When actively growing mycelium is transferred to river water, sporangia usually form within 20-30 hours at 16°C and 12-15 hours at 20°C. They develop from undifferentiated vegetative hyphae, and are delimited by a single basal septum in the case of terminal sporangia and by septa at either end of the sporangial segment in intercalary sporangia. 

Within developing sporangia, the cytoplasm cleaves into a series of elongate units (10–25 × 8 μm). Although the ends of these cytoplasmic units become rounded, they remain elongate until and during discharge. Spore discharge is achlyoid, that is, the first spore stage is an aplanospore that encysts at the sporangial orifice. Discharge is fairly rapid <5 minutes) and the individual primary spores pass through the tip of the sporangium and accumulate around the sporangial orifice. Encystment of primary spores is marked by a gradual rounding up followed by the development of a cyst wall. 

Encysted primary spores are spherical, normally 9–11 μm (extreme range 8-15 μm) in diameter, and are relatively few in number, normally 15–30 (extreme range 8-40) per sporangium, in comparison with other Aphanomyces spp. Spores remain encysted for 8–12 hours. Optimum temperatures for sporangium formation and discharge are between 16 and 24°C for the majority of European isolates of A. astaci (Alderman and Polglase, 1986). For some isolates, particularly from Spanish waters, slightly higher optimal temperatures may prevail (Diéguez-Uribeondo et al., 1995). 

Release of secondary zoospores from the cysts is papillate, the papilla developing shortly before discharge. The spore cytoplasm emerges slowly in an amoeboid fashion through a narrow pore at the tip of a papilla, and there the spore shape changes gradually from spherical to reniform. Flagellar attachment is lateral (Scott, 1961); zoospores are typical saprolegniaceous secondary zoospores measuring 8 × 12 μm. Active motility takes some 5–20 minutes to develop (dependent on temperature) and, at first, zoospores are slow and uncoordinated. At temperatures between 16 and 20°C, zoospores may continue to swim for at least 48 hours (Alderman and Polglase, 1986).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Astacopsis fluviatilisExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Astacopsis gouldiExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Astacus astacus (European crayfish)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds; Open water systems/Enhancements and culture-based fisheries (inc. ranching and stock enhacement)
Astacus leptodactylus (Danube crayfish)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds; Open water systems/Enhancements and culture-based fisheries (inc. ranching and stock enhacement)
Austropotamobius pallipes (freshwater white-clawed crayfish)Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Larval
Austropotamobius torrentiumWild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Larval
Cambaroides japonicusExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Cherax destructor (yabby)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Cherax papuanusExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Cherax quinquecarinatusExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Euastacus clydensisExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Euastacus crassusExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Euastacus kershawiExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Geocharax gracilisExperimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Orconectes limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)Domesticated host; Subclinical; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Larval
Pacifastacus leniusculus (American signal crayfish)Domesticated host; Subclinical; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Larval
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)Domesticated host; Subclinical; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Larval

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 2 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -12 17

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockNorth American crayfish Yes Yes Alderman (1996); Oidtmann et al. (2005)
BaitInfected crayfish used as angling bait Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiese.g. unused crayfish bait Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Host and vector organismsInfected crayfish (North American species or highly susceptible species) Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Live seafoodNorth American crayfish and infected highly susceptible species Yes Yes Alderman (1996); Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Machinery and equipment Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Pets and aquarium species Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Ship ballast water and sedimentPossible means of movement Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Water Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Economic Impact

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The introduction of crayfish plague led to the disappearance of crayfish species native to Europe. Data on the economic impact of these historic introductions of crayfish plague are not available. However, across Europe, native crayfish have been widely used as food. Crayfish have historically provided food for the poor, since catching them was not regulated (in contrast to wild game). Crayfish have also been widely traded across Europe. Therefore, the livelihood of anyone involved in catching and trading of crayfish was affected. 

Traditionally, five crayfish species have been considered indigenous to Europe:

  • the Noble Crayfish Astacus astacus, centred in Germany and Poland.
  • the narrow-clawed or Turkish Crayfish Astacus leptodactylus of south-eastern Europe.
  • the Stone Crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium, which is found in the Alps and Balkans.
  • the White-clawed Crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet), which is found in Southern Europe and the British Isles.
  • Astacus pachypus, which is restricted to the Black and Caspian Seas.

Of these, it is mainly Astacus astacus and Astacus leptodactylus that have been exploited for harvest. In medieval Europe crayfish caught in rivers were a highly esteemed food resource.

The impact of crayfish plague on harvest is probably best documented through its introduction into Turkey, where harvests declined from 8000 metric tonnes in 1984 to an average of less than 500 metric tonnes between 1990 and 1994 as a result of the disease (Ackefors, 1999). 

Another area of economic impact to be considered is the costs of conservation of the native crayfish species that are affected by the spread of crayfish plague. The costs over the past 20 years of species conservation programs are likely to reach several million US$ for most economies in European countries. However, the costs of conservation attempts for native crayfish have never been collated to the knowledge of the author.

Environmental Impact

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The consequence of an introduction of Aphanomyces astaci into the natural range of the highly susceptible European species is usually the disappearance of populations of these species in affected areas. In Europe, crayfish are considered a keystone species, due to the pivotal role they have in food webs and the ecology of the freshwater environment. If they are removed (for example as a result of a crayfish plague outbreak), the ecosystem is heavily affected. The proportions of most other species will be affected. 

An example of the relevance of crayfish as a keystone species is Sweden. The water temperatures in many lakes in Sweden are too cold to support resident fish species. Native crayfish present in such lakes occupy this niche of ‘top predator’. When crayfish are removed as a result of crayfish plague, macrophytes and opportunistic invertebrates often expand, causing great fluctuations of species, imbalance and reduced biodiversity. 

The impact of crayfish plague on a native crayfish species is fairly well documented in Sweden. It is estimated that out of 30,000 Astacus astacus populations present at the beginning of the 20th century, only 5% remained in the year 2000 (Edsman, 2000). 

Austropotamobius pallipes is considered a flagship species of patrimonial value. Astacus astacus is highly valued – both from a recreational and economic point of view (Souty-Grosset, 2005).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Astacus astacus (European crayfish)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)PathogenicIUCN (2009)
Austropotamobius pallipes (freshwater white-clawed crayfish)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)PathogenicIUCN (2009)
Austropotamobius torrentiumDD (IUCN red list: Data deficient)PathogenicIUCN (2009)

Social Impact

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The impact of the decline of the native crayfish as a result of spread of crayfish plague and spread of North American crayfish has been very well studied in Sweden, where crayfish fishery has a substantial social, cultural and economic value. Traditionally, crayfish parties take place in August of each year, which almost all Swedes participate in. The decline in the supplies of native Astacus astacus as the result of the introduction of crayfish plague in 1907 led to the introduction of North American crayfish to replace the Astacus astacus populations that had been lost to the disease. The crayfish parties still take place nowadays, but a large proportion of crayfish are now Pacifastacus leniusculus instead of Astacus astacus. In order to prevent the spread of crayfish plague to the remaining crayfish populations, a range of actions (including informing the public) have been taken (Edsman, 2000).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Ackefors H, 1999. The positive effects of established crayfish introductions in Europe. In: Crayfish in Europe as alien species - How to make the best of a bad situation [ed. by Gherardi, F.\Holdich, D. M.]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 49-61

Ahne W, Halder M, 1988. Virologische und mykologische Untersuchungen an Krebsbeständen verschiedener Herkunft. Munich, Germany: Berichte der Landesanstalt für Wasserforschung, unpaginated

Alderman DJ, 1996. Geographical spread of bacterial and fungal diseases of crustaceans. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 15(2):603-632

Alderman DJ, Polglase JL, 1986. Aphanomyces astaci: isolation and culture. Journal of Fish Diseases, 9(5):367-379

Alderman DJ, Polglase JL, Frayling M, 1987. Aphanomyces astaci pathogenicity under laboratory and field conditions. Journal of Fish Diseases, 10(5):385-393

Alderman DJ, Polglase JL, Frayling M, Hogger J, 1984. Crayfish plague in Britain. Journal of Fish Diseases, 7(5):401-405

Alm G, 1929. [English title not available]. (Der Krebs und die Krebpest in Schweden.) Zeitschrift für Fischerei, 27:123-138

Anon, 1879. [English title not available]. (Die Krebsseuche.) Deutsche Fischerei-Zeitung, 1879:387

Arnold J, 1900. [English title not available]. (Kurzer Bericht über die Verbreitung der Krebspest in Russland und über den gegenwärtigen Zustand des Krebsfanges in dem Wolgagebiet.) Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung, 25:449

Benisch J, 1940. [English title not available]. (Kuenstlich hervorgerufener Aphanomyces Befall bei Wollhandkrabben.) Zeitschrift fuer Fischerei, 38:71-80

Bernado JM, Ilhéu M, Costa AM, 1997. Distribution, population structure and conservation of Austropotamobius pallipes in Portugal. Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 347:617-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae/1997044

Bernardo JM, Ilheu M, 1997. Present status of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Portugal. Freshwater Crayfish, 11:671-680

Cammà C, Ferri N, Zezza D, Marcacci M, Paolini A, Ricchiuti L, Lelli R, 2010. Confirmation of crayfish plague in Italy: detection of Aphanomyces astaci in white clawed crayfish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 89(3):265-268. http://www.int-res.com/articles/dao_oa/d089p265.pdf

Cerenius L, Söderhäll K, 1984. Chemotaxis in Aphanomyces astaci, an arthropod-parasitic fungus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 43:278-281

Cerenius L, Söderhäll K, 1984. Repeated zoospore emergence from isolated spore cysts of Aphanomyces astaci. Experimental Mycology, 8(4):370-377

Cornalia E, 1860. [English title not available]. (Sulla malattia dei gamberi.) Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, II:334-336

Cuellar L, Coll M, 1984. Epizootiology of the crayfish plague (Aphanomycosis) in Spain. Freshwater Crayfish, 5:545-548

DAISIE, 2011. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Demers A, Reynolds JD, 2002. A survey of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet), and of water quality in two catchments of eastern Ireland. Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 347:729-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2002062

Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Huang TS, Cerenius L, Söderhäll K, 1995. Physiological adaptation of an Aphanomyces astaci strain isolated from the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Mycological Research, 99(5):574-578

Edsman L, 2000. Crayfish conservation in Sweden, lessons to learn. In: Proceedings of Crayfish Conference, Leeds, UK, 26-27 April 2000 [ed. by Rogers, D. \Brickland, J.]. 19-26

Edsman L, 2004. The Swedish story about import of live crayfish. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 372-373:281-288

Franke, 1894. [English title not available]. (Uber die Krebsseuche.) Mitteilung des Österreichischen Fischereivereins, 2-6:139-140

Gherardi F, Holdich DM, 1999. Crayfish in Europe as alien species (How to make the best of a bad situation?). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, unpaginated

Hall L, Unestam T, 1980. The effect of fungicides on survival of the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, Oomycetes, growing on fish scales. Mycopathologia, 72(3):131-134

Hastein T, Unestam T, 1971. [English title not available]. (Krebspest na i Norge.) Fauna, 25:19-22

Hofer B, 1898. [English title not available]. (Über die Krebspest.) Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung, 23:293-300

ISSG (IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group), 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

IUCN, 2009. IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN red list of threatened species. unpaginated. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Josefsson M, Andersson B, 2001. The environmental consequences of alien species in the Swedish Lakes Mälaren, Hjälmaren, Vänern and Vättern. Ambio, 30(8):514-521

Kozubíková E, Filipová L, Kozák P, Dhacek~uris Z, Martín MP, Diéguez-Uribeondo J, Oidtmann B, Petrusek A, 2009. Prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci in invasive American crayfishes in the Czech Republic. Conservation Biology, 23(5):1204-1213. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/cbi

Kozubíková E, Petrusek A, Duri? Z, Kozák P, Geiger S, Hoffmann R, 2006. The crayfish plague in the Czech Republic - review of recent suspect cases and a pilot detection study. BFPP - Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Protection des Milieux Aquatiques:1313-1323

Matthews M, Reynolds JD, 1992. Ecological impact of crayfish plague in Ireland. Hydrobiologia, 234(1):1-6

Mazylis A, Grigelis A, 1979. On diseases of Astacus astacus in some Lithuanian lakes. Biologiya Rechnykh Rakov Vod. Litny., Vilnius, 1979:121-127

Ninni AP, 1865. [English title not available]. (Sulla mortalita dei gambari (Astacus fluviatilis L.) nel veneto e piu particalarmenta nella provincia trevigiana.) Alti Inst. Veneto Ser. III, 10:1203-1209

Nybelin O, 1936. [English title not available]. (Untersuchungen uber die Ursache der in Schweden gegenvartig vorkommenden Krebspest.) Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm. Lund, Sweden: Carl Bloms Boktr, 3-29

Nyhlen l, Unestam T, 1980. Wound reactions and Aphanomyces astaci growth in crayfish cuticle. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 36(2):187-197

Oidtmann B, Cerenius L, Schmid I, Hoffmann R, Söderhäll K, 1999. Crayfish plague epizootics in Germany - classification of two German isolates of the crayfish plague fungus Aphanomyces astaci by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 35(3):235-238

Oidtmann B, El-Matbouli M, Fischer H, Hoffmann RW, Klaerding K, Schmid I, Schmidt R, 1996. Light microscopy of Astacus astacus L. under normal and selected pathological conditions, with special emphasis to porcelain disease and crayfish plague. Freshwater crayfish [Freshwater crayfish XI : Proceedings of the International Association of Astacology eleventh symposium, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 11-16 August 1996], 11:465-480

Oidtmann B, Geiger S, Steinbauer P, Culas A, Hoffmann RW, 2006. Detection of Aphanomyces astaci in North American crayfish by polymerase chain reaction. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 72:53-64

Oidtmann B, Heitz E, Rogers D, Hoffmann RW, 2002. Transmission of crayfish plague. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 52(2):159-167. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v52/n2/p159-167.html

Oidtmann B, Schmid I, Rogers D, Hoffmann R, 1999. An improved isolation method for the cultivation of the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci. Freshwater Crayfish, 12:303-312

Oidtmann B, Thrush M, Rogers D, Peeler E, 2005. Pathways for transmission of crayfish plague, Aphanomyces astaci, in England and Wales. In: Meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Nairn, UK, 30 March-1 April 2005. http://www.svepm.org.uk/posters/2005/Identification%20of%20pathways%20of%20transmission%20of%20crayfish%20plague%20in%20England%20and%20Wales.pdf

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2011. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Pöckl M, Pekny R, 2002. Interaction between native and alien species of crayfish in Austria. Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 367:763-776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2002064

Rahe R, 1987. [English title not available]. (Geschichte und derzeitiger Stand der Krebspest in der Türkei.) Fischer und Teichwirt, 6:174-177

Rahe R, Soylu E, 1989. Identification of the pathogenic fungus causing destruction to Turkish crayfish stocks (Astacus leptodactylus). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 54(1):10-15

Raveret-Wattel MC, 1885. [English title not available]. (Résumé des résponses au questionnaire sur la maladie des écrevisses.) Bull. Soc. Acclim, 4:614-615

RENNERFELT E, 1936. Studies on the development and biology of the Crab fungus, Aphanomyces astaci Schikora. (Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung und Biologie des Krebspestpilzes Aphanomyces astaci, Schikora.) Medd. Undersokn. o. Forsoksanst. Sottvattensfisk, 10:21 pp

Reynolds JD, 1988. Crayfish extinctions and crayfish plague in central Ireland. Biological Conservation, 45(4):279-285

Roch GA, 1881. [English title not available]. (Uber das Fortschreiten der Krebsseuche.) Deutsche Fischerei-Zeitung, 1881:392-393

Schikora F, 1903. [English title not available]. (Über die Krebspest und ihren Erreger.) Fischerei Zeitung, 6:353-355

Schikora F, 1906. [English title not available]. (Die Krebspest.) Fischerei Zeitung, 9:529-532, 549-553, 561-566, 581-583

Schrimpf A, Pârvulescu L, Copilas-Ciocianu D, Petrusek A, Schulz R, 2012. Crayfish plague pathogen detected in the Danube Delta - a potential threat to freshwater biodiversity in southeastern Europe. Aquatic Invasions, 7(4):503-510. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2012/AI_2012_4_Schrimpf_etal.pdf

Schäperclaus W, 1935. [English title not available]. (Die Ursache der pestartigen Krebsterben.) Zeitschrift für Fischerei, 33:343-366

SCOTT WW, 1961. A monograph of the genus Aphanomyces. Technical Bulletin. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, 151:95 pp

Seligo A, 1895. [English title not available]. (Bemerkungen über Krebspest, Wasserpest, Lebensverhältnisse des Krebses.) Zeitschrift Fischerei, 3:247-261

Souty-Grosset C, 2005. Introduction: the EU-network craynet-impacts on fundamental questions. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 376-377:495-503

Svensson E, Unestam T, 1975. Differential induction of zoospore encystment and germination in Aphanomyces astaci, Oomycetes. Physiologia Plantarum, 35(3):210-216

Taugbøl T, Skurdal J, Håstein T, 1993. Crayfish plague and management strategies in Norway. Biological Conservation, 63(1):75-82

Theocharis V, 1986. [English title not available]. (La pêche de l'écrevisse dans la région d'Hipiros en Gréce.) L'Astaciculteur de France, 8:4-10

Tzukerzis JM, 1964. On crayfish plague. Travaux de l'Académie des Science SSR, V:77-85

Unestam T, 1966. Studies on the crayfish plague fungus Aphanomyces astaci. II. Factors affecting zoospores and zoospore production. Physiologia Plantarum, 19:1110-1119

Unestam T, 1969. On the adaptation of Aphanomyces astaci as a parasite. Physiologia Plantarum, 22:221-235

Unestam T, 1969. Resistance to the crayfish plague in some American, Japanese and European crayfishes. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm. Lund, Sweden: Carl Bloms Boktr, 202-206

Unestam T, 1972. On the host range and origin of the crayfish plague fungus. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm. Lund, Sweden: Carl Bloms Boktr, 192-198

Unestam T, 1975. Defence reactions in and susceptibility of Australian and New Guinean freshwater crayfish to European-crayfish-plague fungus. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 53:349-359

Unestam T, Weiss DW, 1970. The host-parasite relationship between freshwater crayfish and the crayfish disease fungus Aphanomyces astaci: responses to infection by a susceptible and a resistant species. Journal of General Microbiology, 60:77-90

Viljamaa-Dirks S, 2006. Improved detection of crayfish plague with a modified isolation method. Freshwater Crayfish, 15:376-382

Vivier P, 1951. [English title not available]. (La "Peste", un facteur de régulation des populations d'écrevisses (Astacus).) Mitteilungen der Internatinalen Vereinigung für Limnologie:18

Westman K, Savolainen R, 2001. Long term study of competition between two co-occurring crayfish species, the native Astacus astacus L. and the introduced Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, in a Finnish lake. Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 361:613-627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2001008

Wlasow T, Bernad A, Krzywosz T, Hul M, 2004. Some notices on the incidence of crayfish plague in Poland. (Poznámky k výskytu racího moru v Polsku.) Bulletin - VÚRH Vodnany, 40(3):95-100

Distribution References

Alderman D J, Polglase J L, Frayling M, Hogger J, 1984. Crayfish plague in Britain. Journal of Fish Diseases. 7 (5), 401-405. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2761.1984.tb01205.x

Alm G, 1929. Crayfish and crayfish plague in Sweden. (Der Krebs und die Krebpest in Schweden.). Zeitschrift für Fischerei. 123-138.

Anon, 1879. Crayfish plague. (Die Krebsseuche.). Deutsche Fischerei-Zeitung. 387.

Arnold J, 1900. Short report on the spread of crayfish plague in Russia and on the present status of the crayfish fishery in the Volga area. (Kurzer Bericht über die Verbreitung der Krebspest in Russland und über den gegenwärtigen Zustand des Krebsfanges in dem Wolgagebiet.). Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung. 449.

Bernardo J M, Ilheu M, 1997. Present status of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Portugal. Freshwater Crayfish. unpaginated.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cammà C, Ferri N, Zezza D, Marcacci M, Paolini A, Ricchiuti L, Lelli R, 2010. Confirmation of crayfish plague in Italy: detection of Aphanomyces astaci in white clawed crayfish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 89 (3), 265-268. DOI:10.3354/dao02207

Cornalia E, 1860. Crayfish plague. (Sulla malattia dei gamberi.). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali. 334-336.

Cuellar L, Coll M, 1984. Epizootiology of the crayfish plague (Aphanomycosis) in Spain. Freshwater Crayfish. 545-548.

Demers A, Reynolds JD, 2002. A survey of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet), and of water quality in two catchments of eastern Ireland. In: Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 347 729-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2002062

Edsman L, 2004. The Swedish story about import of live crayfish. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture. 281-288.

Franke, 1894. On crayfish plague. (Uber die Krebsseuche.). Mitteilung des Österreichischen Fischereivereins. 139-140.

Håstein T, Unestam T, 1971. Crayfish plague now in Norway. (Krebspest nå i Norge.). Fauna. 19-22.

Josefsson M, Andersson B, 2001. The environmental consequences of alien species in the Swedish Lakes Mälaren, Hjälmaren, Vänern and Vättern. Ambio. 30 (8), 514-521.

Kozubíková E, Petrusek A, Duriš Z, Kozák P, Geiger S, Hoffmann R, 2006. The crayfish plague in the Czech Republic - review of recent suspect cases and a pilot detection study. BFPP - Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Protection des Milieux Aquatiques. 1313-1323.

Matthews M, Reynolds J D, 1992. Ecological impact of crayfish plague in Ireland. Hydrobiologia. 234 (1), 1-6. DOI:10.1007/BF00010773

Mazylis A, Grigelis A, 1979. On diseases of Astacus astacus in some Lithuanian lakes. Biologiya Rechnykh Rakov Vod. Litny., Vilnius. 121-127.

Oidtmann B, Cerenius L, Schmid I, Hoffmann R, Söderhäll K, 1999. Crayfish plague epizootics in Germany - classification of two German isolates of the crayfish plague fungus Aphanomyces astaci by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 35 (3), 235-238. DOI:10.3354/dao035235

OIE, 2011. Aphanomyces astaci. In: World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Pöckl M, Pekny R, 2002. Interaction between native and alien species of crayfish in Austria. In: Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 367 763-776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2002064 DOI:10.1051/kmae:2002064

Rahe R, 1987. History and present status of crayfish plague in Turkey. (Geschichte und derzeitiger Stand der Krebspest in der Türkei.). Fischer und Teichwirt. 174-177.

Raveret-Wattel M C, 1885. [English title not available]. (Résumé des résponses au questionnaire sur la maladie des écrevisses.). Bulletin de la Societe d'Acclimatation. 614-615.

Reynolds J D, 1988. Crayfish extinctions and crayfish plague in central Ireland. Biological Conservation. 45 (4), 279-285. DOI:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90059-6

Roch G A, 1881. On the spread of crayfish plague. (Uber das Fortschreiten der Krebsseuche.). Deutsche Fischerei-Zeitung. 392-393.

Schrimpf A, Pârvulescu L, Copilaș-Ciocianu D, Petrusek A, Schulz R, 2012. Crayfish plague pathogen detected in the Danube Delta - a potential threat to freshwater biodiversity in southeastern Europe. Aquatic Invasions. 7 (4), 503-510. DOI:10.3391/ai.2012.7.4.007

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Seligo A, 1895. Observations on crayfish plague, aquatic pests and biology of the crayfish. (Bemerkungen über Krebspest, Wasserpest, Lebensverhältnisse des Krebses.). Zeitschrift Fischerei. 247-261.

Taugbøl T, Skurdal J, Hastein T, 1993. Crayfish plague and management strategies in Norway. Biological Conservation. 63 (1), 75-82. DOI:10.1016/0006-3207(93)90076-D

Theocharis V, 1986. [English title not available]. (La pêche de l'écrevisse dans la région d'Hipiros en Gréce.). L'Astaciculteur de France. 4-10.

Tzukerzis J M, 1964. On crayfish plague. Travaux de l'Académie des Science SSR. 77-85.

Vivier P, 1951. [English title not available]. (La "Peste", un facteur de régulation des populations d'écrevisses (Astacus).). Mitteilungen der Internatinalen Vereinigung für Limnologie. 18.

Westman K, Savolainen R, 2001. Long term study of competition between two co-occurring crayfish species, the native Astacus astacus L. and the introduced Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, in a Finnish lake. In: Bulletin Francais de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 361 613-627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/kmae:2001008

Własow T, Bernad A, Krzywosz T, Hul M, 2004. Some notices on the incidence of crayfish plague in Poland. (Poznámky k výskytu račího moru v Polsku.). Bulletin - VÚRH Vodňany. 40 (3), 95-100.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animalshttp://www.oie.intManual accessible from homepage

Organizations

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World: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, http://www.oie.int/

UK: CEFAS (Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science), Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, Weymouth, UK, http://www.cefas.co.uk/

Contributors

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17/12/09 Original text by:

Birgit Oidtmann, Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB, UK

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