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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- avian metapneumovirus
Other Scientific Names
- turkey rhinotracheitis virus
International Common Names
- English: avian pneumovirus; avian rhinotracheitis virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Paramyxoviridae
- Genus: Metapneumovirus
- Species: avian metapneumovirus
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) belongs to the genus Metapneumovirus in the sub-family Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae.
The virus is enveloped, pleiomorphic, 100-200 nm in diameter, and sometimes exhibits elongated forms (Giraud et al., 1986; Collins and Gough, 1988; O’Loan et al., 1992). The outer surface has a fringe, approximately 13-15 nm high, composed of two proteins, the G glycoprotein and the fusion protein (F). The virus has the same complement of proteins as mammalian pneumoviruses (Cavanagh and Barrett, 1988; Yu et al., 1991, Yu et al., 1992a, Yu et al., 1992b, Yu et al., 1994; Juhasz and Easton, 1994; Ling et al., 1995; Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a, Randhawa et al., 1996b) except that aMPVs lack the 3’-terminal 1B and 1C genes that are possessed by mammalian pneumoviruses (Randhawa et al., 1997). Underneath the inner surface of the envelope is a matrix protein (M). The single-stranded, negative-sense 13.4 kb RNA genome is surrounded by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form a helical ribonucleoprotein structure which can be seen under the electron microscope with a diameter of 14-15 nm and a pitch of 6 nm (Giraud et al., 1986; O'Loan et al., 1992). A phosphoprotein (P) and the so-called large protein (L), which is the polymerase, are associated with the ribonucleoprotein. Another protein, M2, is present but its location is uncertain.
Four subtypes of aMPV are recognised: A, B, C and D. Subtypes A and B have been detected in poultry in Asia, Europe and South America but not in North America, whereas subtype C was discovered in North America and later in Europe (Toquin et al., 1999; Toquin et al., 2006). Subtype D was isolated in France in 1985 (Bäyon-Auboyer et al., 1999, 2000).
The different types of aMPV have substantially different protein sequences such that the N, M and F proteins of the most extensively studied types A and B differ by 9%, 26% and 17%, respectively, of amino acids (Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a; Randhawa et al., 1996b; Naylor et al., 1998) and the M and F proteins of type C virus differ from that of types A and B by 40% and 28% (Seal, 1998; Seal et al., 2000). Differences are greatest for the G proteins, those of types A and B differing by 62% (Juhasz and Easton, 1994).
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)||Domesticated host|
|Larus argentatus||Wild host|
|Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)||Domesticated host|
|Numida||Domesticated host; Wild host|
|Numida meleagris (guineafowl)||Domesticated host|
|Phasianus (pheasants)||Domesticated host|
ReferencesTop of page
Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Arnauld C; Toquin D; Eterradossi N, 2000. Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumoviruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup. Journal of General Virology, 81(11):2723-2733; Many ref.
Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Jestin V; Toquin D; Cherbonnel M; Eterradossi N, 1999. Comparison of F-, G- and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Archives of Virology, 144(6):1091-1109; 42 ref.
Cook JKA; Kinloch S; Ellis MM, 1993. In vitro and in vivo studies in chickens and turkeys on strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from the two species. Avian Pathology, 22(1):157-170; 24 ref.
Juhasz K; Easton AJ, 1994. Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups. Journal of General Virology, 75(11):2873-2880; 27 ref.
Li J; Ling; R; Randhawa JS; Shaw K; Davis PJ; Juhasz K; Pringle; CR; Easton AJ; Cavanagh D, 1996. Sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene of subgroup A and B avian pneumoviruses. Virus Research, 41:185-192.
Ling R; Davis PJ; Yu QingZhong; Wood CM; Pringle CR; Cavanagh D; Easton AJ, 1995. Sequence and in vitro expression of the phosphoprotein gene of avian pneumovirus. Virus Research, 36(2/3):247-257; 33 ref.
Naylor CJ; Britton P; Cavanagh D, 1998. The ectodomain but not the transmembrane domain of the fusion (F) proteins of subtypes A and B avian pneumovirus are conserved to a similar extent as those of human respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of General Virology, 79:1393-1398.
Randhawa JS; Marriott AC; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1997. Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus. Journal of Virology, 71(12):9849-9854; 33 ref.
Randhawa JS; Wilson SD; Tolley KP; Cavanagh D; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the viral polymerase of avian pneumovirus. Journal of General Virology, 77(12):3047-3051; 25 ref.
Seal BS, 1998. Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence demonstrate that the first US avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains. Virus Research, 58(1/2):45-52; 3 pp. of ref.
Seal BS; Sellers HS; Meinersmann RJ, 2000. Fusion protein predicted amino acid sequence of th4 first US avian pneumovirus isolate and lack of heterogeneity among other US isolates. Virus Research, 66 (2):139-147.
Toquin D; Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Eterradossi N, et al. , 1999. Isolation of pneumovirus from a Muscovy duck. Veterinary Record, 146:680.
Toquin D; Guionie O; Jestin V; Zwingelstein F; Allee C; Eterradossi N, 2006. European and American subgroup C isolates of avian metapneumovirus belong to different genetic lineages. Virus Genes, 32(1):97-103. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103010
Yu Q; Barrett T; Brown TDK; Cook; JKA; Green P; Skinner M; Cavanagh D, 1994. Protection against turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus (TRTV) induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the TRTV fusion glycoprotein gene (F). Vaccine, 12:569-573.
Yu Q; Davis PJ; Barrett T; Binns MM; Boursnell MEG; Cavanagh D, 1991. Deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses. Journal of General Virology, 72(1):75-81; 38 ref.
Yu Q; Davis PJ; Li J; Cavanagh D, 1992. Cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (M) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology (New York), 186(2):426-434; 44 ref.