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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- avian metapneumovirus
Other Scientific Names
- turkey rhinotracheitis virus
International Common Names
- English: avian pneumovirus; avian rhinotracheitis virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Paramyxoviridae
- Genus: Metapneumovirus
- Species: avian metapneumovirus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) belongs to the genus Metapneumovirus in the sub-family Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae.
The virus is enveloped, pleiomorphic, 100-200 nm in diameter, and sometimes exhibits elongated forms (Giraud et al., 1986; Collins and Gough, 1988; O’Loan et al., 1992). The outer surface has a fringe, approximately 13-15 nm high, composed of two proteins, the G glycoprotein and the fusion protein (F). The virus has the same complement of proteins as mammalian pneumoviruses (Cavanagh and Barrett, 1988; Yu et al., 1991, Yu et al., 1992a, Yu et al., 1992b, Yu et al., 1994; Juhasz and Easton, 1994; Ling et al., 1995; Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a, Randhawa et al., 1996b) except that aMPVs lack the 3’-terminal 1B and 1C genes that are possessed by mammalian pneumoviruses (Randhawa et al., 1997). Underneath the inner surface of the envelope is a matrix protein (M). The single-stranded, negative-sense 13.4 kb RNA genome is surrounded by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form a helical ribonucleoprotein structure which can be seen under the electron microscope with a diameter of 14-15 nm and a pitch of 6 nm (Giraud et al., 1986; O'Loan et al., 1992). A phosphoprotein (P) and the so-called large protein (L), which is the polymerase, are associated with the ribonucleoprotein. Another protein, M2, is present but its location is uncertain.
Four subtypes of aMPV are recognised: A, B, C and D. Subtypes A and B have been detected in poultry in Asia, Europe and South America but not in North America, whereas subtype C was discovered in North America and later in Europe (Toquin et al., 1999; Toquin et al., 2006). Subtype D was isolated in France in 1985 (Bäyon-Auboyer et al., 1999, 2000).
The different types of aMPV have substantially different protein sequences such that the N, M and F proteins of the most extensively studied types A and B differ by 9%, 26% and 17%, respectively, of amino acids (Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a; Randhawa et al., 1996b; Naylor et al., 1998) and the M and F proteins of type C virus differ from that of types A and B by 40% and 28% (Seal, 1998; Seal et al., 2000). Differences are greatest for the G proteins, those of types A and B differing by 62% (Juhasz and Easton, 1994).
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)||Domesticated host|
|Larus argentatus||Wild host|
|Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)||Domesticated host|
|Numida||Domesticated host, Wild host|
|Numida meleagris (guineafowl)||Domesticated host|
|Phasianus (pheasants)||Domesticated host|
ReferencesTop of page
Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Arnauld C; Toquin D; Eterradossi N, 2000. Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumoviruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup. Journal of General Virology, 81(11):2723-2733; Many ref.
Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Jestin V; Toquin D; Cherbonnel M; Eterradossi N, 1999. Comparison of F-, G- and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Archives of Virology, 144(6):1091-1109; 42 ref.
Cook JKA; Kinloch S; Ellis MM, 1993. In vitro and in vivo studies in chickens and turkeys on strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from the two species. Avian Pathology, 22(1):157-170; 24 ref.
Juhasz K; Easton AJ, 1994. Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups. Journal of General Virology, 75(11):2873-2880; 27 ref.
Li J; Ling; R; Randhawa JS; Shaw K; Davis PJ; Juhasz K; Pringle; CR; Easton AJ; Cavanagh D, 1996. Sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene of subgroup A and B avian pneumoviruses. Virus Research, 41:185-192.
Ling R; Davis PJ; Yu QingZhong; Wood CM; Pringle CR; Cavanagh D; Easton AJ, 1995. Sequence and in vitro expression of the phosphoprotein gene of avian pneumovirus. Virus Research, 36(2/3):247-257; 33 ref.
Naylor CJ; Britton P; Cavanagh D, 1998. The ectodomain but not the transmembrane domain of the fusion (F) proteins of subtypes A and B avian pneumovirus are conserved to a similar extent as those of human respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of General Virology, 79:1393-1398.
Randhawa JS; Marriott AC; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1997. Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus. Journal of Virology, 71(12):9849-9854; 33 ref.
Randhawa JS; Wilson SD; Tolley KP; Cavanagh D; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the viral polymerase of avian pneumovirus. Journal of General Virology, 77(12):3047-3051; 25 ref.
Seal BS, 1998. Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence demonstrate that the first US avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains. Virus Research, 58(1/2):45-52; 3 pp. of ref.
Seal BS; Sellers HS; Meinersmann RJ, 2000. Fusion protein predicted amino acid sequence of th4 first US avian pneumovirus isolate and lack of heterogeneity among other US isolates. Virus Research, 66 (2):139-147.
Toquin D; Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Eterradossi N, et al. , 1999. Isolation of pneumovirus from a Muscovy duck. Veterinary Record, 146:680.
Toquin D; Guionie O; Jestin V; Zwingelstein F; Allee C; Eterradossi N, 2006. European and American subgroup C isolates of avian metapneumovirus belong to different genetic lineages. Virus Genes, 32(1):97-103. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103010
Yu Q; Barrett T; Brown TDK; Cook; JKA; Green P; Skinner M; Cavanagh D, 1994. Protection against turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus (TRTV) induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the TRTV fusion glycoprotein gene (F). Vaccine, 12:569-573.
Yu Q; Davis PJ; Barrett T; Binns MM; Boursnell MEG; Cavanagh D, 1991. Deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses. Journal of General Virology, 72(1):75-81; 38 ref.
Yu Q; Davis PJ; Li J; Cavanagh D, 1992. Cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (M) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology (New York), 186(2):426-434; 44 ref.
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
Distribution MapsTop of page
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