Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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avian metapneumovirus

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Datasheet

avian metapneumovirus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • avian metapneumovirus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Paramyxoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diagram of a virion of the avian metapneumovirus. Two glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and G proteins, protrude from the envelope (lipid membrane). Lining the inner surface of the envelope is the matrix protein (M). The single-stranded RNA genome comprises 13,400 nucleotides. It is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N) and associated with two other proteins, the large protein (L; polymerase) and phosphoprotein (P).  Virions contain two other proteins, M2 and the small hydrophobic protein (SH) but the location of these is uncertain.
TitleDiagram of a virion
CaptionDiagram of a virion of the avian metapneumovirus. Two glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and G proteins, protrude from the envelope (lipid membrane). Lining the inner surface of the envelope is the matrix protein (M). The single-stranded RNA genome comprises 13,400 nucleotides. It is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N) and associated with two other proteins, the large protein (L; polymerase) and phosphoprotein (P). Virions contain two other proteins, M2 and the small hydrophobic protein (SH) but the location of these is uncertain.
CopyrightDavid Cavanagh
Diagram of a virion of the avian metapneumovirus. Two glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and G proteins, protrude from the envelope (lipid membrane). Lining the inner surface of the envelope is the matrix protein (M). The single-stranded RNA genome comprises 13,400 nucleotides. It is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N) and associated with two other proteins, the large protein (L; polymerase) and phosphoprotein (P).  Virions contain two other proteins, M2 and the small hydrophobic protein (SH) but the location of these is uncertain.
Diagram of a virionDiagram of a virion of the avian metapneumovirus. Two glycoproteins, the fusion (F) and G proteins, protrude from the envelope (lipid membrane). Lining the inner surface of the envelope is the matrix protein (M). The single-stranded RNA genome comprises 13,400 nucleotides. It is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N) and associated with two other proteins, the large protein (L; polymerase) and phosphoprotein (P). Virions contain two other proteins, M2 and the small hydrophobic protein (SH) but the location of these is uncertain.David Cavanagh
Electronmicrograph of two virus particles of avian metapneumovirus virus.  The round particle (A) is typical of virions. Irregular elongated forms may also be seen.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionElectronmicrograph of two virus particles of avian metapneumovirus virus. The round particle (A) is typical of virions. Irregular elongated forms may also be seen.
CopyrightDavid Cavanagh
Electronmicrograph of two virus particles of avian metapneumovirus virus.  The round particle (A) is typical of virions. Irregular elongated forms may also be seen.
Virus particlesElectronmicrograph of two virus particles of avian metapneumovirus virus. The round particle (A) is typical of virions. Irregular elongated forms may also be seen.David Cavanagh

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • avian metapneumovirus

Other Scientific Names

  • turkey rhinotracheitis virus

International Common Names

  • English: avian pneumovirus; avian rhinotracheitis virus

English acronym

  • APV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Paramyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Metapneumovirus
  •                         Species: avian metapneumovirus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Asia

JapanPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Europe

NetherlandsPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) belongs to the genus Metapneumovirus in the sub-family Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae.

The virus is enveloped, pleiomorphic, 100-200 nm in diameter, and sometimes exhibits elongated forms (Giraud et al., 1986; Collins and Gough, 1988; O’Loan et al., 1992). The outer surface has a fringe, approximately 13-15 nm high, composed of two proteins, the G glycoprotein and the fusion protein (F). The virus has the same complement of proteins as mammalian pneumoviruses (Cavanagh and Barrett, 1988; Yu et al., 1991, Yu et al., 1992a, Yu et al., 1992b, Yu et al., 1994; Juhasz and Easton, 1994; Ling et al., 1995; Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a, Randhawa et al., 1996b) except that aMPVs lack the 3’-terminal 1B and 1C genes that are possessed by mammalian pneumoviruses (Randhawa et al., 1997). Underneath the inner surface of the envelope is a matrix protein (M). The single-stranded, negative-sense 13.4 kb RNA genome is surrounded by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form a helical ribonucleoprotein structure which can be seen under the electron microscope with a diameter of 14-15 nm and a pitch of 6 nm (Giraud et al., 1986; O'Loan et al., 1992). A phosphoprotein (P) and the so-called large protein (L), which is the polymerase, are associated with the ribonucleoprotein. Another protein, M2, is present but its location is uncertain.

Both the F and G proteins of pneumoviruses induce neutralizing antibodies (Cook et al., 1993a) and the F protein has been shown to induce protective immune responses (Yu et al., 1994).

Four subtypes of aMPV are recognised: A, B, C and D. Subtypes A and B have been detected in poultry in Asia, Europe and South America but not in North America, whereas subtype C was discovered in North America and later in Europe (Toquin et al., 1999; Toquin et al., 2006). Subtype D was isolated in France in 1985 (Bäyon-Auboyer et al., 1999, 2000).

The different types of aMPV have substantially different protein sequences such that the N, M and F proteins of the most extensively studied types A and B differ by 9%, 26% and 17%, respectively, of amino acids (Li et al., 1996; Randhawa et al., 1996a; Randhawa et al., 1996b; Naylor et al., 1998) and the M and F proteins of type C virus differ from that of types A and B by 40% and 28% (Seal, 1998; Seal et al., 2000). Differences are greatest for the G proteins, those of types A and B differing by 62% (Juhasz and Easton, 1994).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Larus argentatusWild host
MeleagrisDomesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
NumidaDomesticated host, Wild host
Numida meleagris (guineafowl)Domesticated host
Phasianus (pheasants)Domesticated host

References

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Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Arnauld C; Toquin D; Eterradossi N, 2000. Nucleotide sequences of the F, L and G protein genes of two non-A/non-B avian pneumoviruses (APV) reveal a novel APV subgroup. Journal of General Virology, 81(11):2723-2733; Many ref.

Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Jestin V; Toquin D; Cherbonnel M; Eterradossi N, 1999. Comparison of F-, G- and N-based RT-PCR protocols with conventional virological procedures for the detection and typing of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Archives of Virology, 144(6):1091-1109; 42 ref.

Cavanagh D; Barrett T, 1988. Pneumovirus-like characteristics of the mRNA and proteins of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Virus Research, 11(3):241-256; 36 ref.

Collins MS; Gough RE, 1988. Characterization of a virus associated with turkey rhinotracheitis. Journal of General Virology, 69(4):909-916; 27 ref.

Cook JKA; Jones BV; Ellis MM; Jing L; Cavanagh D, 1993. Antigenic differentiation of strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Avian Pathology, 22(2):257-273; 25 ref.

Cook JKA; Kinloch S; Ellis MM, 1993. In vitro and in vivo studies in chickens and turkeys on strains of turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from the two species. Avian Pathology, 22(1):157-170; 24 ref.

Giraud P; Bennejean G; Guittet M; Toquin D, 1986. Turkey rhinotracheitis in France: preliminary investigations on a ciliostatic virus. Veterinary Record, 119(24):606-607; 4 ref.

Juhasz K; Easton AJ, 1994. Extensive sequence variation in the attachment (G) protein gene of avian pneumovirus: evidence for two distinct subgroups. Journal of General Virology, 75(11):2873-2880; 27 ref.

Li J; Ling; R; Randhawa JS; Shaw K; Davis PJ; Juhasz K; Pringle; CR; Easton AJ; Cavanagh D, 1996. Sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene of subgroup A and B avian pneumoviruses. Virus Research, 41:185-192.

Ling R; Davis PJ; Yu QingZhong; Wood CM; Pringle CR; Cavanagh D; Easton AJ, 1995. Sequence and in vitro expression of the phosphoprotein gene of avian pneumovirus. Virus Research, 36(2/3):247-257; 33 ref.

Naylor CJ; Britton P; Cavanagh D, 1998. The ectodomain but not the transmembrane domain of the fusion (F) proteins of subtypes A and B avian pneumovirus are conserved to a similar extent as those of human respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of General Virology, 79:1393-1398.

O'Loan CJ; Curran WL; McNulty MS, 1992. Immuno-gold labelling of turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 39(6):469-466; 21 ref.

Randhawa JS; Marriott AC; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1997. Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus. Journal of Virology, 71(12):9849-9854; 33 ref.

Randhawa JS; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the matrix protein gene of a subgroup B avian pneumovirus. Virus Genes, 12(2):179-183; 26 ref.

Randhawa JS; Wilson SD; Tolley KP; Cavanagh D; Pringle CR; Easton AJ, 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the viral polymerase of avian pneumovirus. Journal of General Virology, 77(12):3047-3051; 25 ref.

Seal BS, 1998. Matrix protein gene nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence demonstrate that the first US avian pneumovirus isolate is distinct from European strains. Virus Research, 58(1/2):45-52; 3 pp. of ref.

Seal BS; Sellers HS; Meinersmann RJ, 2000. Fusion protein predicted amino acid sequence of th4 first US avian pneumovirus isolate and lack of heterogeneity among other US isolates. Virus Research, 66 (2):139-147.

Toquin D; Bäyon-Auboyer MH; Eterradossi N, et al. , 1999. Isolation of pneumovirus from a Muscovy duck. Veterinary Record, 146:680.

Toquin D; Guionie O; Jestin V; Zwingelstein F; Allee C; Eterradossi N, 2006. European and American subgroup C isolates of avian metapneumovirus belong to different genetic lineages. Virus Genes, 32(1):97-103. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=103010

Yu Q; Barrett T; Brown TDK; Cook; JKA; Green P; Skinner M; Cavanagh D, 1994. Protection against turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus (TRTV) induced by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the TRTV fusion glycoprotein gene (F). Vaccine, 12:569-573.

Yu Q; Davis PJ; Barrett T; Binns MM; Boursnell MEG; Cavanagh D, 1991. Deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses. Journal of General Virology, 72(1):75-81; 38 ref.

Yu Q; Davis PJ; Brown TDK; Cavanagh D, 1992. Sequence and in vitro expression of the M2 gene of turkey rhinotracheitis pneumovirus. Journal of General Virology, 73(6):1355-1363; 33 ref.

Yu Q; Davis PJ; Li J; Cavanagh D, 1992. Cloning and sequencing of the matrix protein (M) gene of turkey rhinotracheitis virus reveal a gene order different from that of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology (New York), 186(2):426-434; 44 ref.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

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