avian infectious bronchitis
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- avian infectious bronchitis
Other Scientific Names
- infectious bronchitis
International Common Names
- English: avian infectious bronchitis in chickens and pigeons; avian infectious nephrosis; avian infectious proventriculitis; IB infection; IBV infection; nephritis nephrosis disease
OverviewTop of page
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease of domestic fowl of all types and ages, caused by the coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) (Cavanagh and Gelb, 2008). The virus, which can also cause damage to the kidneys and oviducts, is of significant economic importance. In broilers, infection results in reduced weight gain and mortality following secondary bacterial infection. Egg production is adversely affected in layers. Live and killed IB vaccines are widely used. However, a highly significant aspect of IBV is the existence of numerous serotypes; immune responses induced by one serotype often protect poorly against subsequent infection by other serotypes (de Wit et al., 2011a; Worthington et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2012).
The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID Interface database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
The domestic fowl is considered to be the natural host for IBV. However, IBV-like viruses infect other avian species. Coronaviruses with and without serological identity to IBV have been isolated from pheasants, and are associated with respiratory disease and nephritis (Lister et al., 1985; Gough et al., 1996). The gene sequences of the pheasant viruses are distinct from but clearly related to those of IBV from chickens. A pheasant isolate has been propagated in the allantoic cavity of domestic fowl embryos but it did not cause clinical disease when inoculated intranasally into three-week-old chicks (Lister et al., 1985). Some isolates of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) are very closely related to IBV (Guy, 2000) but have an enteric tropism. Therefore, TCoV is considered to be a species distinct from IBV. However, domestic fowl chicks have been experimentally infected with TCoV, the virus growing in the same tissues as in turkey. It is highly likely that other avian species have coronaviral infections.
Probably all breeds of domestic fowl are susceptible to IBV although the severity of the disease may vary. The disease is most severe in chicks, not only in terms of respiratory disease but also with respect to damage of kidneys and oviducts. In intensively reared birds, mortality is highest in broilers, secondary bacterial infection with Escherichia coli, other bacteria and mycoplasmas being the primary cause of mortality. The extent of losses is made worse by poor litter quality and poor ventilation, and nephritis may be exacerbated by food composition and temperature changes (Cumming, 1969; Meulemans and Berg, 1998).
DistributionTop of page
IBV is distributed worldwide (de Wit et al., 2011a).
For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
PathologyTop of page
Chickens infected with IBV have serous, catarrhal or caseous exudates in the trachea, nasal passages and sinuses. Air sacs may appear cloudy or contain a yellow caseous exudate. The lower trachea or bronchi of chicks that die may contain a caseous plug and there may be small areas of pneumonia around the large bronchi. Histopathological analysis of the trachea reveals loss of cilia, sloughing off of the epithelial cells and minor infiltration by heterophils and lymphocytes within 18 hours of infection. Regeneration of the epithelium commences within 2 days. There is marked lymphoid infiltration of the lamina propria and a large number of germinal centres (Randall, 1991). Air sacs may exhibit oedema, epithelial cell desqamation and fibrinous exudates within 24 hours.
In those birds with nephritis, kidneys are pale and swollen, the tubules and ureters being clearly visible, distended with urates (Randall, 1991; Cavanagh and Naqi, 1997). Histopathological analysis reveals interstitial nephritis. There is granular degeneration, vacuolation and desqammation of the tubular epithelium and massive infiltration of heterophils in the interstitium in acute stages of the disease. Degenerative changes may persist, resulting in severe atrophy of parts of the kidney. In urolithiasis the ureters associated with atrophied kidneys are distended with urates.
Laying birds may have fluid yolk material in the abdominal cavity.
DiagnosisTop of page
The observations described in 'Disease Course' and 'Pathology' are suggestive of IB but are not diagnostic. Laboratory tests are required for definative diagnosis.
Several respiratory pathogens, including combinations thereof, may produce clinical signs similar to those described for IB. These include mild strains of Newcastle disease virus (Alexander, 1997), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (Bagust and Guy, 1997) and Haemophilus paragallinarum, causing infectious coryza (Blackall et al., 1997). The latter produces facial swelling that is rare in IB, although it is does occur as a consequence of secondary infection with coliform bacteria. Mycoplasma infections can also cause facial swelling. Egg drop syndrome (EDS) adenovirus (McFerran, 1997) produces a drop in egg production and quality similar to that caused by IB, but EDS virus does not affect internal egg quality and does not produce misshapen or ridged eggs. Kidney changes following infection by nephropathogenic strains of IBV may also resemble those caused by infectious bursal disease, mycotoxicosis and drug toxicities (Gelb, 1989).
Laboratory diagnosis is essential for confirmation of IBV infections. Ideally virus isolation (VI) should be performed, followed by tests, firstly to confirm that IBV is present, and secondly to identify the type of IBV. There are numerous ways of achieving all of these stages, each with their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques. De Wit (2000) has written a detailed, thoughtful and fully referenced review of all the procedures that have been tried, which have also been reviewed by Cavanagh and Gelb (2008). A brief discussion of the tests, supplemented with recommended protocols (the haemagglutination (HA) and HA inhibition (HI) test) has been produced by the Office Internationale Epizooties; this can also be accessed through the Internet (OIE, 1996).
Fowl can become persistently infected with IBV, which may be detected weeks or months later by virus isolation (Jones and Ambali, 1987). Isolation of IBV from older birds is not in itself, therefore, necessarily proof of the virus being responsible for any clinical disease or production losses that may be occurring at the time of detection. It is necessary to exclude other infections or non-infectious causes (De Wit, 2000).
Detection of IB virus/antigen/RNA
Collection of samples
At the acute stage of the infection (up to 5 days post-infection) live virus isolation is conventionally attempted by swabbing of the trachea or from trachea and lung tissue. Material should be conveyed to a laboratory on ice in transport medium containing penicillin (10,000 IU/ml) and streptomycin (10 mg/ml). Beyond one week after infection IBV is best sought from caecal tonsils or by cloacal swabs (Jones and Ambali, 1987). Kidney or oviduct material might be sampled in cases of nephritis and decreases in egg production, respectively.
If a live IBV isolate is not required and direct detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is to be attempted then swabs of the buccal cavity or oropharyngeal region may be made, allowed to dry, and then sent to the laboratory by mail at ambient temperature (Cavanagh et al., 1999). When broiler flocks are naturally infected with IBV in the field, the virus may be detectable in mouth swabs for several weeks by RT-PCR, the infection gradually working through the flock (Cavanagh et al., 1999).
Virus isolation (VI) can be performed in embryonating eggs, tracheal organ cultures (TOCs, from 19-day-old embryos; Cook et al., 1976) or cell cultures (chick kidney or chick embryo kidney; Gillette, 1973). Cell cultures are not frequently used because field isolates would have to be adapted to grow successfully in them. Field strains will grow readily in eggs (9 to 11-day-old embryos, inoculation into the allantoic cavity; OIE, 1996) although several passages might be required to observe malformation of the embryo. TOCs have the advantage that field strains produce ciliostasis, easily seen by low power microscope, without adaptation.
Conventional isolation using embryos involves incubation with field material for 5-7 days, followed by several further passages with observation for malformation of the embryo (Cavanagh and Naqi, 1997). On initial infection a field strain would be expected to produce dwarfing of a few embryos, the percentage increasing with passage number, possibly with increasing mortality. Dwarfed embryos have deformed feet over the head with the thickened amnion adhered to it. Allantoic fluid is collected for further analysis. A shorter procedure involves the incubation of inoculated embryos for about 2 days (possibly repeating this once or twice), followed by testing for the presence of IBV by immunofluorescent antibody staining of cells sedimented from the allantoic fluid (Clarke et al., 1972), antigen capture ELISA (Naqi et al., 1993; Ignjatovic and Ashton, 1996) or RT-PCR (Andreasen et al., 1991; Adzhar et al., 1997).
Agar-gel precipitation test (AGPT)
This is simple, quick, inexpensive and more sensitive than is sometimes supposed. Lohr (1981) used the AGPT to detect IBV in tracheal exudates of birds from the field, sensitivity being half that of VI. AGPT is also used to detect IBV after growth in embryos, using allantoic fluid or the chorioallantoic membrane as the source of antigen (Alexander and Gough, 1977; Gelb et al., 1981; MAFF, 1984).
Immunofluorescent antibody (IFA)
This can be used to demonstrate the presence of IBV in whatever medium the virus has been grown. Direct detection by IFA of IBV in tissues from chickens can be complicated by non-specific reactions (De Wit, 2000). Bhattecharjee et al. (1994) used IFA in a very simple way to demonstrate the presence of IBV within 24 hours of inoculation of TOCs; the IF procedure was performed without fixation of the TOCs.
Immunoperoxidase antibody (IPA) staining can also be performed, with sensitivity similar to IFA.
Antigen capture ELISAs
These have not been very successful with tissue from infected birds but have been used successfully following propagation of virus in embryonated eggs (Ignjatovic and Ashton, 1996). These procedures generally require a non-type specific monoclonal antibody.
Treatment of IBV with neuraminidase to produce HA activity is normally done after concentration of the virus from allantoic fluid by ultracentrifugation. Ruano et al. (2000) have recently reported that treatment of unconcentrated infectious allantoic fluid with neuraminidase type V (from Clostridium perfringens, Sigma Chemical Company, Cat. No. N-2876) to produce IBV HA antigen. They mixed allantoic fluid with an equal volume of neuraminidase (at 1 unit/ml) for 30 min at 37°C. The HA test was performed on a ceramic plate by mixing 50 µl of neuraminidase-treated allantoic fluid with 50 µl of a 5% suspension of chicken red blood cells. HA occurred within a minute.
This has been used either directly on RNA extracted from tracheal/mouth/oropharyngeal swabs (Li et al., 1993; Jackwood et al., 1997; Cavanagh et al., 1999; Worthington et al., 2008) or extracted from infectious allantoic fluid after propagation in the laboratory (Lin et al., 1991; Andreasen et al., 1991; Kwon et al., 1993; Adzhar et al., 1996, 1997). Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards have been used successfully for the collection, inactivation and transport of IBV samples (Moscoso et al., 2005).
As there are many types of IBV it is advisable, especially in the early stages of an investigation of infection in a region, to use RT-PCRs designed to detect many types of IBV, using so-called 'universal' oligonucleotides i.e. those corresponding to highly conserved sequences in the IBV genome (Lin et al., 1991; Kwon et al., 1993; Adzhar et al., 1996; Keeler et al., 1998; Handberg et al., 1999; Cavanagh et al., 1999). It is advisable to have more than one set of 'universal' oligonucleotides, corresponding to different genes, in case one set is not appropriate for a given type of virus (Adzhar et al., 1996).
The DNA product of the RT-PCR can be studied further to type an isolate (described below 'Typing IBV isolates').
Detection of antibodies to IBV
Detection of antibodies to IBV is frequently used as part of disease surveillance and for monitoring vaccination. Ideally one should have paired sera, collected before and after a suspected IB infection, especially as birds will probably carry IB antibodies following vaccination.
Agar-gel immunodiffusion test
Several dilutions of antibody may be required to prevent false positives caused by imbalance of the antigen-antiserum ratio (Lohr, 1981). The test is also liable to yield inconsistent results, as the presence and duration of precipitating antibodies may vary with individual birds (Gough and Alexander, 1977; OIE, 1996). This test is perhaps best used for detecting the presence of virus after laboratory propagation, rather than antibody.
ELISA is much more sensitive than AGPT and does not suffer from the problems mentioned above. ELISAs can be purchased commercially or prepared (Garcia and Bankowski, 1981; Mockett and Darbyshire, 1981; Snyder and Marquardt, 1989), provided there is access to high-speed centrifugation to concentrate the virus. IB antibody can be detected within one week of infection, so the first set of paired sera must be taken immediately after infection is suspected. As with AGPT, ELISA is a group-specific test, i.e. it may be used for many types of IBV, as different types of IBV will have epitopes in common. Chen et al. (2011) have described a type-specific blocking ELISA for the detection of IBV antibodies.
Virus neutralisation (VN) and haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests
VN and HI tests are less suitable than ELISA for the detection of infection by IBV, because both tests are susceptible to serotype differences; antibodies from a fowl may not give VN or HI with a standard reference strain of IBV if they are of different serotypes. These tests are best used when IB has been confirmed or strongly suspected and the typing of the causative strain is required (see 'Typing of IBV isolates'). Notwithstanding, HI antibodies are usually more cross-reactive than VN antibodies, so the HI test, using a standard antigen preparation against one type of IBV, has a reasonable chance of detecting antibodies following a field infection. As most fowl are vaccinated against IB on one or more occasions, cross-reactive antibodies are likely to be encountered following an anamnestic response induced by a field infection.
The HI test with field sera is best used in conjunction with a panel of laboratory strains representing the IBV types most likely to be present in a region.
The procedures for performing the IBV HI test are described in detail by Alexander et al. (1983), King and Hopkins (1984) and OIE (1996). A complicating factor is that IBV does not haemagglutinate spontaneously; pre-treatment with an enzyme preparation is necessary. This can be done with a commercially available phosholipase C type 1 enzyme, from Clostridium welchii. However, results can be erratic, because the active agent for producing HA activity is a contaminant (probably a neuraminidase), whose presence is variable, rather than phosholipase (Schultze et al., 1992). It has been found to be efficient to use crude filtrate from a Clostridium welchii culture as a source of the active enzyme (OIE, 1996).
Typing IBV isolates
There are many types of IBV; dozens have been described and there are probably a greater number still to be discovered (de Wit et al., 2011a; Worthington et al., 2008). New genotypes have been reported in China (Liu and Kong, 2004; Liu et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2012) and in countries where previously data was lacking e.g. Egypt (Abdel-Moneim et al., 2012), and Iraq (Mahmood et al., 2011). The QX serotype, first described in China (Wang et al., 1998), spread to many countries, where it became economically important (Worthington et al., 2008; de Wit et al., 2011a, b; Abro et al., 2012).
Typing can be performed with antibodies (antisera or monoclonal antibodies) in VN or HI tests or, more commonly, by using nucleic acid technology.
Typing with antibodies
Virus neutralization tests
The VN test is expensive and impractical for routine use, as the tester needs to have access to a panel of many IBV types, given the considerable antigenic diversity exhibited by the virus. Furthermore, IBVs that are extremely similar at the sequence level may behave as different serotypes if the changes affect key VN epitopes (Cavanagh et al., 1992a; Cavanagh et al., 1992b). VN tests can be performed on embryonating eggs, tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) or cell cultures. The constant virus (for example, 100 infectious units)-varying serum method is most commonly used (OIE, 1996).
The HI test is widely used to type field isolates, and is a valuable tool. However, it is somewhat subject to interpretation by the diagnostician, because of cross-reactions. Conversely, serum raised against a single inoculation of IBV may be strain rather than type-specific (King and Hopkins, 1983; Brown and Bracewell, 1985, 1988). An isolate may be tested against a panel of antisera raised against types of IBV known or suspected to be in an area.
A serum might show HI activity with more than one virus of the panel but show a higher titre with one, tentatively indicating the identity of the field virus. However, it is possible to wrongly assign an isolate to a particular serotype in this way, the serum simply cross-reacting more strongly with one virus type in the panel than the others. If a new type of IBV is suspected, then the virus should be isolated and a type-specific antiserum raised in specific-pathogen free (SPF) birds using a single infection (Gelb, 1989); this should then be used in HI tests with future isolates.
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)
Panels of monoclonal antibodies have been used successfully to identify types of IBV but only on a limited scale (Koch et al., 1986; Karaca et al., 1992; Karaca and Naqi, 1993). This is because of the very large number of IBV types and the time and cost of making monoclonal antibodies to new types.
Typing with nucleic acid technology
One approach to the use of RT-PCR is to use universal oligonucleotides designed to bind to the RNA of many, if not all, types of IBV (Lin et al., 1991; Kwon et al., 1993; Adzhar et al., 1996; Keeler et al., 1998; Handberg et al., 1999; Cavanagh et al., 1999; Jones et al., 2005; Worthington et al., 2008). DNA products can be analyzed by nucleic acid sequencing to characterize isolates. Alternatively, when the presence of a particular type of IBV in a region has been established then type-specific RT-PCRs might be used. Sequencing can then be used to put IBVs into epidemiological and phylogenetic contexts.
Nucleic acid sequencing
This is the 'gold standard' amongst nucleic acid approaches to IBV characterization. The S1 gene is generally chosen for typing IBV as it is the S1 protein that is the inducer of protective immunity, and is the major protein in which mutations occur that in turn helps a variant to avoid immunity induced by other types.
When the existence of one or more types of IBV (including vaccinal strains) in a region has been established and they have been characterized by sequencing it should be possible to design oligonucleotide primers specific for each type. The oligonucleotides should be chosen such that the different types of IBV produce DNA products of different sizes, which can be easily differentiated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Subsequently field isolates (or simply RNA isolated from swabs) can be identified by RT-PCR without further routine analysis (Cavanagh et al., 1999). However, occasionally DNA should be analyzed by sequencing. The presence of two or more types of IBV in the same sample can be easily distinguished (Cavanagh et al., 1999).
Any RT-PCR strategy for detecting and differentiating IBV must be flexible. One cannot rely solely on type-specific RT-PCRs. By definition, if a type of IBV new to a region were to be present, it would not be detected. Other approaches should also be used, for example, RT-PCR with universal oligonucleotides followed by sequencing (Capua et al., 1999; Cavanagh et al., 1999; Worthington et al., 2008; de Wit et al., 2011a).
A type-specific RT-PCR might not be sufficiently specific; the oligonucleotides may 'cross-react' with other types of IBV (Capua et al., 1999).
Immunology of the disease
Dhinakar Raj and Jones (1997) have reviewed the immunology of IB. Infection with IB results in the production of antibodies in serum which are detected much earlier by ELISA than by a VN test (Mockett and Darbyshire, 1981). Immunoglobulin IgM reaches a peak concentration about 8 days post-infection and then declines (Mockett and Cook, 1986). IgG can be detected within 4 days of infection, peaks at three weeks and gradually declines. Inactivated vaccines are given to laying birds to induce and maintain a high level of serum antibody which is transmitted to progeny (maternally-derived antibody). Serum antibodies do not correlate with protection, i.e. after vaccination some chicks may have low IBV serum antibody but still be protected against homologous challenge. Local immunity is important (Hawkes et al., 1983) including at the oviduct mucosa (Dhinakar Raj and Jones, 1996). The Harderian gland is the source of antibodies in lachrymal fluid and is believed to play an important role in the development of immunity following vaccination by spray (Davelaar and Kouwenhoven, 1981). Different breeds of chicken may differ in the amounts of serum IgG and lachrymal IgA that they produce (Toro et al., 1996).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea||Poultry:Day-old chick,Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female,Poultry:Cockerel,Poultry:Mature male||Sign|
|General Signs / Dehydration||Sign|
|General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass||Sign|
|General Signs / Increased mortality in flocks of birds||Poultry:Day-old chick,Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female,Poultry:Cockerel,Poultry:Mature male||Sign|
|General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth||Poultry:Day-old chick,Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female,Poultry:Cockerel,Poultry:Mature male||Sign|
|General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst||Sign|
|General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move||Sign|
|General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling||Sign|
|Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Decreased, dropping, egg production||Poultry:Mature female||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Defective, misshapen, soft, rough, absent egg shell||Poultry:Embryo||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Flabby egg yolk, thin albumin||Poultry:Embryo||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Soft, thin egg shell||Poultry:Embryo||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Ingesta in nasal passage||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze||Sign|
|Skin / Integumentary Signs / Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers||Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female,Poultry:Cockerel||Sign|
|Urinary Signs / Increased frequency of urination, pollakiuria||Sign|
|Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
Useful reviews are those by Raj and Jones (1997), Jordan (1996) and Cavanagh and Naqi (1997). Morbidity is 100%. Infected birds exhibit a range of respiratory clinical signs, including nasal discharge, tracheal rales, gasping, sneezing and coughing. The infraorbital sinuses may be swollen in some chicks and eyes may be wet. Feed consumption drops, weight gain is slowed and the birds are inactive, tending to huddle together near a heat source in cool environments. In birds over the age of 6 weeks, the spectrum of clinical signs is similar but less marked and may go unnoticed without close inspection. In many parts of the world, intensively raised fowl are vaccinated against IB and, in addition, are often subject to a field infection whilst young, both inducing immune responses which help ameliorate subsequent infections when the birds are mature.
Laying flocks infected by IBV commonly show a drop in egg production and an increase in poor egg quality, even if respiratory signs are not present. Egg production recovers within 8 weeks though usually not to pre-infection levels. Poor egg quality includes eggs that are thin or rough-shelled, misshapen, paler than normal, and possibly with poor internal quality; thin and watery albumen. IBV replicates in the mucosa of the oviduct. In chicks this may result in damage leading to permanently low egg production in the mature bird.
Respiratory infection with IBV per se does not usually result in mortality, although small chicks may die from caseous plugs in the trachea or bronchi, but viral infection predisposes the birds, especially chicks, to secondary bacterial infection that can result in mortality of at least double that of background levels.
IBV may also replicate in the epithelial cells of the kidney, leading to kidney malfunction that may not be manifest until the bird is much older. Some IBV strains are strongly nephropathogenic, resulting in depression, ruffled feathers, wet droppings and increased water uptake. Mortality can be high, especially amongst broilers. Nephritis/nephrosis may also be frequently observed in chicks after infection with IBV strains that are not intrinsically strongly nephrotrophic. Consequences of infection with such strains, and indeed with the nephropathogenic strains, depend on environmental factors e.g. feed containing high levels of animal protein and sharp changes in temperature e.g. between day and night (Cumming, 1969; Meulemans and Berg, 1998).
EpidemiologyTop of page
IBV replicates rapidly, new virus being produced within 3-4 hours of infection, and peak titres within a cell are reached by 12 hours. In chickens the incubation period is 18-36 hours, depending on dose and route of inoculation. Maximum release of virus is up to 5 days post-infection, following which there is a rapid decline. Infection spreads rapidly, aerosols probably being mainly responsible for spread within and between flocks. No specific biological vectors are known, but the virus is probably spread on people, their vehicles and (non-specifically) by vermin. Re-infection is common; broiler flocks have been demonstrated to be infected with up to three types of IBV, in addition to vaccinal virus (Cavanagh et al., 1999). Virus can persist in individual chickens for several months and may be re-excreted at times of stress, for example at point of lay.
Impact: EconomicTop of page
In countries where Marek’s disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza are absent or under control, IB is probably the most important viral pathogen in terms of its chronic effect on the intensive domestic fowl industry.
Disease TreatmentTop of page
There is no treatment for viral infection. Antibiotics, administered in drinking water, have been successfully used in attempts to minimize losses caused by secondary bacterial infections. Ventilation should be improved and ammonia and dust levels minimized.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Immunization and Vaccines
Vaccination is a key element of control allied with management of the environment (Cavanagh and Gelb, 2008; de Wit et al., 2011a). Both live and killed vaccines are available. However, killed vaccines alone do not induce immunity; a live vaccine is required to prime immunity prior to application of killed vaccine. Broilers are commonly given live vaccine by coarse spray at the hatchery. Depending on the disease situation, they may be vaccinated again at 2-3 weeks of age with vaccine in drinking water. A vaccination programme for breeders and commercial layers might involve live IB vaccination by drinking water at 3 and 8-10 weeks of age, followed by killed vaccine at around 16-18 weeks of age (Pattison and Cook, 1996).
In many countries live vaccines are limited to the 'Massachusetts' type. In the USA, 'Massachusetts' and 'Connecticut' types are used widely, with 'Florida', 'Arkansas' and 'JMK' used regionally, as appropriate. In Europe Massachusetts strains are also widely used, plus vaccines against serotypes not found in North America e.g. D274, D1466, and the ‘4/91’ or ‘793/B’ serotypes. Elsewhere, too, vaccines have been developed against new serotypes e.g. in Korea (Lim et al., 2012). As there are many more serotypes of IBV than there are IB vaccines, it is common to apply combinations of the available IB vaccines, either simultaneously or in sequence (Terregino et al., 2008; de Wit et al., 2011a, b).
In addition to vaccination, good biosecurity should be practiced, including attention to temporary storage and disposal of carcasses. Multi-age sites are particularly at risk. As with other viral diseases, good air quality is important to reduce stress on the respiratory mucosa that together with IBV infection can predispose birds to secondary bacterial infections. Control of ventilation, heating, and misting if litter is very dry are important if disease incidence is to be reduced. Overcrowding will exacerbate the effects of infection.
ReferencesTop of page
Abdel-Moneim AS; Afifi MA; El-Kady MF, 2012. Emergence of a novel genotype of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Egypt. Archives of Virology, 157(12):2453-2457.
Abro SH; Renström LHM; Ullman K; Isaksson M; Zohari S; Jansson DS; Belák S; Baule C, 2012. Emergence of novel strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Sweden. Veterinary Microbiology, 155(2/4):237-246. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Alexander DJ, 1997. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxovirus infections. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, eds.. Diseases of Poultry, 10th edn. Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 541-570.
Alexander DJ; Allan WH; Biggs PM; Bracewell CD; Darbyshire JH; Dawson PS; Harris AH; Jordan FTW; Macpherson I; McFerran JB; Randall CJ; Stuart JC; Swarbrick O; Wilding GP, 1983. A standard technique for haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis virus. Veterinary Record, 113(3) 64.
Alexander DJ; Gough RE, 1977. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis virus from experimentally infected chickens. Research in Veterinary Science, 23:344-347.
Amal AAM, 1998. Infectious bronchitis virus infections in Egypt In: Kaleta EF Heffels Redmann U eds International Symposium on infectious bronchitis and pneumovirus infections in poultry, Rauischholzhausen, Germany, Justus Liebig University, 145-156.
Amin A; Mostageer M, 1977. A preliminary report on an avian infectious bronchitis virus strain associated with nephritis nephrosis syndrome in chickens. Journal of the Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, 37(2):71-79.
Andreasen JR Jr; Jackwood MW; Hilt DA, 1991. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the genome of infectious bronchitis virus Avian Diseases, 35(1):216 220.
Anon. A, 1985. Animal health status Malaysia14th conference of the OIE Regional Commission for Asia the Far East and Oceania Colombo 29 July to 1 August 1985 Office International des Epizooties Paris France, 151-153.
Azab A; Basher HA; Hassan SM, 1989. Infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens in Iraq. I. Isolation and identification of the isolant (AM 88). Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 9(2):104-107; 13 ref.
Bagust TJ; Guy JS, 1997. Laryngotracheitis In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, eds. Diseases of Poultry, 10th Edn., Iowa, Iowa State Univeristy Press, 527-540.
Beach JR; Schalm OW, 1936. A filterable virus distinct from that of laryngotracheitis the cause of a respiratory disease of chicks. Poultry Science, 15:199-206.
Bhattecharjee PS; Naylor CJ; Jones RC, 1994. A simple method for fluorescence staining of tracheal organ cultures for the rapid identification of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology, 23:471-480.
Bisgaard M; Haugum E; Velling G, 1977. Increased frequency of chronic respiratory disease in broiler flocks in northern Jutland. I. Possible connexion with recently introduced use of live infectious bronchitis vaccine in breeding flocks. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin, 29(1):12-17.
Blackall PJ; Matsumoto M; Yamamoto R, 1997. Infectious coryza In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, eds. Diseases of Poultry, 10th Edn, Iowa, Iowa State Univeristy Press 179-190.
Bunaciu P; Dinischiotu A; Bunaciu M; Sicoe O; Ursu M, 1986. Influence of vaccination with the LaSota Newcastle disease vaccine on the fertility of Plymouth Rock hens and cocks. Revista de Cresterea Animalelor, 36(2):34-39.
Capano F; Perdomo E; Repiso MV, 1976. First confirmation of avian infectious bronchitis in Uruguay II Experimental reproduction of the disease and histopathology. Veterinaria Uruguay, 12(61):78-80.
Capua I; Minta Z; Karpinska E; Mawditt K; Britton P; Cavanagh D; Gough RE, 1999. Co-circulation of four types of infectious bronchitis virus (793/B, 624/I, B1648 and Massachusetts). Avian Pathology, 28(6):587-592; 24 ref.
Cavanagh D; Davis PJ; Cook JKA; Li D; Kant A; Koch G, 1992. Location of the amino acid differences in the S1 spike glycoprotein subunit of closely related serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathology, 21(1):33-43; 30 ref.
Cavanagh D; Gelb J, 2008. Infectious bronchitis. In: Saif YM, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Swayne DE, eds. Diseases of Poultry, 12th edition. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing, 117-135
Cavanagh D; Mawditt K; Britton P; Naylor CJ, 1999. Longitudinal field studies of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus in broilers using type-specific polymerase chain reactions. Avian Pathology, 28(6):593-605; 36 ref.
Cavanagh D; Mawditt K; Gough R; Picault JF; Britton P, 1998. Sequence analysis of strains of the 793/B genotype (CR88, 4/91) of IBV isolated between 1985 and 1997. Proceedings international symposium on infectious bronchitis and pneumovirus infections in poultry, Rauischholzhausen, Germany, 15-18 June 1998., 252-256; 10 ref.
Cavanagh D; Naqi S, 1997. Infectious bronchitis In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, eds, Diseases of Poultry, 10th Edn., Iowa, Iowa State Univeristy Press, 511-526.
Celedon MO; Gomez LM, 1976. Use of a modified serum agglutination test for the diagnosis of avian infectious bronchitis Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria Chile, 88(2):96-102.
Chen CH; Shao CL; Peng DX, 1997. Isolation and identification of a kidney type strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology, 27(3):22-23.
Chen HuiWen; Wang ChingHo; Cheng IvanChen, 2011. A type-specific blocking ELISA for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus antibody. Journal of Virological Methods, 173(1):7-12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934
Chen HY; Li XS; Liu YH; Peng ZL; Xin HW; Cui BA, 1998. Isolation and identification of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Henanensis, 32(4):345-348.
Chew LM, 1985. In Singapore. In: Veterinary viral diseases their significance in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, AJ Della Porta, Ed., Academic Press, Sydney, Australia, 234-238.
Clarke JK; McFerran JB; Gay FW, 1972. Use of allantoic cells for the detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Archiv fur die Gesamte Virusforschung, 36(1-2):62-70.
Cook JKA, 1983. Isolation of a new serotype of infectious bronchitis like virus from chickens in England. Veterinary Record, 112(5):104-105.
Cook JKA; Darbyshire JH; Peters RW, 1976. The use of chicken tracheal organ cultures for the isolation and assay of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Archives of Virology 50(1-2):109-118.
Coria MF, 1976. Avian infectious bronchitis virus: serologic response of chickens to seven beta propiolactone inactivated strains. Avian Diseases, 16(5):1103-1108.
Crinion RAP; Hofstad MS, 1972. Pathogenicity of four serotypes of avian infectious bronchitis virus for the oviduct of young chickens of various ages. Avian Diseases, 16(2):351 363.
Cui BaoAn; Li XinSheng; Zhang HongYing, 1996. Study on combined immunization against colibacillosis and a nephropathogenic type of infectious bronchitis in chickens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 22(1):13-15; 10 ref.
Cumming RB, 1969. The control of avian infectious bronchitis/nephrosis in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 14:200 20.
Davelaar FG; Kouwenhoven B, 1981. Study on the local effect of eye drop vaccination against infectious bronchitis in 1 day old chicks with maternal antibodies. Avian Pathology, 10(1):83 90.
Davelaar FG; Kouwenhoven B; Burger AG, 1983. Experience with vaccination against infectious bronchitis in broilers and significance of and vaccination against infectious bronchitis variant viruses in breeders and layers in the Netherlands. La Clinica Veterinaria, 106(1/4):4 7 11.
Delamer M, 1974. Studies in Argentina of the use of ultraviolet irradiation to control Newcastle disease. Gaceta Veterinaria, 36(286):229 235.
Dhinakar Raj G; Jones RC, 1996. Local antibody production in the oviduct and gut of hens infected with a variant strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology, 53(1/2):147-161.
Dhinakar Raj G; Jones RC, 1997. Infectious bronchitis virus: immunopathogenesis of infection in the chicken. Avian Pathology, 26:677-706.
Elankumaran S; Balachandran C; Chandran NDJ; Roy P; Albert A; Manickam R, 1999. Serological evidence for a 793/B related avian infectious bronchitis virus in India. Veterinary Record, 144(11):299-300; 4 ref.
Emele J; Lohr JE; Kösters J, 1985. Replication and cytopathic effect of South German isolates of infectious bronchitis virus in cell cultures, and the influence of trypsin. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 98(6):216-219; 10 ref.
Fan WX; Yuan XF; Wang SY; Hu JD; Xiao CF; Wu YG; Wang YL; Jiang YH, 1997. Isolation and identification of chicken kidney type infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology, 27(2):21-22.
Gagic M; Miljkovic B; Palic T; Orlic D, 1994. Infectious bronchitis in Serbia: diagnostic methods and disease prevention. Zhivinarstvo, 29(7/9):68-70; 7 ref.
Garcia Z; Bankowski RA, 1981. Comparison of a tissue culture virus neutralization test and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of antibodies to infectious bronchitis. Avian Diseases, 25(1):121-130.
Gdovinova A, 1975. Comparison of vaccines against avian infectious bronchitis. Folia Veterinaria, 19(3/4):209-222.
Gelb J Jr, 1989. Infectious bronchitis In: Purchase HG, Arp LH, Domermuth CH, Pearson JE, eds. A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens 3rd edition, Dubuque Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 124-127.
Gelb J Jr; Perkins BE; Rosenberger JK; Allen PH, 1981. Serologic and cross protection studies with several infectious bronchitis virus isolates from Delmarva reared broiler chickens. Avian Diseases, 25:655 666.
Gelb JJr; Cloud SS, 1983. Effect of serial embryo passage of an Arkansas-type avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate on clinical response, virus recovery, and immunity. Avian Diseases, 27(3):679-687; 16 ref.
Gillette KG, 1973. Plaque formation by infectious bronchitis virus in chicken embryo kidney cell cultures Avian Diseases, 17(2):369 378.
Gough R; Alexander DJ, 1977. Comparison of serological tests for the measurement of the primary immune response to avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccines. Veterinary Microbiology, (publ 1978) 2(4):289-301.
Guilarte O; Viamontes O; Trujillo A; López N, 1989. Isolation, identification and experimental inoculation of a field strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Revista Cubana de Ciencia Avícola, 16(2):117-125; 23 ref.
Guy JS, 2000. Turkey coronavirus is more closely related to avian infectious bronchitis virus than to mammalian coronaviruses: a review. Avian Pathology, 29(3):207-212; 38 ref.
Handberg KJ; Nielsen OL; Pedersen MW; JOrgensen PH, 1999. Detection and strain differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus in tracheal tissues from experimentally infected chickens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Comparison with an immunohistochemical technique. Avian Pathology, 28(4):327-335; 22 ref.
Hawkes RA; Darbyshire JH; Peters RW; Mockett APA; Cavanagh D, 1983. Presence of viral antigens and antibody in the trachea of chickens infected with avian infectious bronchitis virus Avian Pathology 12(3):331-340.
Ignjatovic J; Sapats SI; Ashton F, 1997. A long-term study of Australian infectious bronchitis viruses indicates a major antigenic change in recently isolated strains. Avian Pathology, 26(3):535-552; 23 ref.
Jia W; Karaca K; Parish CR; Naqi SA, 1995. A novel variant of avian infectious bronchitis virus resulting from recombination among three different strains. Archives of Virology, 140(2):259-271; 40 ref.
Johnson RB; Marquardt WW, 1975. Neutralizing characteristics of strains of infectious bronchitis virus as measured by the constant virus variable serum method in chicken tracheal cultures. Avian Diseases, 19(1):82-90.
Jordan FTW, 1996. Infectious bronchitis. Poultry diseases,, Ed. 4:178-186; 5 ref.
Jorge MA; Resende JS; Oliveira RL, 1992. Serological survey of broiler chickens in Minas Gerais for Gumboro disease, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 44(6):545-547; 8 ref.
Kammen A van, 1982. Survey of some poultry viruses in Papua New Guinea. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 14(2):109-119.
Kim JaeHong; Song ChangSeon; Seong HwanWoo; Kim SunJung, 1997. Serological differentiation of Korean isolates of avian infectious bronchitis virus using serum neutralization tests. RDA Journal of Veterinary Science, 39(2):1-10; 41 ref.
Kim JH; Rhee YO; Kim JH; Namgoong S, 1987. Prevalence of antibodies in chickens to avian infectious bronchitis virus in Korea. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration , Livestock & Veterinary, Korea Republic, 29(1):156-159; 7 ref.
King DJ; Hopkins SR, 1983. Evaluation of the hemagglutination inhibition test for measuring the response of chickens to avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccination. Avian Diseases, 27(1):100-112.
Koch G; Hartog L; Kant A; Roozelaar Dvan; Boer GDde, 1986. Antigenic differentiation of avian bronchitis virus variant strains employing monoclonal antibodies. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 42(2):89-97; 29 ref.
Komàromy AM; Hofmann MA; Bruckner L, 1995. Typing of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in Switzerland using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism. Immunobiology of viral infections. Proceedings 3rd Congress of the European Society for Veterinary Virology Interlaken, Switzerland, 4-7 September, 1994., 337-341; 18 ref.
Krajca A; Jiran E, 1998. Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in poultry. Veterinárství, 48(12):526-530; 10 ref.
Kwon HM; Jackwood MW; Gelb JJr, 1993. Differentiation of infectious bronchitis virus serotypes using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Avian Diseases, 37(1):194-202; 33 ref.
Li J; Cook JKA; Brown TDK; Shaw K; Cavanagh D, 1993. Detection of turkey rhinotracheitis virus in turkeys using the polymerase chain reaction Avian Pathology 22 771-784.
Lim ACA, 1977. serological survey on the incidence of infectious bronchitis in poultry in Singapore Singapore Veterinary Journal 1:42-45.
Lim TH; Kim MS; Jang JH; Lee DH; Park JK; Youn HN; Lee JB; Park SY; Choi IS; Song CS, 2012. Live attenuated nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus vaccine provides broad cross protection against new variant strains. Poultry Science, 91(1):89-94. http://ps.fass.org/content/91/1/89.abstract
Lin Z; Kato A; Kudou Y; Ueda S, 1991. A new typing method for the avian infectious bronchitis virus using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism. Archives of Virology, 116(1-4):19-31; 40 ref.
Lister SA; Beer JV; Gough RE; Holmes RG; Jones JMW; Orton RG, 1985. Outbreaks of nephritis in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) with a possible coronavirus aetiology. Veterinary Record, 117(23):612-613; 14 ref.
Liu QingHe et al, 1998. Isolation and identification of nephrotropic infectious bronchitis virus and immunization studies. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 20(1):65-69; 13 ref.
Liu ShengWang; Zhang XiaoNan; Wang Yu; Li ChenGren; Han ZongXi; Shao YuHao; Li HuiXin; Kong XianGang, 2009. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of infectious bronchitis coronaviruses: complicated evolution and epidemiology in China caused by cocirculation of multiple types of infectious bronchitis coronaviruses. Intervirology, 52(4):223-234. http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ArtikelNr=227134&Ausgabe=249614&ProduktNr=224031
Liu SiGuo; Jiang GuoTuo; Kang LiJuan; Liu ZhongGui; Lu JingLiang; Liu MingChun, 1999. Sequencing and homology analysis of the nucleocapsid gene of HUANAN strain of infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science, 19(4):324-326; 8 ref.
Lohr JE, 1976. Serological differences between strains of infectious bronchitis virus from New Zealand Australia and the United States Avian Diseases 20:3 478-482.
Lohr JE, 1981. Diagnosis of infectious bronchitis (IB) by examination of tracheal mucus for IB precipitating antigens Avian Diseases 25 1058-1064.
Lohr JE; Hinze V; Kaleta EF, 1991. Immunological relationship between the New Zealand A and the Australian T strains of infectious bronchitis virus as measured by cross-immunisation tests in tracheal organ cultures from immunised birds. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 39(3):113-114; 4 ref.
Lu HuaGuang; Yang QiWei; Zhang HongYong; Wu ZhiQiang; Chen Wei; Fu ChaoYang, 1997. Study on serotype identification and immune control of infectious bronchitis virus isolates. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 23(8):7-10; 10 ref.
Ma HuiJie; Shao YuHao; Sun ChuYang; Han ZongXi; Liu XiaoLi; Guo HongBo; Liu XiaoZhen; Kong XianGang; Liu ShengWang, 2012. Genetic diversity of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus in recent years in China. Avian Diseases, 56(1):15-28. http://www.aaapjournals.info/doi/abs/10.1637/9804-052011-Reg.1
MAFF, 1984. Manual of veterinary investigation Laboratory techniques Vol 1 London Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
Mahmood ZH; Sleman RR; Uthman AU, 2011. Isolation and molecular characterization of Sul/01/09 avian infectious bronchitis virus, indicates the emergence of a new genotype in the Middle East. Veterinary Microbiology, 150(1/2):21-27. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Maiti NK; Sharma SN; Sambyal DS, 1985. Isolation of infectious bronchitis virus from intestine and reproductive organs of laying hens with dropped egg production. Avian Diseases, 29(2):509-513; 19 ref.
Maiti NK; Sharma SN; Sambyal DS, 1985. Precipitating antibodies against infectious bronchitis and fowl adenoviruses in laying birds with egg drop problem. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 22(2):391-393; 9 ref.
Malay Mitra; Bhattacharyya HM; Duttagupta R; Pramanik AK; Sen GP, 1998. Studies on maternally derived antibody level of different viral diseases in broilers. Indian Veterinary Journal, 75(6):495-497; 6 ref.
Mamchur BA; German VV, 1975. Antibodies to fowl influenza virus serotype G6N2 and to infectious bronchitis virus serotypes Massachusetts and Connecticut among hens in the Ukraine Veterinariya Kiev USSR No 41 30 33 114.
Marsolais G; Marois P, 1982. Types of avian infectious bronchitis strains isolated in Quebec Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 46:2 150 153.
McFerran B, 1997. Egg drop syndrome In: Calnek BW Barnes HJ Beard CW McDougald LR Saif YM eds Diseases of Poultry 10th Edn owa Iowa State Univeristy Press 633 642.
Meir R; Weisman Y; Malkinson M, 1997. Isolation and identification of infectious bronchitis by means of RT-PCR. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 52(1):28; [Abstract.].
Meulemans G; Berg TPvan den, 1998. Nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis viruses. World's Poultry Science Journal, 54(2):145-153; 72 ref.
Meulemans G; Carlier MC; Gonze M; Petit P; Vandenbroeck M, 1987. Incidence, characterisation and prophylaxis of nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis viruses. Veterinary Record, 120(9):205-206; 8 ref.
Meulemans G; Froyman R; Tilburg J van; Halen P, 1981. Epidemiology of viral diseases of broilers IV Infectious bronchitis Annales de Medecine Veterinaire, 125:2 117 121.
Meulemans G; Vindevogel H; Burtonboy G; Deylgat A; Halen P, 1976. Isolation of a new serotype of infectious bronchitis (from fowls) in Belgium Annales de Medecine Veterinaire, 120:3 199 204.
Mockett APA; Darbyshire JH, 1981. Comparative studies with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis virus Avian Pathology 10(1):1 10.
Mohammed HO; Naqi SA, 1990. Epidemiologic features of infectious bronchitis infection in New York state. Proceedings of the thiry-ninth Western Poultry Disease Conference, March 4-6, 1990, Sacramento, California., 23.
Moore KM; Bennett JD; Seal BS; Jackwood MW, 1998. Sequence comparison of avian infectious bronchitis virus S1 glycoproteins of the Florida serotype and five variant isolates from Georgia and California. Virus Genes, 17(1):63-83; 36 ref.
Mrzel I, 1976. Research on nephritis nephrosis disease in fowls in Slovenia Yugoslavia Veterinarski Arhiv 46:1/2 23 32 9 ref.
Mrzel I; Josipovic D; Forsthuber V; Groznik S, 1980. Characteristics of the nephritis nephrosis strain of infectious bronchitis virus Veterinaria Yugoslavia, 29:1/2 279 282.
Mukiibi-Muka G; Olaho-Mukani W, 1998. Serological survey of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus and mycoplasma in commercial and indigenous chickens in Uganda. Proceedings international symposium on infectious bronchitis and pneumovirus infections in poultry, Rauischholzhausen, Germany, 15-18 June 1998., 157-165; 4 ref.
Naqi SA; Karaca K; Bauman B, 1993. A monoclonal antibody-based antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for identification of infectious bronchitis virus serotypes. Avian Pathology, 22(3):555-564; 18 ref.
Ning BingWei; Hao ChongLi; Qiao Li; Yun HongLiang; Lu JiaPing, 1997. Application of KangFuSan (traditional Chinese medicine) in the control of avian infectious respiratory diseases. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 23(12):29-31.
Office International des Epizooties, 1996. Avian infectious bronchitis In: Manual of Standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines 3rd edition Paris Office Internationale des Epizooties 540 547. This can also be accessed on the internet: http://wwwoieint/norms/mmanual/A_00091htm. A fourth edition is due to be available in late 2000.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int
Opitz HM; Devi KV; Salleh AR b M Lim Kean Teik; Hopkins SR, 1979. Avian infectious bronchitis in commercial poultry farms in Malaysia 1967 1977 Kajian Veterinar, 11:1/2 41 51.
Pan GenCheng; Jiang YiHai; Wang YongLing; Wang YuDong; Zhang ZiChun; Ding Jiang; Liu XiangE; Yang YinLin; Ou YuXiang; Wen FuYong, 1998. Isolation and identification of glandular stomach-pathogenic type infectious bronchitis virus in Beijing area. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 28(10):21-22.
Papanikolaou I; Iordanidis P; Artopios E, 1985. Mixed infection with adenovirus and infectious bronchitis virus in two flocks of brown layers. Ellenike Kteniatrike (Hellenic Veterinary Medicine), 28(4):209-216; 17 ref.
Pattison M; Cook JKA, 1996. Vaccines and vaccination. Poultry diseases,, Ed. 4:469-483; 6 ref.
Pénzes Z; Mészáros J, 1992. Comparison of different computational methods for measuring antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis virus in single serum dilution. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 40(4):311-321; 16 ref.
Philipp HC; Voss M; Iburg M, 1998. Outbreak of a 793/B-related IBV infection in a broiler breeder flock in Germany - a case report. Proceedings international symposium on infectious bronchitis and pneumovirus infections in poultry, Rauischholzhausen, Germany, 15-18 June 1998., 198-199.
Picault JP; Drouin P; Guittet M; Bennejean G; Protais J; L'Hospitalier R; Gillet JP; Lamande J; Bachelier Ale, 1986. Isolation, characterisation and preliminary cross-protection studies with a new pathogenic avian infectious bronchitis virus (strain PL-84084). Avian Pathology, 15(3):367-383; 12 ref.
Picault JP; Duée JP; Gillet JP; Cook JKA; Guittet M; Bennejean G; Lamande J, 1987. Study of a new nephropathogenic coronavirus (CR-84221) isolated from chickens and fowls in the North of France. Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire, 163(3):269-276; 11 ref.
Raj GD; Jones RC, 1997. Infectious bronchitis virus: immunopathogenesis of infection in the chicken. Avian Pathology, 26(4):677-706; many ref.
Reddy AS; Murthy KG, 1980. Krishnaswamy S, Serological survey of infectious bronchitis in chicken. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 15:1 26 30.
Rhee JaeKu; Yang HongJi; Yook SimYong; Kim HyeonCheol, 1998. Immunosuppressive effect of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection on vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis in chicks. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 36(3):203-206; 11 ref.
Ruano M; El-Attrache J; Villegas P, 2000. a rapid-plate hemagglutination assay for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Diseases, 44(1):99-104.
Salaj J, 1989. Epidemiology of infectious bronchitis in Czechoslovakia. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on infectious bronchitis, Rauischholzhausen, West Germany, 23-26 June 1988., 68-69; 7 ref.
Salaj J; Cernik K, 1979. Serological survey of viral infections in large poultry farms. Veterinarstvi, 29:8 356 358.
Salle CTP; Silva ABda; Moraes HLde S; Braga Ade C, 1987. Infectious bronchitis: diagnosis, prophylaxis and occurrence of atypical strains of virus. Boletim do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias "Desidério Finamor", 10:87-97; 37 ref.
Sapats SI; Ashton F; Wright PJ; Ignjatovic J, 1996. Sequence analysis of the S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis viruses: identification of a novel genotypic group in Australia. Journal of General Virology, 77(3):413-418; 19 ref.
Schalk AF; Hawn MC, 1931. An apparently new respiratory disease of baby chicks Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 78:413 422.
Schat KA; Purchase HG, 1989. Cell culture methods. In: Purchase HG Arp LH Domermuth CH Pearson JE eds A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens 3rd edition Dubuque Iowa Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co 167.
Schultze B; Cavanagh D; Herrler G, 1992. Neuraminidase treatment of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus reveals a hemagglutinating activity that is dependent on sialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Virology (New York), 189(2):792-794; 15 ref.
Singh NB; Sayeed SA; Malik BS, 1979. Infectious bronchitis virus from poultry flocks of Madhya Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal, 3:1 35 37.
Snyder DB; Marquardt WW, 1989. Enzyme immunoassay for poultry disease monitoring In: Purchase HG Arp LH Domermuth CH Pearson JE eds A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens 3rd edition Dubuque Iowa Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co 45.
Song CS; Lee YJ; Kim JH; Sung HW; Lee CW; Izumiya Y; Miyazawa T; Jang HK; Mikami T, 1998. Epidemiological classification of infectious bronchitis virus isolated in Korea between 1986 and 1997. Avian Pathology, 27(4):409-416; 9 ref.
Sukumar S; Prabhakar TG, 1993. An outbreak of infectious bronchitis among poultry in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 63(8):820-822; 8 ref.
Terregino C; Toffan A; Beato MS; Nardi Rde; Vascellari M; Meini A; Ortali G; Mancin M; Capua I, 2008. Pathogenicity of a QX strain of infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chickens, and evaluation of protection induced by a vaccination programme based on the Ma5 and 4/91 serotypes. Avian Pathology, 37(5):487-493.
Teryuhanov A; Mazurina M; Takarskih V, 1995. Prevention of infectious bronchitis. Ptitsevodstvo, No. 5:24-25.
Teryukhanov AB, 1986. Control measures against avian infectious bronchitis. Veterinariya, Moscow, USSR, No.6:34-37.
Toro H; Hidalgo H; Cardoso W; Morales MA, 1989. Avian infectious bronchitis in Chile: screening of antibodies against strain M-41 and the variant strains D-274 and D-1466 using the haemagglutination inhibition test. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 21(2):109-115; 10 ref.
Toro H; Reyes E; Redmann T; Kaleta EF, 1996. Local and systemic specific antibody response of different chicken lines after ocular vaccination against infectious bronchitis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 43(8):449-454; 12 ref.
Torrubia Diaz FJ; González González E, 1985. A new vaccination programme against avian infectious bronchitis. Medicina Veterinaria, 2(4):223.230; 11 ref.
Verma ND; Verma KC, 1983. Sero-prevalence of some common avian infections in the poultry population of Manipur State,. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 4(2):123-126; 12 ref.
Wang L; Junker D; Hock L; Ebiary E; Collisson EW, 1994. Evolutionary implications of genetic variation in the S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Research, 34:327 338.
Wang YuDong; Wang YongLin; Zhang ZiChun; Fan GenChe; Jiang YiHai; Liu XiangE; Ding Jiang; Wang ShuShuang, 1998. Isolation and identification of glandular stomach type IBV (QX IBV) in chickens. Chinese Journal of Animal Quarantine, 15(1):1-3; 5 ref.
Wit JJ De, 2000. Detection of infectious bronchitis. Avian Pathology, 29:71 93.
Wit JJde; Davelaar FG; Braunius WW, 1992. Comparison of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the haemagglutination inhibition test and the agar gel precipitation test for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in commercial broilers. Avian Pathology, 21(4):651-658; 15 ref.
Wit JJde; Nieuwenhuisen-van Wilgen J; Hoogkamer A; Sande Hvan de; Zuidam GJ; Fabri THF, 2011. Induction of cystic oviducts and protection against early challenge with infectious bronchitis virus serotype D388 (genotype QX) by maternally derived antibodies and by early vaccination. Avian Pathology, 40(5):463-471.
Worthington KJ; Currie RJW; Jones RC, 2008. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction survey of infectious bronchitis virus genotypes in Western Europe from 2002 to 2006. Avian Pathology, 37(3):247-257.
Wu QuanZhong; Wang HongNing; Liao DeHui; Wen XinTian, 1996. Physico-chemical comparison of the Sichuan isolate-SAIB3 strain of nephropathogenic IBV and the M41 strain. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 22(4):24-26; 11 ref.
Xu JinJun; Zhu GuoQiang; Xu YiMin; Zhou JiJong; Tian HuiFang; Wang YongKun, 1997. A preliminary study on avian infectious proventricular disease. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 23(11):11-12; 3 ref.
Xu LanJu, 1995. Isolation and identification of nephrotropic strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and development of an oil-adjuvant inactivated polyvalent vaccine. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 21(4):20-21; 6 ref.
Yagyu K; Kato K; Ohta S, 1985. Investigation on the prevalence of infectious bronchitis virus strains by the non-metric multidimensional scaling method. Annual Report of the National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, 22:9-14; 13 ref.
Yang RunDe; Gao Xuan; Li TanQing; Lu GuangJi, 1996. Isolation and identification of renal type infectious bronchitis virus and development of a vaccine. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 22(12):21-22; 4 ref.
Zhang QiJin; Shen ZhiYi; Guan PingYuan; Li PingAn; Hong Mei, 1997. Study on the application of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of the nucleic acid of infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 23(1):5-7; 6 ref.
Zhong NiNa; Wang HongNing; Zhang HuaXian; Cui HengMin; Wang KaiYu, 1996. Comparative study on the pathology of the M41 strain, the T strain and the nephropathogenic strain SAIB3 of infectious bronchitis virus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 22(5):11-13; 12 ref.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/