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avian infectious bronchitis virus

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Datasheet

avian infectious bronchitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • avian infectious bronchitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Coronaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electronmicrograph of five virions of infectious bronchitis virus, showing the large surface glcoprotein, S, protruding from the lipid envelope.
TitleVirions
CaptionElectronmicrograph of five virions of infectious bronchitis virus, showing the large surface glcoprotein, S, protruding from the lipid envelope.
CopyrightDavid Cavanagh
Electronmicrograph of five virions of infectious bronchitis virus, showing the large surface glcoprotein, S, protruding from the lipid envelope.
VirionsElectronmicrograph of five virions of infectious bronchitis virus, showing the large surface glcoprotein, S, protruding from the lipid envelope.David Cavanagh
Diagram of a virion of IBV. The large surface glycoprotein (S) is cleaved into two subunits, (S1) and (S2) the S2 anchoring the molecule in the envelope (lipid membrane). The smaller integral membrane glycoprotein (M) protrudes only a short distance at the outer surface. There are only a few molecules of a third envelope protein (E). The genome of the virus is single-stranded (RNA) 27,600 nucleotides in length. This is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N).
TitleDiagram of a virion
CaptionDiagram of a virion of IBV. The large surface glycoprotein (S) is cleaved into two subunits, (S1) and (S2) the S2 anchoring the molecule in the envelope (lipid membrane). The smaller integral membrane glycoprotein (M) protrudes only a short distance at the outer surface. There are only a few molecules of a third envelope protein (E). The genome of the virus is single-stranded (RNA) 27,600 nucleotides in length. This is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N).
CopyrightDavid Cavanagh
Diagram of a virion of IBV. The large surface glycoprotein (S) is cleaved into two subunits, (S1) and (S2) the S2 anchoring the molecule in the envelope (lipid membrane). The smaller integral membrane glycoprotein (M) protrudes only a short distance at the outer surface. There are only a few molecules of a third envelope protein (E). The genome of the virus is single-stranded (RNA) 27,600 nucleotides in length. This is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N).
Diagram of a virionDiagram of a virion of IBV. The large surface glycoprotein (S) is cleaved into two subunits, (S1) and (S2) the S2 anchoring the molecule in the envelope (lipid membrane). The smaller integral membrane glycoprotein (M) protrudes only a short distance at the outer surface. There are only a few molecules of a third envelope protein (E). The genome of the virus is single-stranded (RNA) 27,600 nucleotides in length. This is surrounded by the nucleoprotein (N).David Cavanagh

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • avian infectious bronchitis virus ICTV

Other Scientific Names

  • infectious bronchitis virus

International Common Names

  • English: coronovirus infectious bronchitis virus

English acronym

  • IBV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Coronaviridae
  •                     Genus: Coronavirus
  •                         Species: avian infectious bronchitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninPresent
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniPresentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresent
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayottePresentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipePresentJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresent
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabwePresentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanPresentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitPresentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarPresentJul-Dec-2019
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
NorwayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SwedenPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsPresentJan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TokelauPresent
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsentJan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaPresentJul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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IBV is pleomorphic although generally rounded. The enveloped virions average 120 nm in diameter and have a fringe of widely spaced, club-shaped surface projections (spikes) that are 20 nm in diameter. The spikes comprise a single glycoprotein, S (180,000 molecular weight), which is cleaved into two polypeptides, amino-termainl S1 and carboxyterminal S2. The envelope is studded with many copies of a membrane glycoprotein, M (molecular weight of 23,000 to 34,000, depending on its state of glycosylation) and a few copies of a non-glycosylated envelope protein, E (molecular weight of approximately 12,000) which may not be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The genome of the virus is a single piece of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA comprising some 27,600 nucleotides. It is surrounded by a nucleocapsid protein, N (molecular weight 54,000) to form the ribonucleoprotein core. Unlike in paramyxoviruses, this core is not readily seen in damaged particles by electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations.

The S protein, especially the S1 part, is the inducer of virus-neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody and is important in the induction of protective immunity. The S1 protein is also the most variable of the viral proteins, IBV types commonly differing by 20-25% of S1 amino acids, some types differing from others by 50% (Wang et al., 1994; Cavanagh and Naqi, 1997). It is believed that this variation is responsible for the poor cross-protection induced by one serotype against others. Over 20 serotypes have been described, but there are probably many more.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Phasianus (pheasants)Domesticated host; Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Domesticated host; Wild host

References

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Cavanagh D; Naqi S, 1997. Infectious bronchitis In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM, eds, Diseases of Poultry, 10th Edn., Iowa, Iowa State Univeristy Press, 511-526.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Wang L; Junker D; Hock L; Ebiary E; Collisson EW, 1994. Evolutionary implications of genetic variation in the S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus. Virus Research, 34:327 338.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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