Suid herpesvirus 1
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Suid herpesvirus 1
Other Scientific Names
- Aujeszky virus
International Common Names
- English: pseudorabies virus
- PR virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
- Unknown: "DNA viruses"
- Order: Herpesvirales
- Family: Herpesviridae
- Genus: Varicellovirus
- Species: Suid herpesvirus 1
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
This text was largely quoted from:
Kluge JP, Beran GW, Hill HT, Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease). In: BE Straw, S D’Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.
Suid herpesvirus 1, also known as Aujeszky virus, Aujeszky’s disease virus and pseudorabies virus, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Biological characteristics of the alpha herpesviruses include lytic replication cycle of less than 24 h and the ability to establish latent infections in sensory ganglia of the nervous system and lymphoid tissue of the tonsils (Wheeler and Osorio, 1991).
Aujeszky virus causes subclinical and latent infections in the pig, the only natural host of Aujeszky virus. The virus can also infect other mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, cats and dogs. Infection of these animals is usually fatal. Other animals that are lethally infected with the virus include raccoons, opossums, rats and mice.
Aujeszky virus consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that surrounds a linear genome of about 145 kb of DNA. The virus genome is about 30 times the size of the smallest known DNA-containing viral pathogen of pigs (porcine parvovirus) and is large enough to code for about 100 proteins. The virus ranges from 150 to 180 nm in diameter. The nucleocapsid is reported to be 105-110 nm in diameter and is composed of at least eight proteins ranging from 22.5 to 142 kDa. The viral envelope contains at least 9 structural proteins with molecular weights ranging from 50 to 130 kDa (Hampl et al., 1984; Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Klupp et al., 1992). Eight of these proteins are glycoproteins. A system of glycoprotein nomenclature is used to represent these envelope proteins. The system uses letters, for example, the structural glycoproteins are referred to as gE, gB, gC, gD, gI and gG. Virulence of Aujeszky virus is controlled synergistically by several genes, most notable the genes encoding glycoproteins gE, gD, gI and TK (Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Kritas et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1996). Glycoproteins gB, gC and gD appear to be most important with respect to the induction of immunity (Marchioli et al., 1988; Kost et al., 1989). Vaccine strains of Aujeszky virus have been genetically engineered to be deficient in one or more of proteins, gE, gC, gG and TK.
Only one serotype of Aujeszky virus is recognized, although distinct differences between some strains can be demonstrated by panels of monoclonal antibodies. Biological and physical markers can also be used to differentiate strains of Aujeszky virus. Vaccine and field strains of Aujeszky virus have been reliably differentiated by using heat and trypsin inactivation markers in combination with the mouse and rabbit virulence markers. Genome differences revealed by fragment length polymorphism can also be used to reliably differentiate Aujeszky virus strains. All of these characteristics are stable in several Aujeszky virus strains after serial passage in pigs (Platt, 1981; Mengeling et al., 1983).
According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) the disease associated with Aujeszky virus is listed as a notifiable disease. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
ReferencesTop of page
Kluge JP; Beran GW; Hill HT; Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease). In: BE Straw, S D'Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.
Kost TA; Jones EV; Smith KM; Reed AP; Brown AL; Miller TJ, 1989. Biological evaluation of glycoproteins mapping to two distinct mRNAs within the BamHI fragment 7 of pseudorabies virus: expression of the coding regions by vaccinia virus. Virology, 171(2):365-376; 44 ref.
Kritas SK; Pensaert MB; Mettenleiter TC, 1994. Role of envelope glycoproteins gI, gp63 and gIII in the invasion and spread of Aujeszk's disease virus in the olfactory nervous pathway of the pig. Journal of General Virology, 75(9):2319-2327; 33 ref.
Marchioli CC; Yancey RJ; Timmins JG; Post LE; Young BR; Povendo DA, 1988. Protection of mice and swine from pseudorabies virus-induced mortality by administration of pseudorabies virus-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49(6):860-864; 24 ref.
Mengeling WL; Paul PS; Pirtle EC; Wathen MW, 1983. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus before and after serial passage in vivo and in vitro. Archives of Virology, 78(3/4):213-220; 11 ref.
Mulder W; Pol J; Kimman T; Kok G; Priem J; Peeters B, 1996. Glycoprotein D-negative pseudorabies virus can spread transneuronally via direct neuron-to-neuron transmission in its natural host, the pig, but not after additional inactivation of gE or gI. Journal of Virology, 70(4):2191-2200; 51 ref.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Platt KB, 1981. Genetic stability of the thermal, trypsin, rabbit and mouse markers of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus in the pig. Veterinary Microbiology, 6:225-232.
Wittmann G; Rziha HJ, 1989. Herpesvirus diseases of cattle, horses, and pigs. In: Developments in veterinary virology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 230-325.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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