Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Suid herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

Suid herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Suid herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Suid herpesvirus 1

Other Scientific Names

  • Aujeszky virus

International Common Names

  • English: pseudorabies virus

English acronym

  • PR virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Varicellovirus
  •                         Species: Suid herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanLast reported1982OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Hong KongOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1967OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Last reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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This text was largely quoted from:

Kluge JP, Beran GW, Hill HT, Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease). In: BE Straw, S D’Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.

Suid herpesvirus 1, also known as Aujeszky virus, Aujeszky’s disease virus and pseudorabies virus, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Biological characteristics of the alpha herpesviruses include lytic replication cycle of less than 24 h and the ability to establish latent infections in sensory ganglia of the nervous system and lymphoid tissue of the tonsils (Wheeler and Osorio, 1991).

Aujeszky virus causes subclinical and latent infections in the pig, the only natural host of Aujeszky virus. The virus can also infect other mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, cats and dogs. Infection of these animals is usually fatal. Other animals that are lethally infected with the virus include raccoons, opossums, rats and mice.

Aujeszky virus consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that surrounds a linear genome of about 145 kb of DNA. The virus genome is about 30 times the size of the smallest known DNA-containing viral pathogen of pigs (porcine parvovirus) and is large enough to code for about 100 proteins. The virus ranges from 150 to 180 nm in diameter. The nucleocapsid is reported to be 105-110 nm in diameter and is composed of at least eight proteins ranging from 22.5 to 142 kDa. The viral envelope contains at least 9 structural proteins with molecular weights ranging from 50 to 130 kDa (Hampl et al., 1984; Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Klupp et al., 1992). Eight of these proteins are glycoproteins. A system of glycoprotein nomenclature is used to represent these envelope proteins. The system uses letters, for example, the structural glycoproteins are referred to as gE, gB, gC, gD, gI and gG. Virulence of Aujeszky virus is controlled synergistically by several genes, most notable the genes encoding glycoproteins gE, gD, gI and TK (Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Kritas et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1996). Glycoproteins gB, gC and gD appear to be most important with respect to the induction of immunity (Marchioli et al., 1988; Kost et al., 1989). Vaccine strains of Aujeszky virus have been genetically engineered to be deficient in one or more of proteins, gE, gC, gG and TK.

Only one serotype of Aujeszky virus is recognized, although distinct differences between some strains can be demonstrated by panels of monoclonal antibodies. Biological and physical markers can also be used to differentiate strains of Aujeszky virus. Vaccine and field strains of Aujeszky virus have been reliably differentiated by using heat and trypsin inactivation markers in combination with the mouse and rabbit virulence markers. Genome differences revealed by fragment length polymorphism can also be used to reliably differentiate Aujeszky virus strains. All of these characteristics are stable in several Aujeszky virus strains after serial passage in pigs (Platt, 1981; Mengeling et al., 1983).

According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) the disease associated with Aujeszky virus is listed as a notifiable disease. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Hampl H; Ben-Porat T; Ehrlicher L; Habermehl K-O; Kaplan AS, 1984. Characterization of the envelope proteins of pseudorabies virus. Journal of Virology, 52(2):583-590; 14 ref.

Kluge JP; Beran GW; Hill HT; Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease). In: BE Straw, S D'Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.

Klupp BG; Visser N; Mettenleiter TC, 1992. Identification and characterization of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein H. Journal of Virology, 66(5):3048-3055; 45 ref.

Kost TA; Jones EV; Smith KM; Reed AP; Brown AL; Miller TJ, 1989. Biological evaluation of glycoproteins mapping to two distinct mRNAs within the BamHI fragment 7 of pseudorabies virus: expression of the coding regions by vaccinia virus. Virology, 171(2):365-376; 44 ref.

Kritas SK; Pensaert MB; Mettenleiter TC, 1994. Role of envelope glycoproteins gI, gp63 and gIII in the invasion and spread of Aujeszk's disease virus in the olfactory nervous pathway of the pig. Journal of General Virology, 75(9):2319-2327; 33 ref.

Marchioli CC; Yancey RJ; Timmins JG; Post LE; Young BR; Povendo DA, 1988. Protection of mice and swine from pseudorabies virus-induced mortality by administration of pseudorabies virus-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49(6):860-864; 24 ref.

Mengeling WL; Paul PS; Pirtle EC; Wathen MW, 1983. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus before and after serial passage in vivo and in vitro. Archives of Virology, 78(3/4):213-220; 11 ref.

Mulder W; Pol J; Kimman T; Kok G; Priem J; Peeters B, 1996. Glycoprotein D-negative pseudorabies virus can spread transneuronally via direct neuron-to-neuron transmission in its natural host, the pig, but not after additional inactivation of gE or gI. Journal of Virology, 70(4):2191-2200; 51 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Platt KB, 1981. Genetic stability of the thermal, trypsin, rabbit and mouse markers of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus in the pig. Veterinary Microbiology, 6:225-232.

Wheeler JG; Osorio FA, 1991. Investigation of sites of pseudorabies virus latency, using polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(11):1799-1803; 23 ref.

Wittmann G; Rziha HJ, 1989. Herpesvirus diseases of cattle, horses, and pigs. In: Developments in veterinary virology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 230-325.

Distribution Maps

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