Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Suid herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

Suid herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Suid herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Suid herpesvirus 1

Other Scientific Names

  • Aujeszky virus

International Common Names

  • English: pseudorabies virus

English acronym

  • PR virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Varicellovirus
  •                         Species: Suid herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresent
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AlbaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2020
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CubaPresentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresentJan-Jun-2020
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Timor-LestePresentJul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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This text was largely quoted from:

Kluge JP, Beran GW, Hill HT, Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease). In: BE Straw, S D’Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.

Suid herpesvirus 1, also known as Aujeszky virus, Aujeszky’s disease virus and pseudorabies virus, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Biological characteristics of the alpha herpesviruses include lytic replication cycle of less than 24 h and the ability to establish latent infections in sensory ganglia of the nervous system and lymphoid tissue of the tonsils (Wheeler and Osorio, 1991).

Aujeszky virus causes subclinical and latent infections in the pig, the only natural host of Aujeszky virus. The virus can also infect other mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, cats and dogs. Infection of these animals is usually fatal. Other animals that are lethally infected with the virus include raccoons, opossums, rats and mice.

Aujeszky virus consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that surrounds a linear genome of about 145 kb of DNA. The virus genome is about 30 times the size of the smallest known DNA-containing viral pathogen of pigs (porcine parvovirus) and is large enough to code for about 100 proteins. The virus ranges from 150 to 180 nm in diameter. The nucleocapsid is reported to be 105-110 nm in diameter and is composed of at least eight proteins ranging from 22.5 to 142 kDa. The viral envelope contains at least 9 structural proteins with molecular weights ranging from 50 to 130 kDa (Hampl et al., 1984; Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Klupp et al., 1992). Eight of these proteins are glycoproteins. A system of glycoprotein nomenclature is used to represent these envelope proteins. The system uses letters, for example, the structural glycoproteins are referred to as gE, gB, gC, gD, gI and gG. Virulence of Aujeszky virus is controlled synergistically by several genes, most notable the genes encoding glycoproteins gE, gD, gI and TK (Wittmann and Rziha, 1989; Kritas et al., 1994; Mulder et al., 1996). Glycoproteins gB, gC and gD appear to be most important with respect to the induction of immunity (Marchioli et al., 1988; Kost et al., 1989). Vaccine strains of Aujeszky virus have been genetically engineered to be deficient in one or more of proteins, gE, gC, gG and TK.

Only one serotype of Aujeszky virus is recognized, although distinct differences between some strains can be demonstrated by panels of monoclonal antibodies. Biological and physical markers can also be used to differentiate strains of Aujeszky virus. Vaccine and field strains of Aujeszky virus have been reliably differentiated by using heat and trypsin inactivation markers in combination with the mouse and rabbit virulence markers. Genome differences revealed by fragment length polymorphism can also be used to reliably differentiate Aujeszky virus strains. All of these characteristics are stable in several Aujeszky virus strains after serial passage in pigs (Platt, 1981; Mengeling et al., 1983).

According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) the disease associated with Aujeszky virus is listed as a notifiable disease. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Hampl H; Ben-Porat T; Ehrlicher L; Habermehl K-O; Kaplan AS, 1984. Characterization of the envelope proteins of pseudorabies virus. Journal of Virology, 52(2):583-590; 14 ref.

Kluge JP; Beran GW; Hill HT; Platt KB, 1999. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease). In: BE Straw, S D'Allaire, WL Mengeling, DJ Taylor (Eds.), Diseases of swine. Eighth Edition. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, pp. 233-246.

Klupp BG; Visser N; Mettenleiter TC, 1992. Identification and characterization of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein H. Journal of Virology, 66(5):3048-3055; 45 ref.

Kost TA; Jones EV; Smith KM; Reed AP; Brown AL; Miller TJ, 1989. Biological evaluation of glycoproteins mapping to two distinct mRNAs within the BamHI fragment 7 of pseudorabies virus: expression of the coding regions by vaccinia virus. Virology, 171(2):365-376; 44 ref.

Kritas SK; Pensaert MB; Mettenleiter TC, 1994. Role of envelope glycoproteins gI, gp63 and gIII in the invasion and spread of Aujeszk's disease virus in the olfactory nervous pathway of the pig. Journal of General Virology, 75(9):2319-2327; 33 ref.

Marchioli CC; Yancey RJ; Timmins JG; Post LE; Young BR; Povendo DA, 1988. Protection of mice and swine from pseudorabies virus-induced mortality by administration of pseudorabies virus-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49(6):860-864; 24 ref.

Mengeling WL; Paul PS; Pirtle EC; Wathen MW, 1983. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus before and after serial passage in vivo and in vitro. Archives of Virology, 78(3/4):213-220; 11 ref.

Mulder W; Pol J; Kimman T; Kok G; Priem J; Peeters B, 1996. Glycoprotein D-negative pseudorabies virus can spread transneuronally via direct neuron-to-neuron transmission in its natural host, the pig, but not after additional inactivation of gE or gI. Journal of Virology, 70(4):2191-2200; 51 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Platt KB, 1981. Genetic stability of the thermal, trypsin, rabbit and mouse markers of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus in the pig. Veterinary Microbiology, 6:225-232.

Wheeler JG; Osorio FA, 1991. Investigation of sites of pseudorabies virus latency, using polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(11):1799-1803; 23 ref.

Wittmann G; Rziha HJ, 1989. Herpesvirus diseases of cattle, horses, and pigs. In: Developments in veterinary virology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 230-325.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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