Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

atrophic rhinitis of swine

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Datasheet

atrophic rhinitis of swine

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • atrophic rhinitis of swine
  • Overview
  • Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of pigs characterized by atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones, which results in a shortened and deformed snout in severe cases (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
TitleThe face of atrophic rhinitis
CaptionThe lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
CopyrightJohn Walton (Deceased)
The lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
The face of atrophic rhinitisThe lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.John Walton (Deceased)
The cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
TitleAbsence of conchal (turbinate) bones
CaptionThe cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
CopyrightStan H. Done
The cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
Absence of conchal (turbinate) bonesThe cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.Stan H. Done

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • atrophic rhinitis of swine

International Common Names

  • English: atrophic rhinitis in pigs and goats

Pathogen/s

Top of page Bordetella bronchiseptica
Pasteurella multocida

Overview

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Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of pigs characterized by atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones, which results in a shortened and deformed snout in severe cases (Rutter, 1985; Horiguchi, 2012). Two forms of atrophic rhinitis have been recognized (Pedersen et al., 1988):

  • A severe progressive form caused by toxigenic isolates of Pasteurella multocida, most commonly capsular types D or A, alone or in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica.
  • A less severe, non-progressive form with mild to moderate turbinate atrophy, often without significant snout changes, caused by B. bronchiseptica.

Outbreaks of disease usually follow either the introduction of infected pigs or mixing of pigs from different sources (Elias and Szent-Ivanyi, 1981). Clinical signs include sneezing, coughing and eye discharge with resultant dark tear-staining and subsequent nasal discharge, which can vary from serous to mucopurulent; in some cases pigs may show nasal haemorrhage (Gwatkin, 1955). Atrophy of the nasal turbinate and septal deviation may lead to shortening or twisting of the snout and, in severe cases, difficulty in eating. Increased severity is associated with overstocking and poor management, housing and environmental conditions. Reduced productivity is generally associated with moderate to severe atrophic rhinitis (Pedersen and Nielsen, 1983; Donkó et al., 2005).

Apparently healthy pig herds may be infected with B. bronchiseptica or non-toxigenic P. multocida and show a mild degree or low prevalence of turbinate atrophy. When atrophic rhinitis rises to an unacceptable level in a herd, control measures include chemoprophylaxis, vaccination, temporary closure of the herd to introduction of new pigs, and improved husbandry (Pedersen and Nielsen, 1983).

Progressive atrophic rhinitis has become much less common since the 1990s due to the availability of vaccines are because many lines and breeds of gilts and replacement pigs are certified free of the disease. The disease is now mainly seen on older farms where piglets are derived from various sources of non-vaccinated gilts and are mixed together (McOrist, 2014). 

Also see the datasheet on Pasteurella multocida infections.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host

Systems Affected

Top of page respiratory diseases of pigs

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1961OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Deviation, curvature, head, face Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, head, face, jaw, ears Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Sign

References

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Donkó T; Kovács M; Magyar T, 2005. Association of growth performance with atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia detected at slaughter in a conventional pig herd in Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 53(3):287-298.

Elias B; Szent-Ivanyi T, 1981. Studies on swine atrophic rhinitis. I. Investigations into the epizootiology, diagnosis, and specific prevention of the disease. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin, B, 28(5):363-370.

Gwatkin R, 1955. A discussion on atrophic rhinitis of swine with special reference to recent work in Canada. Veterinary Bulletin, 1(2):55-61.

Horiguchi Y, 2012. Swine atrophic rhinitis caused by Pasteurella multocida toxin and bordetella dermonecrotic toxin. In: Pasteurella multocida: molecular biology, toxins and infection [ed. by Aktories, K.\Orth, J. H. C.\Adler, B.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 113-129. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m45193

McOrist S, 2014. Sneezing and nasal discharges in pigs. In: Pig disease identification and diagnosis guide [ed. by McOrist, S.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 139-149. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20143370977

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pedersen KB; Nielsen JP; Foged NT; Elling F; Nielsen NC; Willeberg P, 1988. .

Pedersen KB; Nielsen NC, 1983. Atrophic rhinitis in pigs. A seminar in the CEC Programme of Coordination of Research on Animal Pathology, held in Copenhagen, 25 and 26 May 1983., Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation, vii + 205pp.

Rutter JM, 1985. Atrophic rhinitis in swine. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine, 29:239-279.

Distribution Maps

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