Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

atrophic rhinitis of swine

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Datasheet

atrophic rhinitis of swine

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • atrophic rhinitis of swine
  • Overview
  • Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of pigs characterized by atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones, which results in a shortened and deformed snout in severe cases (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
TitleThe face of atrophic rhinitis
CaptionThe lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
CopyrightJohn Walton (Deceased)
The lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.
The face of atrophic rhinitisThe lateral distortion of the face and the deviation of the snout can be clearly seen in this pige with atrophic rhinitis.John Walton (Deceased)
The cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
TitleAbsence of conchal (turbinate) bones
CaptionThe cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
CopyrightStan H. Done
The cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.
Absence of conchal (turbinate) bonesThe cross-section of the snout at the level of the second pre-molar shows the conchal bones are completely missing i.e. a grade 5 rhinitis. This requires the presence of both Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida toxigenic type D to produce this progressive atrophic rhinitis.Stan H. Done

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • atrophic rhinitis of swine

International Common Names

  • English: atrophic rhinitis in pigs and goats

Pathogen/s

Top of page Bordetella bronchiseptica
Pasteurella multocida

Overview

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Atrophic rhinitis is a widely prevalent infectious disease of pigs characterized by atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones, which results in a shortened and deformed snout in severe cases (Rutter, 1985; Horiguchi, 2012). Two forms of atrophic rhinitis have been recognized (Pedersen et al., 1988):

  • A severe progressive form caused by toxigenic isolates of Pasteurella multocida, most commonly capsular types D or A, alone or in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica.
  • A less severe, non-progressive form with mild to moderate turbinate atrophy, often without significant snout changes, caused by B. bronchiseptica.

Outbreaks of disease usually follow either the introduction of infected pigs or mixing of pigs from different sources (Elias and Szent-Ivanyi, 1981). Clinical signs include sneezing, coughing and eye discharge with resultant dark tear-staining and subsequent nasal discharge, which can vary from serous to mucopurulent; in some cases pigs may show nasal haemorrhage (Gwatkin, 1955). Atrophy of the nasal turbinate and septal deviation may lead to shortening or twisting of the snout and, in severe cases, difficulty in eating. Increased severity is associated with overstocking and poor management, housing and environmental conditions. Reduced productivity is generally associated with moderate to severe atrophic rhinitis (Pedersen and Nielsen, 1983; Donkó et al., 2005).

Apparently healthy pig herds may be infected with B. bronchiseptica or non-toxigenic P. multocida and show a mild degree or low prevalence of turbinate atrophy. When atrophic rhinitis rises to an unacceptable level in a herd, control measures include chemoprophylaxis, vaccination, temporary closure of the herd to introduction of new pigs, and improved husbandry (Pedersen and Nielsen, 1983).

Progressive atrophic rhinitis has become much less common since the 1990s due to the availability of vaccines are because many lines and breeds of gilts and replacement pigs are certified free of the disease. The disease is now mainly seen on older farms where piglets are derived from various sources of non-vaccinated gilts and are mixed together (McOrist, 2014). 

Also see the datasheet on Pasteurella multocida infections.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host

Systems Affected

Top of page respiratory diseases of pigs

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Deviation, curvature, head, face Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, head, face, jaw, ears Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Sign

References

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Donkó T; Kovács M; Magyar T, 2005. Association of growth performance with atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia detected at slaughter in a conventional pig herd in Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 53(3):287-298.

Elias B; Szent-Ivanyi T, 1981. Studies on swine atrophic rhinitis. I. Investigations into the epizootiology, diagnosis, and specific prevention of the disease. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin, B, 28(5):363-370.

Gwatkin R, 1955. A discussion on atrophic rhinitis of swine with special reference to recent work in Canada. Veterinary Bulletin, 1(2):55-61.

Horiguchi Y, 2012. Swine atrophic rhinitis caused by Pasteurella multocida toxin and bordetella dermonecrotic toxin. In: Pasteurella multocida: molecular biology, toxins and infection [ed. by Aktories, K.\Orth, J. H. C.\Adler, B.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 113-129. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m45193

McOrist S, 2014. Sneezing and nasal discharges in pigs. In: Pig disease identification and diagnosis guide [ed. by McOrist, S.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 139-149. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20143370977

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pedersen KB; Nielsen JP; Foged NT; Elling F; Nielsen NC; Willeberg P, 1988. .

Pedersen KB; Nielsen NC, 1983. Atrophic rhinitis in pigs. A seminar in the CEC Programme of Coordination of Research on Animal Pathology, held in Copenhagen, 25 and 26 May 1983., Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation, vii + 205pp.

Rutter JM, 1985. Atrophic rhinitis in swine. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine, 29:239-279.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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