Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Aspius aspius
(asp)

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Datasheet

Aspius aspius (asp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aspius aspius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • asp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. aspius is classified on the IUCN Red List as a species of ‘Least concern’, though locally threatened by river engineering projects. Even though this species has been introduced into many regions within Europ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult Aspius aspius from the Morava River, Slovakia.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult Aspius aspius from the Morava River, Slovakia.
CopyrightDaniel Grula/Comenius University, Slovakia
Adult Aspius aspius from the Morava River, Slovakia.
AdultAdult Aspius aspius from the Morava River, Slovakia.Daniel Grula/Comenius University, Slovakia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aspius aspius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • asp

Other Scientific Names

  • Alburnus iblioides Kessler, 1872
  • Aspius aspius aspius (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Aspius aspius iblioides (Kessler, 1872)
  • Aspius aspius taeniatus (Eichwald, 1831)
  • Aspius aspius taeniatus iblioides phragmiteti Berg, 1932
  • Aspius erytrostomus Kessler, 1877
  • Aspius linnei Malm, 1877
  • Aspius rapax Agassiz, 1835
  • Aspius rapax jaxartensis Kessler, 1874
  • Aspius transcaucasius Warpachovski, 1896
  • Aspius vulgaris Leiblein, 1853
  • Cyprinus aspius Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus rapax Leske, 1774
  • Cyprinus rapax Pallas, 1914
  • Cyprinus taeniatus Eichwald, 1831
  • Leuciscus aspius Linnaeus, 1758

International Common Names

  • Spanish: aspio
  • French: aspe
  • Russian: zerekh; zherekh; zherekh obyknovennyi

Local Common Names

  • Austria: schied
  • Bulgaria: rasper; razper
  • Czech Republic: bolen; bolen dravý; bolen obecný
  • Denmark: asp
  • Estonia: tõugjas
  • Finland: toutain
  • Germany: Dickkopf; Diebel; Hartkopf; Kaspischer Rapfen; Lachsfisch; Mulbe; Mülbe; Mülpe; Raape; Raapf; Rapen; Rapfen; Rapis; Rappe; Ritter; Rombalet; Rotschiedel; Salat; Schied; Schiegg; Schiek; Schier; Schirm; Schutt; Weißfisch; Zalat
  • Greece: asprogrivado
  • Hungary: balin
  • Iran: khasham; mash mahi; mashmahi
  • Latvia: salate
  • Lithuania: salatis
  • Netherlands: roofblei; roofblei
  • Norway: asp
  • Poland: bolen
  • Portugal: áspio
  • Romania: aun; avat; butoi; gonaci; guran; haut; peste-lup
  • Serbia: bolen; bucov
  • Slovakia: bolen obycajný; bolen obycajný
  • Slovenia: bolen
  • Sweden: asp
  • Turkey: kocaagiz baligi
  • Ukraine: bilyzna
  • USA: rapfen; schied

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. aspius is classified on the IUCN Red List as a species of ‘Least concern’, though locally threatened by river engineering projects. Even though this species has been introduced into many regions within Europe for fisheries, it has struggled to establish in most areas (Marmcarz et al., 2008). Therefore, there is currently very limited information about the history of this species being introduced and the only report of the species being invasive, is that of Freyhof (2002) for the Rhine drainage basin. Although it is classified as ‘non-invasive’ on Fishbase (http://www.fishbase.org/), a risk screening of A. aspius using the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK; Copp et al., 2009) ranked the species to be of moderately high invasiveness risk (i.e. a mean FISK score of 28.6, whereby the high risk category ranges from 19 to 54). Where it has been introduced, such as in the River Murgab (Turkmenistan), Aspius aspius failed to establish successfully (Burmakin, 1963). Although not considered to be invasive, this species showed that after introduction to Lake Balkhash, almost 100% of the A. aspius diet changed to Mysidae (Malinovskaya et al., 1977).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Aspius
  •                                 Species: Aspius aspius

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A recent study of phylogenetic relationships within the Leuciscinae (Perea et al., 2010) suggests that the species A. aspius may need to be included within the Genus Leuciscus, though this change has yet to be accepted more widely (e.g. www.fishbase.org).

Description

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A. aspius has a body that is long and laterally compressed, with a long pointed snout, with a silvery colour over most of its body, with the back blackish-olive or greenish-grey. The iris is silvery, with a narrow golden circle around the pupil and a little grey pigment on the upper half. Its lips are silvery with a little grey over the upper one; however, both lips and iris are often bright red. The dorsal and caudal fins are grey and the other fins are transparent without pigment (Keith and Allardi, 2001), and the peritoneum is usually silvery to brown (Coad, 2011). The dorsal fin has 7–10 branched rays, usually 8, followed by 2–3, usually 3, unbranched rays. The anal fin has 11–15 branched rays, usually 12, followed by 3–4, usually 3, unbranched rays. The pectoral fin has 14–17 branched rays and the pelvic has 7–9 fin rays. The scales have a central focus, fine circuli and few posterior and anterior radii, with lateral line scales numbering between 64 and 76. There is also a pelvic axillary scale and a scaled keel behind the pelvic fins. The lower jaw tip projects and fits into a notch in the upper jaw. Gill rakers usually number between 9–14, and are very short and club-shaped, almost reaching half way to the raker below when appressed. Gill membranes are narrowly attached to the isthmus, almost under the posterior eye margin. The species has pharyngeal teeth usually 3,5–5,3, sometimes 2,5–5,3 or with 6 teeth in the main row. The pharyngeal teeth are elongate, compressed and obviously hooked (Coad, 2011).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
ArmeniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
AzerbaijanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
ChinaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
IranPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
KazakhstanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
PakistanPresentNativeFreyhof and Kottelat, 2008
TurkeyPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
TurkmenistanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
UzbekistanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
AndorraPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
AustriaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
BelarusPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
BelgiumLocalisedIntroduced1984 Not invasive Verreycken et al., 2007
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
BulgariaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
CroatiaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
CyprusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
Czech RepublicPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
EstoniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
FinlandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
FrancePresentIntroducedPersat, pers. comm.; Froese and Pauly, 2011
GermanyPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
GibraltarPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
GreecePresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
HungaryPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2011
LatviaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
LiechtensteinPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
LithuaniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
MacedoniaPresentNativeFreyhof and Kottelat, 2008
MaltaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
MoldovaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
MontenegroPresentNativeFreyhof and Kottelat, 2008
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
NorwayPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
PolandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
RomaniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
Russian FederationPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
SerbiaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
SlovakiaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
SloveniaPresentNativeFreyhof and Kottelat, 2008
SwedenPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011
UkrainePresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2011

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. aspius is found from the Rhine and north of the Alps in Europe to the drainages of the Black, Caspian and Aral seas including their southern shores. The main introductions of this species are due to both aquaculture and fisheries. Since the 1980s, it has been introduced in Belgium (Verreycken et al., 2007), in the Netherlands in 1984 (de Groot, 1985), and in France in 1991 (Schweyer et al., 1991; Keith and Allardi, 2001). In Germany, A. aspius was originally introduced to the Rhine, where its range has expanded, and it has sporadically been reported from the Dutch part of the River Meuse since 1984 (Crombaghs et al., 2000). First reported in the Flemish Meuse in 2002, A. aspius is occasionally captured from the river by recreational anglers (Gaethofs, 2004), with specimens as small as 100–150 mm reported, which suggests the species is now reproducing (Verreycken et al., 2007). Between 1957 and 1958, nine specimens from the Caspian Sea were accidentally introduced to Lake Balkhash (Karpevich, 1975; Davydova, 1984). In 1964, in the western part of this lake, asp fry were observed (Pivnev et al., 1972). In 1969, the first spawning migration to the river Ili was observed (Mitrofanov et al., 1987). Between 1971 and 1986, 49,000 asp specimens were introduced in the Kapchagay Reservoir on the River Ili (Isaev and Karpova, 1989). There were attempts to stock asp in China (Walker and Yang, 1999) , Italy (Bernini et al., 2005), and Belgium (Verreycken et al., 2007).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Belgium Eastern Europe 1984 Yes Froese and Pauly (2011); Verreycken et al. (2007)
China   Yes Froese and Pauly (2011) Probably established
Cyprus Czechoslovakia (former) 1990 Yes Froese and Pauly (2011) Probably established
France 1990-97 Yes Froese and Pauly (2011)
Italy   Yes Froese and Pauly (2011)
Kazakhstan 1957-58 Froese and Pauly (2011)
Netherlands Germany 1984 Yes Crombaghs et al. (2000)
Sweden 1899 Filipsson (1994)
Switzerland Germany 1994 Yes Froese and Pauly (2011)

Habitat

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A. aspius is a riverine species that inhabits main channels, side channels and backwaters (Hajdú and Kovác, 2002; Valová et al., 2006; Telcean and Cupsa, 2009). It spends the winter in deep holes, emerging in spring when rivers flood and moving to the spawning grounds. These grounds include river channels, open lake areas with substantial flow and only rarely places weakly overgrown with very coarse submerged vegetation such as reeds and rushes (Shikhshabekov, 1979).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Present, no further details Natural
 
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Present, no further details Natural
Freshwater
 
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n=50-52. The DNA analysis of this species is reported by Perea et al. (2010).

Reproductive Biology

Asp migrate upstream for spawning (Ciolac, 2004), which occurs from April to June, with about twice as many fish during mornings compared with afternoons (Kotusz et al., 2006). Spawning takes place in fast-flowing water on sandy or pebble substrate (Maitland, 1977; Križek and Vostradovsky, 2002; Fredrich, 2003; Kompowski and Neja, 2004), with Hladík and Kubecka (2004) stating that A. aspius is an obligatory tributary spawner. The eggs adhere to gravel or submerged vegetation. Optimal spawning temperature is between 8 and 10°C (Križek and Vostradovsky, 2002), though Muus (1971) reports this to be 4.5–14.5°C, with optimal hatching temperature reported to be 12.8°C (Kujawa et al., 1997). Incubation lasts for 10–15 days, with the female usually laying 58,000–500,000 eggs which are ≈1.6 mm in diameter (Berg et al., 1949; Maitland, 1977). After the eggs hatch, the larvae are 4.9–5.9 mm long (Berg et al., 1949). See also Kujawa and Kucharczyk (1994); Kucharczyk et al. (1998); Kujawa et al. (1997, 1998, 2001). Sexual maturity is reached after 4-5 years.

Physiology and Phenology

Bobák and Slechta (1988) examined the electrophoretic patterns of parvalbumins in 13 species of cyprinid fishes, including A. aspius, and the patterns are species-specific, with species within the same subfamilies usually having similar distribution of parvalbumin components II, III, IV and V. Molecular and morphological data suggest that Aspius might have to be included in the genus Leuciscus (Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007).

Nutrition

The asp is the only piscivorous species in the family Cyprinidae. In its early juvenile phase feeds on crustaceans, bottom fauna, terrestrial insects that have fallen into the water, and fish larvae (Maitland, 1977). The most important food item for adults is bleak Alburnus alburnus, followed by roach Rutilus rutilus, and goldfish Carassius auratus; older asp are also able to handle fish not easily caught by younger asp due to the presence of spines, such as perch Perca fluviatilis, ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, and monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, or of a deep body, such as ide Leuciscus idus (Krpo-Cetkovic et al., 2010). The asp also feeds on Osmerus eperlanus, Gasterosteus sp., Gobio gobio, Leuciscus cephalus, Chondrostoma nasus, and Leucaspius delineatus (Trzebiatowski & Leszczewicz, 1976). Further comments on the food items consumed by A. aspius can be found in Kottelat and Freyhof (2007). Their growth and survival under controlled conditions have been examined (Zarski et al., 2008), and studies of gut morphology (Junger et al., 1989) revealed that A. aspius has smooth surface folding in its intestinal bulb, which is only loosely related to feeding.

Associations

Molnár and Jalali (1992) record the monogenean Dactylogyrus tuba from this species in the Sefid-Rud (Iran). Masoumian et al. (2005) report the protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. from this species in the Aras Dam in West Azerbaijan. Masoumian et al. (2002) investigated parasites from this fish in the Aras and Mahabad dams in northwest Iran and found the protozoan Myxobolus dispar. Sattari (2004) records the presence of the nematode, Eustrongylides excisus, in the body cavity. Sattari et al. (2002, 2004, 2005) and Sattari (2004) records the presence of the nematode, Eustrongylides excisus. Pazooki et al. (2007) recorded various parasites from localities in West Azerbaijan Province, including Argulus foliaceus from this species.

Environmental Requirements

Temperate; 4°C–20°C, 66°N–35°N, 3°E–72°E (Baensch and Riehl, 1991).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Esox lucius Predator All Stages not specific
Phoca caspica Predator All Stages not specific
Sander lucioperca Predator All Stages not specific
Silurus glanis Predator All Stages not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Young of the year are washed downstream by water as drift (Reichard et al., 2001), adults are naturally dispersed through migration.

Intentional Introduction

Introduced for angling as well as through the aquaculture industry.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes Yes
Fisheries Yes Yes
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Hunting, angling, sport or racing Yes Yes
Interconnected waterways Yes
Stocking Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes
Water Yes Yes

Economic Impact

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A. aspius is mainly used for sports fisheries, so there is an economic benefit for individual fishermen as well as the creation of jobs in the aquacutlure industry; this fish is also taken in Iran as food but comprises only a small portion of the catch.

Environmental Impact

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A. aspius was intentionally introduced for aquaculture and sport fisheries beginning in the late twentieth century. This species has a relatively short history of introductions, and there is little evidence of adverse impacts in the receiving waters, though numerous impacts on fish populations have been suggested (see Coad, 2011) for the regions where it has been introduced. Kottelat and Freyhof (2007) mention that the asp regularly hybridises with the ide Leuciscus idus.

Social Impact

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In addition to its value for individual fishermen, recreational fishing and tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating, canoeing, etc; all of which may provide economic opportunities locally.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Detection and Inspection

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This is the only species of Aspius in Europe, and is also one of the rare cyprinids which is a piscivore. For more information on identification see section on Description.

Prevention and Control

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No specific information available, but general principles are given in Britton et al. (2010). For chemical control rotenone is assumed to be effective and telemetry is expected to be useful for surveillance

References

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Baensch HA; Riehl R, 1991. Aquarian atlas. Bd. 3. Melle, Germany: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, 1104 pp.

Berg LS; Bogdanov AS; Kozin NI; Rass TS, 1949. [Commercial fishes of the USSR]. Moskva, Russia: Piscepromizdat, 788 pp.

Bernini F; Nardi PA; Razzetti E; Soria P; Strosselli S, 2005. Additional data about the introduction of fish species in natural habitats of the Province of Pavia. In: Biological Invasions in Inland Waters, an International Workshop, Firenze, Italy, 5-7 May 2005.

Bobák P; Slechta V, 1988. Comparison of parvalbumin of some species of family Cyprinidae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 91B:697-699.

Britton JR; Gozlan RE; Copp GH, 2011. Managing non-native fish in the environment. Fish and Fisheries, 12(3):256-274. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-2979

Burmakin EV, 1963. [English title not available]. (Akklimatizatsiya presnovodnykh ryb v SSSR.) Izvestia Gos-NIORKh, 53:1-318.

Ciolac A, 2004. Migration of fishes in Romanian Danube River. Applied Ecology & Environmental Research, 2:143-163.

Coad BW, 2011. Website of the ichthyologist Brian W. Coad. http://www.briancoad.com

Copp GH; Vilizzi L; Mumford J; Fenwick GV; Godard MJ; Gozlan RE, 2009. Calibration of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for nonnative freshwater fishes. Risk Analysis, 29(3):457-467. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/risk

Crombaghs BHJM; Akkermans RW; Gubbels REMB; Hoogerwerf G, 2000. Vissen in Limburgse beken. De verspreiding en ecologie van vissen in stromende wateren in Limburg (Vissen in Limburgse beken. De verspreiding en ecologie van vissen in stromende wateren in Limburg). Maastricht, The Netherlands: Stichting Natuurpublicaties Limburg.

Davydova AI, 1984. Ozero Balkhash. In: Prirodnye resursy bolshikh ozer SSSR i veroyatnye ikh izmeneniya [ed. by Alekin, O. A.]. Leningrad, Russia: Izd. Nauka.

Filipsson O, 1994. [English title not available]. (Nya fiskbestand genom inplanteringar eller spridning av fisk.) Inf. Sötvattenslab, 2:1-65.

Fredrich F, 2003. Long-term investigations of migratory behaviour of asp (Aspius aspius L.) in the middle part of the Elbe River, Germany. J. Appl. Ichthyol, 19:294-302.

Freyhof J, 2002. Freshwater fish diversity in Germany, threats and species extinction. In: Conservation of Freshwater Fishes: Options for the Future [ed. by Collares-Pereira, M. \Cowx, I. \Coelho, M.]. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 3-22.

Freyhof J; Kottelat M, 2008. Aspius aspius. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4 [ed. by I. U. C. N.]. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2011. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Gaethofs T, 2004. [English title not available]. (Invasie van de roofblei (Aspius aspius) in de Grensmaas.) Natuurhistorisch Maandblad, 93:210-214.

Greenhalgh M, 1999. Freshwater Fish. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley.

Groot SJde, 1985. Introductions of non-indigenous fish species for release and culture in the Netherlands. Aquaculture, 46:237-257.

Hajdú J; Kovác V, 2002. Fishfauna of several water bodies in the Large Danube Island area. Folia faunistica Slovaca, 7:75-81.

Hladík M; Kubecka J, 2004. The effect of water level fluctuation on tributary spawning migration of reservoir fish. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 4:449-457.

Isaev AI; Karpova EI, 1989. [English title not available]. (Rybnoe khozyaistvo vodokhranilishch.) Rybnoe khozyaistvo vodokhranilishch. Moskva, Russia: Izd. Agropromizdat.

Junger H; Kotrschal K; Goldschmid A, 1989. Comparative morphology and ecomorphology of the gut in European cyprinids (Telostei). Journal of Fish Biology, 34(2):315-326.

Karpevich AF, 1975. [English title not available]. (Teoriya i praktika akklimatizatsii vodnykh organizmov.) Teoriya i praktika akklimatizatsii vodnykh organizmov. Moskva, Russia: Izd. Pishchevaya Promyshlennost.

Keith P; Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des poissons d’eau douce de France. Patrimoines naturels, 47. Paris, France: MNHN, 387 pp.

Khara H; Sattari M; Nezami Sh; Mirhasheminasab SF; Mousavi SA; Taati R; Tatina M, 2004. Parasites of Intestine of some Economic Fishes in Boojagh Lagoon. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 15(2):9-18.

Kompowski A; Neja Z, 2004. Fecundity of the asp Aspius aspius (L., 1758) from Miedzyodrze waters. Bull. Sea Fish. Inst. Gdynia, 3:23-30.

Kottelat M; Freyhof J, 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Cornol, Switzerland: Publications Kottelat, 646 pp.

Kotusz J; Witkowski A; Baran M; Blachuta J, 2006. Fish migrations in a large lowland river (Odra R., Poland) - based on fish pass observations. Folia Zoologica, 55:386-398.

Križek J; Vostradovsky J, 2002. Population dynamics of the rapacious carp (Aspius aspius L.) in the Zelivka Reservoir in 1972-1992. In: 4th International Conference on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality, Ceske´ Budejovice, Czech Republic. 180-182.

Krpo-Cetkovic J; Hegedis A; Lenhardt M, 2010. Diet and growth of asp, Aspius aspius (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Danube River near the confluence with the Sava River (Serbia). J. Appl. Ichthyol, 26:513-521.

Kucharczyk D; Kujawa R; Mamcarz A; Skrzypczak A; Wyszomirska E, 1998. Reproduction of asp (Aspius aspius L.), ide (Leuciscus idus L.), and chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) under controlled conditions outside of the natural spawning season . In: Rheophilic cyprinid fish [ed. by Jakucewicz, H. \Wojda, R.]. Warszawa, Poland: PZW, 57-64.

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Contributors

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10/10/11 Original text by:

Gordon Copp, CEFAS, Salmon and Freshwater Team, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK

Michael Godard, Consultant, UK

Reviewers' names are available on request.

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