Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bassia hyssopifolia
(fivehook bassia)

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Datasheet

Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bassia hyssopifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fivehook bassia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. hyssopifolia is an annual herb mostly found in arid and semi-arid habitats. It is native to Eurasia but has been introduced to North America, South America, Hawaii, Australia and parts of Europe. Th...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kakahaia, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kakahaia, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kakahaia, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
HabitBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kakahaia, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
TitleHabit
CaptionBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
HabitBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit, showing leaves. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
TitleHabit
CaptionBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit, showing leaves. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit, showing leaves. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.
HabitBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); habit, showing leaves. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2002.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); seedling. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
TitleSeedling
CaptionBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); seedling. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); seedling. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
SeedlingBassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia); seedling. Kawela Bridge, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • fivehook bassia

Other Scientific Names

  • Bassia hyssopifolia subsp. reuteriana (Boiss.) O.Bolòs & Font Quer
  • Bassia reuteriana (Boiss.) Gurke.
  • Chenopodium augustanum Moq.
  • Chenopodium lanuginosum Moench
  • Chenopodium villosum Lam.
  • Echinopsilon hyssopifolium (Pall.) Moq.
  • Kochia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Schrad.
  • Salsola hyssopifolia Pall.
  • Suaeda hyssopifolia (Pall.) Pall.
  • Suaeda hyssopifolia (Pall.) Pall.

International Common Names

  • English: five horn bassia; five-hooked brassia; fivehorn smotherweed; hyssop bassia; thorn orache
  • Spanish: falsa morenita
  • Chinese: gou ci wu bing li

Local Common Names

  • Estonia: lisop-puhmikmalts
  • Germany: ysop-Radmelde
  • Italy: granata irsuta
  • Lithuania: siauralape basija

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. hyssopifolia is an annual herb mostly found in arid and semi-arid habitats. It is native to Eurasia but has been introduced to North America, South America, Hawaii, Australia and parts of Europe. The species can become dominant on alkaline soils where there is little competition from other plant species. It is especially problematic in the southwestern USA, where it is toxic to some livestock, and is readily dispersed as the hooks on ripened fruit attach to animal fur, and it has proven to be a threat to some endangered plant and animal species in the USA.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Chenopodiaceae
  •                             Genus: Bassia
  •                                 Species: Bassia hyssopifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Bassia hyssopifolia was described by Pallas in 1771 as Salsola hyssopifolia. The type specimen was from the Ural River (Russia). It was transferred to the genus Bassia in 1891 by Kuntze. This combination was also made in 1893 by Volkart, but is illegitimate because of Kuntze’s earlier combination (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). Bassia reuteriana is treated as conspecific with B. hyssopifolia by Kadereit and Freitag (2011).

The genus Bassia is a member of the tribe Camphorosmeae within the Chenopodiaceae (Kadereit and Freitag, 2011). The genus has about 21 species (Judd and Ferguson, 1999). The similar genus Kochia has been treated as a member of Bassia by some authors, e.g. Scott (1978) and Kadereit and Freitag (2011).

Many synonyms exist for B. hyssopifolia, including B. hyssopifolia subsp. reuteriana and Chenopodium and Suaeda species (The Plant List, 2013). 

Description

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The following has been adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016) and Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016).

Annual herb to 1 m. Stems divaricately branched or simple, densely lanate-villous, especially when young. Leaves villous; sessile; blade lanceolate-elliptic, oblanceolate, to linear, flat; base cuneate, apex acute or obtuse; 0.8-2.5 cm × 1-3 mm. Inflorescences a dense spike. Flowers in 203 flowered glomerules. Perianth 5-lobed, reflexed, with a hooked spine adaxially at maturity. 

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The native range of B. hyssopifolia includes Ukraine, the Transcaucasus and Syria, western and southern Russia, and east to Mongolia and northwestern China (Gudžinskas and Sukhorukov, 2004; Euro+Med, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).     

The introduced range of B. hyssopifolia includes North America, South America, Hawaii, Australia, and parts of Europe. In North America it has been found in western Canada and in 19 US states, mainly in the west, and Mexico. It also occurs in Hawaii on Maui and Molokai. In South America it is known from Argentina. In Australia it is restricted to New South Wales and Victoria (AVH, 2016). B. hyssopifolia has spread westward in Europe from its natural range. It has been found in at least eight countries, including Spain, France, Italy, Greece (on Crete), Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, and Estonia. It has also been introduced to the Canary Islands. It has been reported from northern Africa but documentation of this has not been seen. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeKomarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016
AzerbaijanPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Zhangye
-XinjiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
IranPresentNativeKomarov et al., 1970; Scott, 1978; Akhani and Khoshravesh, 2013
KazakhstanPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
LebanonPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
MongoliaPresentNativeKomarov et al., 1970; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan, 2016
SyriaPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
UzbekistanPresentNativeKadereit and Freitag, 2011

Africa

EthiopiaAbsent, unreliable recordFlora of Pakistan, 2016
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-GeorgiaPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedWester, 1992; Wagner et al., 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IdahoPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-MontanaPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-NevadaPresentIntroducedBlake, 1922; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedSnyder, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-TexasPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-UtahPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-WyomingPresentIntroducedCollins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedAnton and Zuloaga, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ChilePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

Europe

EstoniaPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
FrancePresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
GreecePresentIntroducedGreuter and Raus, 2001; D'Agata et al., 2009; Euro+Med, 2016Crete
ItalyEradicatedIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016Extirpated
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedGudzinskas and Sukhorukov, 2004; Euro+Med, 2016
MoldovaPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
PolandPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
Russian FederationPresentNativeKomarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016
-Central RussiaPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
SpainPresentNativeEuro+Med, 2016
SwedenPresentIntroducedEuro+Med, 2016
UkrainePresentNativeKomarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedAVH, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedby 1974AVH, 2016
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedby 1951AVH, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. hyssopifolia was introduced to North America in the early 1900s. The earliest specimens are from Nevada where it was found in 1917 (Blake, 1922; Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). It was hypothesized by Collins and Blackwell Jr. (1979) to have been introduced to Nevada rangelands as a seed contaminant from Eurasia. It may have been introduced with Turkistan alfalfa seed (Holzner and Numata, 2013). Sauer (1988) speculates further that it may have been introduced to California indirectly as a contaminant in alfalfa seed from Argentina. It subsequently spread to most of the western states by 1959. In the eastern USA the first population was found in Massachusetts in the 1930s (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). One colony found in 1937 in Massachusetts was associated with waste from a wool combing facility (Bean, 1937). It has recently been found in Mexico, collected in Baja California Sur in 2005 (FNM, 2016).

B. hyssopifolia was found on the island of Maui in Hawaii in 1983 (Wester, 1992) and the island of Molokai by 2002 (Wagner et al., 2012). In Australia the first record is from 1951 at Red Cliffs, Victoria (AVH, 2016). The species has also been introduced to Argentina and Chile (Anton and Zuloaga, 2016) but the introduction date is unknown.

B. hyssopifolia has spread westward in Europe from its natural range. It has been found in at least eight countries, including Spain, France, Italy, Greece (on Crete), Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, and Estonia. The date range of this expansion is uncertain, but it is continuing. The species was found in Greece on Crete in 1999 (Greuter and Raus, 2001). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina   Yes No Anton and Zuloaga (2016)
Australia 1951 Yes No AVH (2016)
Canada   Yes No Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
Canary Islands   No No Euro+Med (2016)
Chile   Yes No Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
Estonia   No No Euro+Med (2016)
France   No No Euro+Med (2016)
Greece 1999 No No Greuter and Raus (2001)
Italy   No No Euro+Med (2016)
Lithuania by 1965 Yes No Gudzinskas and Sukhorukov (2004)
Poland   No No Euro+Med (2016)
Spain   No No Euro+Med (2016)
Sweden   No No Euro+Med (2016)
USA 1915 Yes No Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)

Risk of Introduction

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There is a high risk of dispersal as a contaminant of seed and wool and as a hitchhiker on livestock. 

Habitat

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B. hyssopifolia is most commonly a species of dry, alkaline or saline soils, particularly in disturbed areas such as roadsides and fields. It may also occupy solonchaks, dunes, salt flats, and riparian zones (Komarov et al., 1970; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). In California, it now occurs as part of the spiny salt bush association (Holzner and Numata, 2013) and in riparian areas in the Sonoran desert in the southwestern USA (Van Devender et al., 1997). Mata-González et al. (2012) found a negative correlation with perennial cover, indicating that it favours sites with low diversity, occupying habitats with little competition.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details
Deserts Present, no further details
Arid regions Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Coastal dunes Present, no further details
Salt marshes Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

B. hyssopifolia has a chromosome number of 2n=18 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). Kadereit and Freitag (2011) and Akhani and Khoshravesh (2013) found B. hyssopifolia to be in a clade with Bassia scoparia, Bassia indica and Bassia angustifolia.

Reproductive Biology

B. hyssopifolia is probably partly insect pollinated and also wind pollinated. The coloured anthers may attract insects (Judd and Ferguson, 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

This species flowers from late summer through fall (Komarov et al., 1970; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Longevity

B. hyssopifolia is an annual (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Bruns (1965) found that seeds do not survive in water for extended periods.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • sodic

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aceria salsolae Herbivore not specific N
Cosmobaris scolopacea Herbivore not specific N
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Pathogen not specific N
Halodiplosis bassiae Herbivore not specific N
Lygus lineolaris Herbivore not specific N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Few natural enemies have been reported for B. hyssopifolia. The leafhopper Lygus lineolaris has been documented on the species in Arizona and California (Young, 1986). In tests for biocontrol agents for Salsola tragusCristofaro et al. (2013) found that the weevil Cosmobaris scolopacea will feed on B. hyssopifolia to a minor extent. Smith et al. (2009) in a test for biocontrol of Salsola species found that the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae had a very low preference for B. hyssopifolia. A. salsolae has also been documented on B. hyssopifolia in Iran (Xue et al., 2013). Three gall-making flies in the family Cecidomyiidae have been found on B. hyssopifolia in Turkmenistan: Halodiplosis bassiae, Izeniola bassiae, and Stefaniola bassiagemmae (Gagné and Jaschhof, 2010). B. hyssopifolia is also a host for Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Wintermantel et al., 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Kelley and Bruns (1975) found that 42% of seeds collected in irrigation ditches germinated, indicating that water may play a role in dispersal.

Vector Transmission 

B. hyssopifolia is adapted to animal dispersal. The sepals persist around ripened fruit and are hooked. These hooks attach to the fur of wildlife and livestock, and to clothing (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979; Judd and Ferguson, 1999). 

Accidental Introduction

B. hyssopifolia has been transported outside of its natural range by at least two vectors. Populations in the southwestern USA are thought to have been introduced with contaminated seed, possibly alfalfa (Sauer, 1988; Holzner and Numata, 2013). In the northeastern USA at least one early population was associated with wool combing waste (Bean, 1937).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Disturbance Yes
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Harvesting fur, wool or hair Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Livestock Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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There has been little published about the economic impacts of B. hysspoifolia invasions. James et al. (1976) found that the species is toxic to sheep. It is not eaten by livestock in its native range (Komarov et al., 1970). Invasions may reduce quality of rangelands, particularly in the southwestern USA.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

While many populations occur in disturbed soils, B. hyssopifolia is also an invader of undisturbed habitats, including salt flats and riparian areas. It is one of the most serious exotic plant introductions in the Sonoran desert area (Van Devender et al., 1997), and because it can invade areas that are sparsely vegetated it can dramatically change habitat structure.

Impact on Biodiversity

Its ability to dramatically change habitat structure means that it is a threat to native plant and animal species, including endangered species. In central California (USA), the species can invade habitats, including barren disturbed land that are habitat for the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). When B. hyssopifolia invades it changes habitat structure that increases predation of the fox by coyotes (USFWS, 2010). B. hyssopifolia is also a threat to the narrow endemic Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata (USFWS, 2011). This perennial herb is endemic to Nye County, Nevada (USA), so the threat posed by Bassia and other invasive species is acute.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata (Ash Meadows sunray)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUSA; California; NevadaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011
Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSA; CaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007
Zeltnera namophilaNo DetailsCalifornia; NevadaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009

Social Impact

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The pollen of this species may be an allergen (Judd and Ferguson, 1999).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. hyssopifolia is similar to the closely related Bassia scoparia. However, this latter species lacks the spine-tipped sepals of B. hyssopifolia. The species is also similar to Salsola iberica, which differs in having spine-tipped leaves (Hoshovsky, 2003).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

B. hyssopifolia plants can be hand pulled, especially when soil is moist, or by hand hoeing. This is most effective with smaller colonies. Larger colonies may be controlled with mowers or string trimmers (Hoshovsky, 2003; DiTomaso, 2013).

Biological Control

There is no biological control for B. hyssopifolia (DiTomaso, 2013).

Chemical Control

B. hyssopifolia can be treated with a wide range of herbicides. While little data is available specifically for this species, managers should follow published recommendations for the similar Bassia scoparia. Herbicides that are recommended include dicamba, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, chlorosulfuron, imazapic, imazapyr, and metsulfuron (DiTomaso, 2013). 

References

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Akhani H, Khoshravesh R, 2013. The relationship and different C4 Kranz anatomy of Bassia eriantha and Bassia eriophora, two often confused Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Sindian species. Phytotaxa, 93(1):1-24.

Anton A, Zuloaga F, 2016. Flora Argentina. http://www.floraargentina.edu.ar/

AVH, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. http://avh.ala.org.au/

Bean RC, 1937. Two rare weeds. Rhodora, 39(462):208-209.

Blake SF, 1922. Two new western weeds. Science, 55:455-456.

Bruns VF, 1965. The effects of fresh water storage on the germination of certain weed seeds. Weeds, 13(1):38-40.

Collins SL, Blackwell WH, 1979. Bassia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida, 8(1):57-64.

Cristofaro M, Lecce F, Paolini A, Cristina Fdi, Bon MC, Colonnelli E, Smith L, 2013. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae). In: Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11-16 September, 2011 [ed. by Wu, Y.\Johnson, T.\Sing, S.\Raghu, S.\Wheeler, G.\Pratt, P.\Warner, K.\Center, T.\Goolsby, J.\Reardon, R.]. Hilo, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 20-25.

D'Agata CDC, Skoula M, Brundu G, 2009. A preliminary inventory of the alien flora of Crete (Greece). Bocconea, 23:301-315.

Devender TRVan, Felger RS, Burquez A, 1997. Proceedings of the California exotic pest plant council symposium, Exotic plants in the Sonoran Desert region, Arizona and Sonora. 6 pp.

DiTomaso JM, 2013. Weed control in natural areas in the Western United States. California, USA: University of California Weed Research and Information Center, 544 pp.

Euro+Med, 2016. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

FNM, 2016. Flora del noroeste de Mexico Red de Herbarios del noroeste de Mexico. http://www.herbanwmex.net/portal/index.php

Gagne RJ, Jaschhof M, 2010. A catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world. Washington, USA: Entomological Society of Washington, 544 pp.

Greuter W, Raus T, 2001. Med-Checklist Notulae, 20. Willdenowia, 31(2):319-328.

Gudzinskas Z, Sukhorukov AP, 2004. New and critical Chenopodiaceae taxa in Lithuania and Kaliningrad Region. Botanica Lithuanica, 10(1):3-12.

Holzner W, Numata M, 2013. Biology and ecology of weeds. New York, USA: Springer Science & Business Media, 311 pp.

Hoshovsky MC, 2003. Element Stewardship Abtract for Bassia hyssopifolia. Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy, 7 pp.

James LF, Williams MC, Bleak AT, 1976. Toxicity of Bassia hyssopifolia to sheep. Journal of Range Management, 29(4):284-285.

Judd WS, Ferguson IK, 1999. The genera of Chenopodiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany, 4(2):365-416.

Kadereit G, Freitag H, 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): implications for biogeography, evolution of C -photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon, 60(1):51-78.

Kelley AD, Bruns VF, 1975. Dissemination of weed seeds by irrigation water. Weed Science, 26(3):486-493.

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20/06/16 Original text by: 

Keith Bradley, Consultant, South Carolina, USA

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