Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze
Preferred Common Name
- fivehook bassia
Other Scientific Names
- Bassia hyssopifolia subsp. reuteriana (Boiss.) O.Bolòs & Font Quer
- Bassia reuteriana (Boiss.) Gurke.
- Chenopodium augustanum Moq.
- Chenopodium lanuginosum Moench
- Chenopodium villosum Lam.
- Echinopsilon hyssopifolium (Pall.) Moq.
- Kochia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Schrad.
- Salsola hyssopifolia Pall.
- Suaeda hyssopifolia (Pall.) Pall.
- Suaeda hyssopifolia (Pall.) Pall.
International Common Names
- English: five horn bassia; five-hooked brassia; fivehorn smotherweed; hyssop bassia; thorn orache
- Spanish: falsa morenita
- Chinese: gou ci wu bing li
Local Common Names
- Estonia: lisop-puhmikmalts
- Germany: ysop-Radmelde
- Italy: granata irsuta
- Lithuania: siauralape basija
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
B. hyssopifolia is an annual herb mostly found in arid and semi-arid habitats. It is native to Eurasia but has been introduced to North America, South America, Hawaii, Australia and parts of Europe. The species can become dominant on alkaline soils where there is little competition from other plant species. It is especially problematic in the southwestern USA, where it is toxic to some livestock, and is readily dispersed as the hooks on ripened fruit attach to animal fur, and it has proven to be a threat to some endangered plant and animal species in the USA.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Caryophyllales
- Family: Chenopodiaceae
- Genus: Bassia
- Species: Bassia hyssopifolia
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Bassia hyssopifolia was described by Pallas in 1771 as Salsola hyssopifolia. The type specimen was from the Ural River (Russia). It was transferred to the genus Bassia in 1891 by Kuntze. This combination was also made in 1893 by Volkart, but is illegitimate because of Kuntze’s earlier combination (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). Bassia reuteriana is treated as conspecific with B. hyssopifolia by Kadereit and Freitag (2011).
The genus Bassia is a member of the tribe Camphorosmeae within the Chenopodiaceae (Kadereit and Freitag, 2011). The genus has about 21 species (Judd and Ferguson, 1999). The similar genus Kochia has been treated as a member of Bassia by some authors, e.g. Scott (1978) and Kadereit and Freitag (2011).
Many synonyms exist for B. hyssopifolia, including B. hyssopifolia subsp. reuteriana and Chenopodium and Suaeda species (The Plant List, 2013).
DescriptionTop of page
The following has been adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016) and Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016).
Annual herb to 1 m. Stems divaricately branched or simple, densely lanate-villous, especially when young. Leaves villous; sessile; blade lanceolate-elliptic, oblanceolate, to linear, flat; base cuneate, apex acute or obtuse; 0.8-2.5 cm × 1-3 mm. Inflorescences a dense spike. Flowers in 203 flowered glomerules. Perianth 5-lobed, reflexed, with a hooked spine adaxially at maturity.
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
DistributionTop of page
The native range of B. hyssopifolia includes Ukraine, the Transcaucasus and Syria, western and southern Russia, and east to Mongolia and northwestern China (Gudžinskas and Sukhorukov, 2004; Euro+Med, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).
The introduced range of B. hyssopifolia includes North America, South America, Hawaii, Australia, and parts of Europe. In North America it has been found in western Canada and in 19 US states, mainly in the west, and Mexico. It also occurs in Hawaii on Maui and Molokai. In South America it is known from Argentina. In Australia it is restricted to New South Wales and Victoria (AVH, 2016). B. hyssopifolia has spread westward in Europe from its natural range. It has been found in at least eight countries, including Spain, France, Italy, Greece (on Crete), Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, and Estonia. It has also been introduced to the Canary Islands. It has been reported from northern Africa but documentation of this has not been seen.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Armenia||Present||Native||Komarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016|
|China||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016|
|-Gansu||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016||Zhangye|
|-Xinjiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016|
|Georgia (Republic of)||Present||Native||Euro+Med, 2016|
|Iran||Present||Native||Komarov et al., 1970; Scott, 1978; Akhani and Khoshravesh, 2013|
|Mongolia||Present||Native||Komarov et al., 1970; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016|
|Pakistan||Present||Native||Flora of Pakistan, 2016|
|Uzbekistan||Present||Native||Kadereit and Freitag, 2011|
|Ethiopia||Absent, unreliable record||Flora of Pakistan, 2016|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Introduced||Euro+Med, 2016|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Arizona||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Colorado||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Wester, 1992; Wagner et al., 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Idaho||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Montana||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Nevada||Present||Introduced||Blake, 1922; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Snyder, 1987; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Utah||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|-Wyoming||Present||Introduced||Collins and Blackwell, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2016|
|Argentina||Present||Introduced||Anton and Zuloaga, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016|
|Greece||Present||Introduced||Greuter and Raus, 2001; D'Agata et al., 2009; Euro+Med, 2016||Crete|
|Lithuania||Present||Introduced||Gudzinskas and Sukhorukov, 2004; Euro+Med, 2016|
|Russian Federation||Present||Native||Komarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016|
|-Central Russia||Present||Native||Euro+Med, 2016|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Native||Euro+Med, 2016|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Komarov et al., 1970; Euro+Med, 2016|
|Australia||Present||Introduced||AVH, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||by 1974||AVH, 2016|
|-Victoria||Present||Introduced||by 1951||AVH, 2016|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
B. hyssopifolia was introduced to North America in the early 1900s. The earliest specimens are from Nevada where it was found in 1917 (Blake, 1922; Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). It was hypothesized by Collins and Blackwell Jr. (1979) to have been introduced to Nevada rangelands as a seed contaminant from Eurasia. It may have been introduced with Turkistan alfalfa seed (Holzner and Numata, 2013). Sauer (1988) speculates further that it may have been introduced to California indirectly as a contaminant in alfalfa seed from Argentina. It subsequently spread to most of the western states by 1959. In the eastern USA the first population was found in Massachusetts in the 1930s (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979). One colony found in 1937 in Massachusetts was associated with waste from a wool combing facility (Bean, 1937). It has recently been found in Mexico, collected in Baja California Sur in 2005 (FNM, 2016).
B. hyssopifolia was found on the island of Maui in Hawaii in 1983 (Wester, 1992) and the island of Molokai by 2002 (Wagner et al., 2012). In Australia the first record is from 1951 at Red Cliffs, Victoria (AVH, 2016). The species has also been introduced to Argentina and Chile (Anton and Zuloaga, 2016) but the introduction date is unknown.
B. hyssopifolia has spread westward in Europe from its natural range. It has been found in at least eight countries, including Spain, France, Italy, Greece (on Crete), Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, and Estonia. The date range of this expansion is uncertain, but it is continuing. The species was found in Greece on Crete in 1999 (Greuter and Raus, 2001).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Argentina||Yes||No||Anton and Zuloaga (2016)|
|Canada||Yes||No||Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)|
|Canary Islands||No||No||Euro+Med (2016)|
|Chile||Yes||No||Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)|
|Greece||1999||No||No||Greuter and Raus (2001)|
|Lithuania||by 1965||Yes||No||Gudzinskas and Sukhorukov (2004)|
|USA||1915||Yes||No||Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
There is a high risk of dispersal as a contaminant of seed and wool and as a hitchhiker on livestock.
HabitatTop of page
B. hyssopifolia is most commonly a species of dry, alkaline or saline soils, particularly in disturbed areas such as roadsides and fields. It may also occupy solonchaks, dunes, salt flats, and riparian zones (Komarov et al., 1970; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). In California, it now occurs as part of the spiny salt bush association (Holzner and Numata, 2013) and in riparian areas in the Sonoran desert in the southwestern USA (Van Devender et al., 1997). Mata-González et al. (2012) found a negative correlation with perennial cover, indicating that it favours sites with low diversity, occupying habitats with little competition.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details|
|Scrub / shrublands||Present, no further details|
|Deserts||Present, no further details|
|Arid regions||Present, no further details|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details|
|Coastal dunes||Present, no further details|
|Salt marshes||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
B. hyssopifolia has a chromosome number of 2n=18 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). Kadereit and Freitag (2011) and Akhani and Khoshravesh (2013) found B. hyssopifolia to be in a clade with Bassia scoparia, Bassia indica and Bassia angustifolia.
B. hyssopifolia is probably partly insect pollinated and also wind pollinated. The coloured anthers may attract insects (Judd and Ferguson, 1999).
Physiology and Phenology
B. hyssopifolia is an annual (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).
Bruns (1965) found that seeds do not survive in water for extended periods.
ClimateTop of page
|BW - Desert climate||Tolerated||< 430mm annual precipitation|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Aceria salsolae||Herbivore||not specific||N|
|Cosmobaris scolopacea||Herbivore||not specific||N|
|Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus||Pathogen||not specific||N|
|Halodiplosis bassiae||Herbivore||not specific||N|
|Lygus lineolaris||Herbivore||not specific||N|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Few natural enemies have been reported for B. hyssopifolia. The leafhopper Lygus lineolaris has been documented on the species in Arizona and California (Young, 1986). In tests for biocontrol agents for Salsola tragusCristofaro et al. (2013) found that the weevil Cosmobaris scolopacea will feed on B. hyssopifolia to a minor extent. Smith et al. (2009) in a test for biocontrol of Salsola species found that the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae had a very low preference for B. hyssopifolia. A. salsolae has also been documented on B. hyssopifolia in Iran (Xue et al., 2013). Three gall-making flies in the family Cecidomyiidae have been found on B. hyssopifolia in Turkmenistan: Halodiplosis bassiae, Izeniola bassiae, and Stefaniola bassiagemmae (Gagné and Jaschhof, 2010). B. hyssopifolia is also a host for Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Wintermantel et al., 2009).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Kelley and Bruns (1975) found that 42% of seeds collected in irrigation ditches germinated, indicating that water may play a role in dispersal.
B. hyssopifolia is adapted to animal dispersal. The sepals persist around ripened fruit and are hooked. These hooks attach to the fur of wildlife and livestock, and to clothing (Collins and Blackwell Jr, 1979; Judd and Ferguson, 1999).
B. hyssopifolia has been transported outside of its natural range by at least two vectors. Populations in the southwestern USA are thought to have been introduced with contaminated seed, possibly alfalfa (Sauer, 1988; Holzner and Numata, 2013). In the northeastern USA at least one early population was associated with wool combing waste (Bean, 1937).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
There has been little published about the economic impacts of B. hysspoifolia invasions. James et al. (1976) found that the species is toxic to sheep. It is not eaten by livestock in its native range (Komarov et al., 1970). Invasions may reduce quality of rangelands, particularly in the southwestern USA.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
While many populations occur in disturbed soils, B. hyssopifolia is also an invader of undisturbed habitats, including salt flats and riparian areas. It is one of the most serious exotic plant introductions in the Sonoran desert area (Van Devender et al., 1997), and because it can invade areas that are sparsely vegetated it can dramatically change habitat structure.
Impact on Biodiversity
Its ability to dramatically change habitat structure means that it is a threat to native plant and animal species, including endangered species. In central California (USA), the species can invade habitats, including barren disturbed land that are habitat for the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). When B. hyssopifolia invades it changes habitat structure that increases predation of the fox by coyotes (USFWS, 2010). B. hyssopifolia is also a threat to the narrow endemic Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata (USFWS, 2011). This perennial herb is endemic to Nye County, Nevada (USA), so the threat posed by Bassia and other invasive species is acute.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata (Ash Meadows sunray)||USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||USA; California; Nevada||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011|
|Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)||USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||USA; California||Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010|
|Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||California; Nevada||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007|
|Zeltnera namophila||No Details||California; Nevada||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Damages animal/plant products
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
B. hyssopifolia is similar to the closely related Bassia scoparia. However, this latter species lacks the spine-tipped sepals of B. hyssopifolia. The species is also similar to Salsola iberica, which differs in having spine-tipped leaves (Hoshovsky, 2003).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
B. hyssopifolia plants can be hand pulled, especially when soil is moist, or by hand hoeing. This is most effective with smaller colonies. Larger colonies may be controlled with mowers or string trimmers (Hoshovsky, 2003; DiTomaso, 2013).
There is no biological control for B. hyssopifolia (DiTomaso, 2013).
B. hyssopifolia can be treated with a wide range of herbicides. While little data is available specifically for this species, managers should follow published recommendations for the similar Bassia scoparia. Herbicides that are recommended include dicamba, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, chlorosulfuron, imazapic, imazapyr, and metsulfuron (DiTomaso, 2013).
ReferencesTop of page
Akhani H, Khoshravesh R, 2013. The relationship and different C4 Kranz anatomy of Bassia eriantha and Bassia eriophora, two often confused Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Sindian species. Phytotaxa, 93(1):1-24.
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Blake SF, 1922. Two new western weeds. Science, 55:455-456.
Cristofaro M, Lecce F, Paolini A, Cristina Fdi, Bon MC, Colonnelli E, Smith L, 2013. Host specificity of an Italian population of Cosmobaris scolopacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), candidate for the biological control of Salsola tragus (Chenopodiaceae). In: Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 11-16 September, 2011 [ed. by Wu, Y.\Johnson, T.\Sing, S.\Raghu, S.\Wheeler, G.\Pratt, P.\Warner, K.\Center, T.\Goolsby, J.\Reardon, R.]. Hilo, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 20-25.
D'Agata CDC, Skoula M, Brundu G, 2009. A preliminary inventory of the alien flora of Crete (Greece). Bocconea, 23:301-315.
Devender TRVan, Felger RS, Burquez A, 1997. Proceedings of the California exotic pest plant council symposium, Exotic plants in the Sonoran Desert region, Arizona and Sonora. 6 pp.
DiTomaso JM, 2013. Weed control in natural areas in the Western United States. California, USA: University of California Weed Research and Information Center, 544 pp.
Euro+Med, 2016. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
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Holzner W, Numata M, 2013. Biology and ecology of weeds. New York, USA: Springer Science & Business Media, 311 pp.
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Judd WS, Ferguson IK, 1999. The genera of Chenopodiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany, 4(2):365-416.
Kadereit G, Freitag H, 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): implications for biogeography, evolution of C -photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon, 60(1):51-78.
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Mata-González R, Martin DW, McLendon T, Trlica MJ, Pearce RA, 2012. Invasive plants and plant diversity as affected by groundwater depth and microtopography in the Great Basin. Ecohydrology, 5(5):648-655. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1936-0592
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/
Sauer JD, 1988. Plant migration: the dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 282 pp.
Scott AJ, 1978. A revision of the Camphorosmioideae (Chenopodiaceae). Feddes Repertorium, 89(2-3):101-119.
Smith L, Cristofaro M, Lillo Ede, Monfreda R, Paolini A, 2009. Field assessment of host plant specificity and potential effectiveness of a prospective biological control agent, Aceria salsolae, of Russian thistle, Salsola tragus. Biological Control, 48(3):237-243. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10499644
Snyder DB, 1987. Notes on some of New Jersey's adventive flora. Bartonia, 53:17-23.
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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1865.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 32 pp.. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2569.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata (Ash Meadows sunray). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 42 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3887.pdf
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Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Khan N, Flynn T, 2012. Hawaiian Vascular Plant Updates: a Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii and Hawaiis Ferns and Fern Allies. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. http://www.botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/supplement.htm
Wester L, 1992. Origin and Distribution of Adventive Alien Flowering Plants in Hawai'i. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai`i: management and research. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 99-154.
Wintermantel WM, Hladky LL, Cortez AA, Natwick ET, 2009. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops. Plant Disease, 93(7):685-690. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Xue XiaoFeng, Sadeghi H, Hong XiaoYue, Sinaie S, 2013. New species and records of eriophyid mites from Iran (Acari: Eriophyidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 18(1):41-52. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/acarology/saas/saa.html
ContributorsTop of page
20/06/16 Original text by:
Keith Bradley, Consultant, South Carolina, USA
Distribution MapsTop of page
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