Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bacillus anthracis

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Datasheet

Bacillus anthracis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Bacilli
  •       Order: Bacillales
  •         Family: Bacillaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
TitleBlood smear from a dead animal
CaptionBacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
Copyright©Peter C.B. Turnbull
Bacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
Blood smear from a dead animalBacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).©Peter C.B. Turnbull

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bacillus anthracis

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus cereus var. anthracis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Bacilli
  •             Order: Bacillales
  •                 Family: Bacillaceae
  •                     Genus: Bacillus
  •                         Species: Bacillus anthracis

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
ChadPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoirePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigerPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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B.anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, it is a gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. B. anthracis it is approximately 4 µm by 1 µm. Under the microscope, it frequently appears as chains of cells in smears of blood or tissue fluids from affected animals. These chains are two to a few cells in length, whereas in suspensions of laboratory cultures, they appear as endless strings. Also characteristic is the frequent, but not invariable, square-ended (‘box-car’ shaped) appearance traditionally associated with B. anthracis vegetative cells. In the presence of oxygen, and towards the end of the logarithmic phase of growth, one ellipsoidal spore is formed in each cell; this does not swell the sporangium and is generally situated centrally or sub-terminally.

In the absence of oxygen and in the presence of bicarbonate (HCO3)- under a high partial pressure of CO2, the vegetative cell secretes a polypeptide (poly-g -D-glutamic acid) capsule. In vivo, the capsule is one of the two virulence factors of B. anthracis and is also a primary diagnostic aid.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Aepyceros melampusWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host, Wild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis aureusWild host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)Experimental settings
Cervus porcinusWild host
Cervus unicolorWild host
ElephantidaeWild host
Equus asinus (donkeys)Domesticated host
Equus burchelliiWild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Hippopotamus amphibiusWild host
HyaenaWild host
Kobus kobWild host
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host, Wild host
Oryx gazellaWild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Panthera leo (lion)Wild host
Rhinoceros unicornisWild host
StruthioWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host
Syncerus cafferWild host
Tragelaphus strepsicerosWild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
AedesInsectAfrica|Asia
ChrysomyaInsectAfrica
Lyperosia irritansInsect
Musca autumnalisInsectWorld
Musca domesticaInsectWorld
StomoxysInsectAfrica|Asia
Stomoxys calcitransInsect
TabanidaeInsect

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Bos bison (American bison)No DetailsAlaskaPest and disease transmissionGates et al., 2001

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Pest and disease transmission

References

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Gates CC, Stephenson RO, Reynolds HW, van Zyll de Jong CG, Schwantje H, Hoefs M, Nishi J, Cool N, Chisholm J, James A, Koonz B, 2001. National Recovery Plan for the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae). National Recovery Plan No. 21. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: 50 pp.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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