Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.cabi.org  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Have you tried our Horizon Scanning Tool (beta) for prioritizing invasive species threats?

We’d value your feedback on the tool. Our survey takes only five minutes to complete.

Datasheet

Bacillus anthracis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Bacilli
  •       Order: Bacillales
  •         Family: Bacillaceae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
TitleBlood smear from a dead animal
CaptionBacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
Copyright©Peter C.B. Turnbull
Bacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).
Blood smear from a dead animalBacillus anthracis: blood smear from an animal that has died of anthrax. Stained with polychrome methylene blue (M'Fadyean stain).©Peter C.B. Turnbull

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bacillus anthracis

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus cereus var. anthracis

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Bacilli
  •             Order: Bacillales
  •                 Family: Bacillaceae
  •                     Genus: Bacillus
  •                         Species: Bacillus anthracis

Diseases Table

Top of page anthrax

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigerReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionLast reported1957OIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaLast reported1968OIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported1938OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1969OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported1970OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Last reported1948OIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandLast reported1954OIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

B.anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, it is a gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium. B. anthracis it is approximately 4 µm by 1 µm. Under the microscope, it frequently appears as chains of cells in smears of blood or tissue fluids from affected animals. These chains are two to a few cells in length, whereas in suspensions of laboratory cultures, they appear as endless strings. Also characteristic is the frequent, but not invariable, square-ended (‘box-car’ shaped) appearance traditionally associated with B. anthracis vegetative cells. In the presence of oxygen, and towards the end of the logarithmic phase of growth, one ellipsoidal spore is formed in each cell; this does not swell the sporangium and is generally situated centrally or sub-terminally.

In the absence of oxygen and in the presence of bicarbonate (HCO3)- under a high partial pressure of CO2, the vegetative cell secretes a polypeptide (poly-g -D-glutamic acid) capsule. In vivo, the capsule is one of the two virulence factors of B. anthracis and is also a primary diagnostic aid.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Aepyceros melampusWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host, Wild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis aureusWild host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)Experimental settings
Cervus porcinusWild host
Cervus unicolorWild host
ElephantidaeWild host
Equus asinus (donkeys)Domesticated host
Equus burchelliiWild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Hippopotamus amphibiusWild host
HyaenaWild host
Kobus kobWild host
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host, Wild host
Oryx gazellaWild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Panthera leo (lion)Wild host
Rhinoceros unicornisWild host
StruthioWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host
Syncerus cafferWild host
Tragelaphus strepsicerosWild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
AedesInsectAfrica|Asia
ChrysomyaInsectAfrica
Lyperosia irritansInsect
Musca autumnalisInsectWorld
Musca domesticaInsectWorld
StomoxysInsectAfrica|Asia
Stomoxys calcitransInsect
TabanidaeInsect

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Bos bison (American bison)No DetailsAlaskaPest and disease transmissionGates et al., 2001

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission

References

Top of page

Gates CC, Stephenson RO, Reynolds HW, van Zyll de Jong CG, Schwantje H, Hoefs M, Nishi J, Cool N, Chisholm J, James A, Koonz B, 2001. National Recovery Plan for the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae). National Recovery Plan No. 21. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife (RENEW). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: 50 pp.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT