Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bacillus thuringiensis
(Bt)

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Datasheet

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Bt
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Bacilli
  •       Order: Bacillales
  •         Family: Bacillaceae
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bombyx mori infected by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki.|Bombyx mori infected by Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.
TitleInfected larva|Infecting Bombyx mori
CaptionBombyx mori infected by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki.|Bombyx mori infected by Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Bombyx mori infected by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki.|Bombyx mori infected by Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.
Infected larva|Infecting Bombyx moriBombyx mori infected by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki.|Bombyx mori infected by Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bacillus thuringiensis

Preferred Common Name

  • Bt

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Pathogen: Lepidopteren-Larven; Schlafsucht: Mehlmotte

EPPO code

  • BACITH (Bacillus thuringiensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Bacilli
  •             Order: Bacillales
  •                 Family: Bacillaceae
  •                     Genus: Bacillus
  •                         Species: Bacillus thuringiensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-FujianPresent
-HebeiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
Georgia (Republic of)Present
IndiaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-DelhiPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-ManipurPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-KyushuPresent
Korea, Republic ofPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Africa

EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
SudanPresent
TogoPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresent
USAPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Central America and Caribbean

CaribbeanPresent
Costa RicaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
HondurasPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
DenmarkPresent
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
GuamPresent
New ZealandPresent

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Achaea janataLarvae
Acherontia styx
Achyra similalis
Acraea acerata
Adoxophyes orana
Agelastica alni
Agrius cingulatus
Agrotis exclamationis
Agrotis segetum
Alabama argillaceaLarvae
Alsophila pometaria
Altica tombacina
Amitermes desertorum
Amsacta moorei
Anagrapha falcifera
Anomis sabulifera
Anthonomus grandis
Anticarsia gemmatalis
Apocheima cinerariumLarvae
Aporia crataegiLarvae
Apriona germarii
Archips micaceanus
Ascia monuste
Ascotis selenaria
Autographa californica
Autographa nigrisigna
Autoplusia egena
Bifiditermes beesoni
Bombyx moriLarvae
Bucculatrix thurberiella
Bupalus piniarius
Cacoecimorpha pronubana
Cadra cautellaLarvae
Calliteara pudibunda
Caloptilia theivora
Cephalcia fallenii
Ceratitis capitata
Chilo partellus
Chilo suppressalis
Choristoneura freemaniLarvae/Larvae
Choristoneura fumiferana
Chromaphis juglandicolaAdults/Nymphs
Chrysodeixis agnataLarvae
Chrysomela scripta
Clanis bilineata
Cnaphalocrocis medinalisLarvae
Cnephasia jactatanaLarvae
Cnephasia longana
Colias lesbia
Contarinia citri
Corcyra cephalonica
Cossus cossusLarvae
Costelytra zealandica
Crocidolomia pavonana
Cryptoblabes gnidiella
Ctenopseustis obliquanaLarvae
Cydia pomonellaLarvae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris
Darna diducta
Darna trimaLarvae
Deilephila elpenor
Delia floralis
Delia radicum
Dendrolimus punctatusLarvae
Dendrolimus superansLarvae
Dendrolimus superans sibiricusLarvae
Diaeretiella rapae
Diaphania indicaLarvae
Diaphania pyloalis
Diatraea grandiosella
Diatraea lineolata
Diatraea saccharalis
Diglyphus isaea
Diplazon laetatorius
Earias insulanaLarvae
Earias vittellaLarvae
Elasmopalpus lignosellus
Empoasca vitis
Ephestia elutellaLarvae
Ephestia kuehniellaLarvae
Epilachna vigintioctopunctata
Epirrita autumnata
Erannis defoliariaLarvae
Erinnyis ello
Estigmene acraea
Etiella zinckenella
Eublemma amabilisLarvae
Eumeta variegataLarvae
Eupoecilia ambiguella
Euproctis chrysorrhoea
Euproctis pseudoconspersa
Eutectona machaeralis
Feltia subterranea
Galleria mellonella
Grapholita molesta
Haritalodes derogata
Harrisina americana
Hedya nubiferana
Helicoverpa armigeraLarvae
Helicoverpa assulta
Helicoverpa punctigera
Helicoverpa zeaLarvae
Heliocheilus albipunctella
Heliothis virescensLarvae
Hellula undalis
Hemileia vastatrix
Hemileuca oliviae
Hyalophora cecropiaLarvae
Hylephila phyleus
Hypera brunnipennis
Imbrasia cytherea
Lacanobia oleraceaLarvae
Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Leptophobia aripa
Lobesia botranaLarvae
Locusta migratoria
Loxostege sticticalisLarvae
Lymantria monachaLarvae
Mahasena corbetti
Malacosoma americanum
Malacosoma californicum pluviale
Malacosoma disstriaLarvae
Malacosoma neustriaLarvae
Mamestra brassicae
Mamestra configurataLarvae
Manduca sexta
Maruca vitrataLarvae
Metisa plana
Microcerotermes championi
Mythimna loreyi
Mythimna separata
Mythimna unipuncta
Nasonia vitripennis
Neodiprion sertifer
Neophasia menapia
Operophtera brumataLarvae
Orgyia antiqua
Orgyia posticaLarvae
Ostrinia furnacalisLarvae
Ostrinia nubilalisLarvae
Palpita vitrealisLarvae
Pammene rhediellaLarvae
Pandemis cerasana
Pandemis heparana
Panonychus ulmi
Papilio cresphontes
Papilio demoleus
Papilio polytesLarvae
Parasa bicolorLarvae
Parocneria orientaLarvae/Pupae
Pectinophora gossypiellaLarvae
Perileucoptera coffeella
Phaedon cochleariae
Phalera bucephalaLarvae
Phryganidia californica
Phthorimaea operculellaLarvae
Phyllocnistis citrella
Phyllocoptruta oleivora
PhyllophagaLarvae
Pieris brassicaeLarvae
Pieris canidia
Pieris rapae
Plagiodera versicolora
Planotortrix excessanaLarvae
Plodia interpunctellaLarvae
Plutella xylostella
Pratylenchus penetrans
Prays citriLarvae
Prays endocarpa
Prays oleaeLarvae
Pseudohypatopa pulvereaLarvae
Pteroma pendula
Pteroptrix smithi
Pyralis farinalisLarvae
Pyrrhalta luteola
Rachiplusia nu
Rhyacionia buolianaLarvae
Sabulodes aegrotata
Saturnia pyri
Schistocerca gregaria
Sesamia calamistis
Sesamia cretica
Sesamia inferens
Sesamia nonagrioides
Setora nitens
Sibine fusca
Sitotroga cerealella
Sparganothis pillerianaLarvae
Sphrageidus similisLarvae
Spilonota ocellana
Spodoptera exemptaLarvae
Spodoptera exiguaLarvae
Spodoptera frugiperdaLarvae
Spodoptera littoralisLarvae
Spodoptera lituraLarvae
Spodoptera mauritia
Spodoptera ornithogalli
Spodoptera praefica
Suleima helianthana
Thaumetopoea pityocampaLarvae
Thaumetopoea processionea
Thaumetopoea wilkinsoniLarvae
Theretra clotho
Theretra oldenlandiae
Thiacidas posticaLarvae
Thosea vetusta
Tipula oleracea
Tipula paludosa
Tortrix viridanaLarvae
Trialeurodes vaporariorumAdults/Nymphs
Trichogramma nubilale
Trichoplusia niLarvae
Trioxys pallidus
Tuta absoluta
Typhlodromus pyri
Udea rubigalis
Urbanus proteus
Uromyces appendiculatus
Vanessa indica
Vespula pensylvanicaLarvae
Xestia c-nigrumLarvae
Xyleutes ceramicus
Xylocoris flavipesAdults/Nymphs
Yponomeuta malinellusLarvae
Zeiraphera canadensisLarvae
Zeiraphera dinianaLarvae
Zeuzera pyrinaLarvae

References

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Angus TA; Luthy P, 1971. Formulation of microbial insecticides. In: Burges HD, Hussey NW, eds. Microbial Control of Insects and Mites. London, UK: Academic Press, 623-628.

Aranda E; Lorence A; del Refugio Trejo Ma, 2000. Rural production of Bacillus thuringiensis by solid state fermentation. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 317-332.

Aronson AI; Beckman W; Dunn P, 1986. Bacillus thuringiensis and related insect pathogens. Microbiological Reviews, 50(1):1-24; [4 fig.]; 178 ref.

Ash C; Collins MD, 1992. Comparative analysis of 23S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Bacillus anthracis and emetic Bacillus cereus determined by PCR-direct sequencing. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 94:75-80.

Barjac Hde; Frachon E, 1990. Classification of Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Entomophaga, 35(2):233-240; 32 ref.

Beegle CC; Couch TL; Alls RT; Versoi PL; Lee BL, 1986. Standardization of HD-1-S-1980: U.S. standard for assay of lepidopterous-active Bacillus thuringiensis.. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 32(1):44-45; 3 ref.

Benz G, 1971. Synergism of micro-organisms and chemical insecticides. In: Burges HD, Hussey NW, eds. Microbial Control of Insects and Mites. London: Academic Press, 327-355.

Bernhard K; Utz R, 1993. Production of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides for experimental and commercial uses. Bacillus thuringiensis, an environmental biopesticide: theory and practice., 255-267; 12 ref.

Burges HD, 1981. Introduction. In: Burges HD, ed. Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. London: Academic Press, 1-6.

Burges HD, 1981. Strategy for the microbial control of pests in 1980 and beyond. In: Burges HD, ed. Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. London, UK: Academic Press, 797-836.

Burges HD, 1982. Control of insects by bacteria. Parasitology, 84:79-117.

Burges HD; Aizawa A; Dulmage HT; de Barjac H, 1982. Numbering of the H-serotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 40:419.

Burges HD; Jarrett P, 1980. Application and distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of tomato moth in glasshouses. British Crop Protection Council: Proceedings of the 1979 British Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases (10th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference) 19th to 22nd November 1979. Hotel Metropole, Brighton, England. Volumes 1, 2 and 3. British Crop Protection Council. Croydon, Surrey UK, 433-439

Burges HD; Jarrett P, 1985. Preparation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis having an improved activity against certain lepidopterous pests and novel strain produced thereby. British Patent Application 8425487.

Burges HD; Jones KA, 1997. Formulation of Bacteria, Viruses and Protozoa to Control Insects. London: Chapman & Hall (in press).

Burges HD; Jones KA, 1998. Formulation of bacteria, viruses and Protozoa to control insects. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides, Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press, 31-127.

Burges HD; Jones KA, 1998. Trends in formulation of microorganisms and future research requirements. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides, Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 311-332.

Copping LG, 1998. The biopesticide manual: world compendium. The biopesticide manual: world compendium., xxxvii + 333 pp.

Couch TL, 1978. Formulations of microbial insecticides: conventional formulations. In: Ignoffo CM, Falcon LA, ed. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, 10:3-10

Couch TL, 2000. Industrial fermentation and formulation of entomopathogenic bacteria. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 297-316.

Couch TL; Ignoffo CM, 1981. Formulation of insect pathogens. In: Burges HD, ed. Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. London, UK: Academic Press, 621-634.

Crickmore N, 2000. The diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis -endotoxins. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 65-79.

Crickmore N; Zeigler DR; Feitelson J; Schnepf E; Rie Jvan; Lereclus D; Baum J; Dean DH, 1998. Revision of the nomenclature for the Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal crystal proteins. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 62(3):807-813; 3 pp. of ref.

Crickmore N; Zeigler DR; Schnepf E; Van Rie J; Lereclus D; Baum J; Bravo A; Dean DH, 2002. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin nomenclature. World Wide Web page at http://www.biols.susx.ac.uk/Home/Neil_Crickmore/Bt/index.html.

Damgaard PH, 2000. Natural occurrence and dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis in the environment. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 23-40.

de Barjac H, 1978. A new subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis very toxic for mosquitoes; Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sero-type 14. Compte Rendu Academie Sciences Paris Series D, 286:797-800.

Dulmage HT, 1983. Guidelines for production of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14. In:Vandekar M, Dulmage HT, eds. Proceedings of Consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-28 October, 1982. UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease, 1-124.

Ecogen, 1995. Descriptions of products and their uses from Ecogen Inc, 2005 Cabot Blvd West, Langhorne PA, USA.

Entwistle PF; Cory JS; Bailey MJ; Higgs S, 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis, an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Fossum K; Herikstad H; Binde M; Pettersen KE, 1986. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis in connection with bovine mastitis. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin, 38(4):233-236; 3 ref.

Glare TR; O'Callaghan M, 2000. Bacillus thuringiensis: Biology, Ecology and Safety. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Höfte H; Whiteley HR, 1989. Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis.. Microbiological Reviews, 53(2):242-255; 106 ref.

Jarrett P; Stephenson M, 1990. Plasmid transfer between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(6):1608-1614; 28 ref.

Jones KA, 1998. Spray application criteria. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 367-375.

Jones KA; Burges HD, 1998. Technology of formulation and application. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides, Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 7-30.

Klier A, 2000. Bacillus thuringiensis: risk assessment. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 485-504.

Knowles BH; Ellar DJ, 1988. Differential specificity of two insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai. Molecular Micobiology, 2, 153-157.

Krieg A, 1987. Disease caused by bacteria and other prokaryotes. In: Fuxa JR, Tanada Y, eds. Epizootiology of Insect Disease. New York, USA, 323-355.

Lacey LA; Mulla MS, 1989. Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus to nontarget organisms in the aquatic environment. In: Laird M, Lacey LA, Davidson EW, eds. Safety of Microbial Insecticides. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 101-114.

Lacey LA; Siegel JP, 2000. Safety and ecotoxicology of entomopathogenic bacteria. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 253-273.

Lecadet MM; Frachon E; Dumanoir VC; Ripouteau H; Hamon S; Laurent P; Thiéry I, 1999. Updating the H-antigen classification of Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86(4):660-672; 4 pp. of ref.

Libman GN; MacIntosh SC, 2000. Registration of biopesticides. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 333-353.

Lisansky SG; Quinlan R; Tassoni G, 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis production handbook: laboratory methods, manufacturing, formulation, quality control, registration. Bacillus thuringiensis production handbook: laboratory methods, manufacturing, formulation, quality control, registration., vi + 124 pp.

Logan NA; Turnbull PCB, 1999. Bacillus and recently derived genera. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th edn. Washington DC: ASM Press, pp 357-369.

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Marrone PG; MacIntosh SC, 1993. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis and resistance management. Bacillus thuringiensis, an environmental biopesticide: theory and practice., 221-235; 63 ref.

Martin PAW; Travers RS, 1989. Worldwide abundance and distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55(10):2437-2442; 18 ref.

Mathias D; Karasek E, 1968. B. subtilis infection in swine and its importance for the etiology and pathogenesis of the so-called enzootic cardiac death of the pig. Zentralblatt füt Bakteriologie [Orig], 208:538-548. (In German).

Meadows MP, 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis in the environment: ecology and risk assessment. Bacillus thuringiensis, an environmental biopesticide: theory and practice., 193-220; 8 pp. of ref.

Meadows MP; Ellis DJ; Butt J; Jarrett P; Burges HD, 1992. Distribution, frequency, and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in an animal feed mill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58(4):1344-1350; 36 ref.

Melin BE; Cozzi EM, 1989. Safety to nontarget invertebrates of lepidopteran strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and their á-exotoxins. In: Laird M, Lacey LA, Davidson EW, eds. Safety of Microbial Insecticides. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 149-168.

Morris-Coole C, 1995. Bacillus thuringiensis: ecology, the significance of natural genetic modification, and regulation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11:471-477.

Navon A, 1993. Control of lepidopteran pests with Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Entwistle PF, Cory JS, Bailey MJ, Higgs S, eds. Bacillus thuringiensis, an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley, 125-146.

Navon A, 2000. Bacillus thuringiensis application in agriculture. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 355-369.

Ohana B; Margalit J; Barak Z, 1987. Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis under simulated field conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53:828-831.

Parry JM; Turnbull PCB; Gibson JR, 1983. A colour atlas of Bacillus species [with reference to Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and B. subtilis]. A colour atlas of Bacillus species [with reference to Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and B. subtilis]., 272pp.; [160 fig.]; Wolfe Medical Atlases No. 19; 124 ref.

Priest FG, 2000. Biodiversity of the entomopathogenic, endospore-forming bacteria. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1-22.

Priest FG; Goodfellow M; Todd C, 1988. Numerical classification of the genus Bacillus. Journal of General Microbiology, 134:1847-1852.

Priest FG; Kaji DA; Rosato YB; Canhos VP, 1994. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacteria by ribosomal RNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Microbiology (Reading), 140(5):1015-1022; 42 ref.

Pruett CJH; Burges HD; Wyborn CH, 1980. Effect of exposure to soil on potency and spore viability of Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 35(2):168-174

Ramoska WA; Watts S; Rodrigues RE, 1982. Influence of suspended particulates on the activity of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype 14 against mosquito larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75:1-4.

Roltsch WJ; Zalom FG; Barry JW; Kirfman GW; Edstrom JP, 1995. Ultra-low volume aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki for control of peach twig borer in almonds trees. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 11(1):25-30; 11 ref.

Rowe GE; Margaritis A, 1987. Bioprocess developments in the production of bioinsecticides by Bacillus thuringiensis.. CRC Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 6(1):87-127; 179 ref.

Schnepf E; Crickmore N; Rie Jvan; Lereclus D; Baum J; Feitelson J; Zeigler DR; Dean DH, 1998. Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 62(3):775-806; 8 pp. of ref.

Sekijima Y; Akiba Y; Ono K; Aizawa K; Fujiyoshi N, 1977. Microbial ecological studies on Bacillus thuringiensis. I. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil of mulberry field. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 21(1):35-40

Smith RA; Couche GA, 1991. The phylloplane as a source of Bacillus thuringiensis variants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57(1):311-315; 22 ref.

Turnbull PCB; Kramer JM, 1995. Bacillus. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th edn. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 349-356.

Van Essen FW; Hembree SC, 1982. Simulated field studies with four formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against mosquitoes: residual activity and effect of soil constituents. Mosquito News, 42:66-72.

van Frankenhuyzen K, 2000. Application of Bacillus thuringiensis in forestry. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 371-382.

Van Rie J; Ferre J, 2000. Insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 219-236.

West AW, 1984. Fate of the insecticdal, proteinaceous parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16:357-360.

West AW; Burges HD; White RJ; Wyborn CH, 1984. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal insecticidal activity in soil. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 44(2):128-133; [5 fig., 2 tab.]; 12 ref.

Wysoki M, 1989. Bacillus thuringiensis preparations as a means for the control of lepidopterous avocado pests in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 23:119-129; 53 ref.

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