Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Lysinibacillus sphaericus

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Datasheet

Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lysinibacillus sphaericus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Bacilli
  •       Order: Bacillales
  •         Family: Bacillaceae
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    Compendia
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacillus sphaericus

EPPO code

  • BACISH (Bacillus sphaericus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Bacilli
  •             Order: Bacillales
  •                 Family: Bacillaceae
  •                     Genus: Bacillus
  •                         Species: Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Chilo auriciliusLarvae
Culex quinquefasciatusLarvae
Dermolepida albohirtum
Schistocerca gregariaAdults/Nymphs
Zeiraphera dinianaLarvae

References

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Abadjieva A, Miteva V, Grigorova R, 1992. Genomic variations in mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus detected by M13 DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 60:5-9.

Alexander B, Priest FG, 1990. Numerical classification and identification of Bacillus sphaericus including some strains pathogenic for mosquito larvae. Journal of General Microbiology, 136(2):367-376; 43 ref.

Al-Momani F, Meqdam MMM, 1997. Isolation and phenotypical identification of spore-forming Bacillus species from Jordanian habitats with larvicidal activity against Drosophila melanogaster. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 25(5):359-362; 12 ref.

Ampofo JA, 1995. Use of local raw materials for the production of Bacillus sphaericus insecticide in Ghana. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(4):417-423; 19 ref.

Aquino de Muro M, Mitchell WJ, Priest FG, 1992. Differentiation of mosquito-pathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus from non-toxic varieties by ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns. Journal of General Microbiology, 138:1159-1166.

Aquino de Muro M, Priest FG, 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus sphaericus and development of an oligonucleotide probe specific for mosquito-pathogenic strains. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 112:205-210.

Aquino de Muro M, Priest FG, 1994. A colony hybridization procedure for the identification of mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus on isolation plates. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 63(3):310-313; 5 ref.

Aquino de Muro M, Priest FG, 2000. Construction of chromosomal integrants of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 by conjugation with Escherichia coli. Research in Microbiology, 151:547-555.

Aslanzadeh J, Hedrick HG, 1985. Search for Mirex-degrading soil microorganisms. Soil Science, 139(4):369-374.

Bar E, Liemanhurwitz J, Rahamim E, Keynan A, Sandler N, 1991. Cloning and expression of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis delta-endotoxin DNA in Bacillus sphaericus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 57:149-158.

Bar E, Sandler N, Makayoto M, Keynan A, 1998. Expression of chromosomally inserted Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin genes in Bacillus sphaericus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 72:206-213.

Barjac H de, Larget-Thiery L, Cosmao Dumanior V, Ripouteau H, 1985. Serological classification of Bacillus sphaericus strains on the basis of toxicity to mosquito larvae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21:85-90.

Baumann L, Broadwell AH, Baumann P, 1988. Sequence analysis of the mosquitocidal toxin genes enconding the 51.4- and 41.9-kilodalton proteins from Bacillus sphaericus. Journal of Bacteriology, 170:2045-2050.

Becker N, 2000. Bacterial control of vector-mosquitoes and black flies. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 383-398.

Berry C, Hindley J, Ehrhardt AF, Grounds T, de Souza I, Davidson EW, 1993. Genetic determinants of host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus mosquito larvicidal toxins. Journal of Bacteriology, 175:510-518.

Berry C, Jackson-Yap J, Oei C, Hindley J, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of two toxin genes from Bacillus sphaericus IAB59 - sequence comparisons between five highly toxinogenic strains. Nucleic Acids Research, 17:7516.

Broadwell AH, Baumann P, 1986. Sporulation-associated activation of Bacillus sphaericus larvicide. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 52:758-764.

Burges HD, 1981. Safety, safety testing and quality control of microbial pesticides. In: Burges HD, ed. Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. London, UK: Academic Press, 737-767.

Burges HD, 1982. Control of insects by bacteria. Parasitology, 84:79-117.

Burges HD, Jones KA, 1998. Formulation of bacteria, viruses and Protozoa to control insects. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides, Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press, 31-127.

Burke WF Jr, Orzech KA, 1990. Genetics of Bacillus sphaericus. In: Barjac H de, Sutherland DJ, eds. Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Blackflies. London, UK: Hyman, 256-271.

Cantwell GE, Lehnert T, 1979. Lack of effect of certain microbial insecticides on the honeybee. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 33(3):381-382

Charles JF, Nielsen-LeRoux C, 2000. Mosquitocidal bacterial toxins: diversity, mode of action and resistance phenomena. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 95(1):201-206.

Charles JF, Nielsen-LeRoux C, Delécluse A, 1996. Bacillus sphaericus toxins: molecular biology and mode of action. Annual Review of Entomology, 41:451-472; 87 ref.

Chevillon C, Bernard C, Marquine M, Pasteur N, 2001. Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): interaction between recessive mutants and evolution in Southern France. Journal of Medical Entomology, 38(5):657-664.

Copping LG, 1998. The biopesticide manual: world compendium. The biopesticide manual: world compendium., xxxvii + 333 pp.

Couch TL, 2000. Industrial fermentation and formulation of entomopathogenic bacteria. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 297-316.

Davidson EW, 1981. Toxin-producing bacilli other than Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Davidson EW, ed. Pathogenesis of Invertebrate Microbial Diseases. Osmun, Towota, USA: Allaheld, 269-291.

Davidson EW, Morton HL, Moffett JO, Singer S, 1977. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus strain SSII-1 on honey bees, Apis mellifera. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 29:344-346

Davidson EW, Yousten AA, 1990. The mosquito larval toxin of Bacillus sphaericus.. Bacterial control of mosquitoes & black flies: biochemistry, genetics & applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus., 237-255; 79 ref.

De Barjac H, 1990. Classification of Bacillus sphaericus strains and comparative toxicity to mosquito larvae. Bacterial control of mosquitoes & black flies: biochemistry, genetics & applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus., 228-236; 20 ref.

Delecluse A, Juarez-Perez V, Berry C, 2000. Vector-active toxins: structure and diversity. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101-125.

Enebak SA, Wei G, Kloepper JW, 1998. Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on loblolly and slash pine seedlings. Forest Science, 44(1):139-144; 28 ref.

Engelhardt G, Wallnofer PR, Plapp R, 1971. Degradation of linuron and some other herbicides and fungicides by a linuron-inducible enzyme obtained from Bacillus sphaericus. Applied Microbiology, 22(3):284-288.

Engelhardt G, Wallnofer PR, Plapp R, 1973. Degradation of the herbicide linuron and other phenylamides in Bacillus sphaericus. Abstracts of the First International Congress for Bacteriology, 2:202.

Fossum K, Herikstad H, Binde M, Pettersen KE, 1986. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis in connection with bovine mastitis. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin, 38(4):233-236; 3 ref.

Gilliam M, 1985. Microbes from apiarian sources: Bacillus spp. in frass of the greater wax moth. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 45(2):218-224; 30 ref.

Gordon RE, Haynes WC, Pang CHN, 1973. The genus Bacillus. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No. 427, 283.

Greaves H, 1973. Selected wood-inhabiting bacteria and their effect on strength properties and weights of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. and Pinus radiata D. Don sapwoods. Holzforschung, 27(1):20-26

Höfte H, Whiteley HR, 1989. Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis.. Microbiological Reviews, 53(2):242-255; 106 ref.

Jahnz U, Fitch A, Priest FG, 1996. Evaluation of an rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for the detection of mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus in soils - Characterization of novel strains lacking toxin genes. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 20:91-99.

Jones KA, 1998. Spray application criteria. In: Burges HD, ed. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides Beneficial Microorganisms, Nematodes and Seed Treatments. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 367-375.

Jouvenaz DP, Lord JC, Undeen AH, 1996. Restricted ingestion of bacteria by fire ants. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 68(3):275-277; 17 ref.

Karch S, Hougard JM, 1986. Comparative study in the laboratory of the development of the active ingredient and spores of Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 and Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H 14 in aqueous medium. Cahiers ORSTOM, Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie, 24(3):175-179; [3 fig.]; 11 ref.

Kellen WR, Clark TB, Lindegren JE, Ho BC, Rogoff MH, Singer S, 1965. Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a pathogen of mosquitoes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 7:442-448.

Krych V, Johnson JL, Yousten AA, 1980. Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among strains of Bacillus sphaericus. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 30:476-484.

Lacey LA, Day J, Heitzman CM, 1987. Long-term effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Culex quinquefasciatus.. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 49(1):116-123; [3 fig.]; 19 ref.

Lacey LA, Lacey CM, Peacock B, Thiery I, 1988. Mosquito host range and field activity of Bacillus sphaericus isolate 2297 (serotype 25). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 4(1):51-56; 17 ref.

Lacey LA, Mulla MS, 1989. Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus to nontarget organisms in the aquatic environment. In: Laird M, Lacey LA, Davidson EW, eds. Safety of Microbial Insecticides. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 101-114.

Lacey LA, Undeen AH, 1986. Microbial control of black flies and mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology, 31:265-296; 270 ref.

Li RS, Dai SY, Li XG, 1990. Survey of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus from soil samples of four provinces in China and their principal biological properties. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 30(5):380-388; 13 ref.

Liu JianWei, Porter AG, Boon YuWee, Thanabalu T, 1996. New gene from nine Bacillus sphaericus strains encoding highly conserved 35.8-kilodalton mosquitocidal toxins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(6):2174-2176; 19 ref.

Liu JW, Hindley J, Porter AG, Priest FG, 1993. New high-toxicity mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus lacking a 100-kilodalton-toxin gene. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 59:3470-3473.

Logan NA, Turnbull PCB, 1999. Bacillus and recently derived genera. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th edn. Washington DC: ASM Press, pp 357-369.

Lysenko O, Davidson EW, Lacey LA, Yousten AA, 1985. Five new mosquito larvicidal strains of Bacillus sphaericus from non-mosquito origins. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 1(3):369-371; 15 ref.

Mathavan S, Velpandi A, 1984. Toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus strains to selected target & non-target aquatic organisms. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 80(December):653-657; [3 fig.]; 10 ref.

Mathias D, Karasek E, 1968. B. subtilis infection in swine and its importance for the etiology and pathogenesis of the so-called enzootic cardiac death of the pig. Zentralblatt füt Bakteriologie [Orig], 208:538-548. (In German).

Mittal PK, Adak T, Sharma VP, 1994. Comparative toxicity of certain mosquitocidal compounds to larvivorous fish, Poecilia reticulata. Indian Journal of Malariology, 31(2):43-47; 15 ref.

Mulla MS, Darwazeh HA, Davidson EW, Dulmage HT, Singer S, 1984. Larvicidal activity and field efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus strains against mosquito larvae and their safety to nontarget organisms. Mosquito News, 44(3):336-342; 13 ref.

Mulligan MS, Schaefer CH, Miura T, 1978. Laboratory and field evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus as a mosquito control agent. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71:774-777.

Parry JM, Turnbull PCB, Gibson JR, 1983. A colour atlas of Bacillus species [with reference to Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and B. subtilis]. A colour atlas of Bacillus species [with reference to Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and B. subtilis]., 272pp.; [160 fig.]; Wolfe Medical Atlases No. 19; 124 ref.

Poncet S, Bernard C, Dervyn E, Cayley J, Klier A, Rapoport G, 1997. Improvement of Bacillus sphaericus toxicity against dipteran larvae by integration, via homologous recombination, of the cryIIA gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 63:4413-4420.

Poncet S, Delécluse A, Anello G, Klier A, Rapoport G, 1994. Transfer and expression of the cryIVB and cryIVD genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Bacillus sphaericus 2297. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 117(1):91-96; 11 ref.

Poopathi S, Mani TR, Rao DR, Baskaran G, Lalitha K, 2000. Susceptibility levels of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus to the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362). Environment and Ecology, 18(3):703-710.

Priest FG, 2000. Biodiversity of the entomopathogenic, endospore-forming bacteria. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1-22.

Priest FG, Ebdrup L, Zahner V, Carter PE, 1997. Distribution and characterisation of mosquitocidal toxin genes in some strains of Bacillus sphaericus. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 63:1195-1198.

Racke J, Sikora RA, 1992. Influence of the plant health-promoting rhizobacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter and Bacillus sphaericus on Globodera pallida root infection of potato and subsequent plant growth. Journal of Phytopathology, 134(3):198-208; 16 ref.

Racke J, Sikora RA, 1992. Isolation, formulation and antagonistic activity of rhizobacteria toward the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24(6):521-526; 19 ref.

Rao DR, Mani TR, Rajendran R, Joseph AS, Gajanana A, 1995. Development of high level resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a field population of Culex quinquefasciatus from Kochi, India. J. Amer. Mosq. Control. Assoc., 11:1-5.

Regis L, da Silva SB, Melo-Santos MAV, 2000. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 95(1):207-210.

Regis L, Nielsen-LeRoux C, 2000. Management of resistance to bacterial vector control. In: Charles J-F, Delecluse A, Nielsen-LeRoux C, eds. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 419-438.

Rippere KE, Johnson JL, Yousten AA, 1997. DNA similarities among mosquito-pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 47:214-216.

Russell BL, Jelley SA, Yousten AA, 1989. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55(2):294-297; 18 ref.

Schmid A, 1975. Interference between the specific granulosis virus and two bacterial preparations in larvae of the larch bud moth, Zeiraphera diniana (Gn.). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 48(1/2):173-179

Servant P, Rosso ML, Hamon S, Poncet S, Delecluse A, Rapoport G, 1999. Production of CryIIA and CryIIBa toxins in Bacillus sphaericus confers toxicity towards Aedes aegypti and resistant Culex populations. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 65:3021-3026.

Shadduck JA, Singer S, Lause S, 1980. Lack of mammalian pathogenicity of entomocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus. Environmental Entomology, 9:403-407.

Sharma RD, Gomez AC, 1996. Effect of seed treatment with delta-endotoxins of Bacillus spp. on the multiplication of Heterodera glycines on soybean and corn. Nematologia Brasileira, 20(2):21-29.

Sharma RD, Gomez AC, 1996. Effects of Bacillus spp. toxins on oviposition and juvenile hatching of Heterodera glycines. Nematologia Brasileira, 20(1):53-62.

Siegel JP, Shadduck JA, 1990. Clearance of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis from mammals. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(2):347-355; 20 ref.

Siegel JP, Shadduck JA, 1990. Mammalian safety of Bacillus sphaericus.. Bacterial control of mosquitoes and black flies: biochemistry, genetics & applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus., 321-331; 8 ref.

Silva-Filha MH, Regis L, Nielsen-LeRoux C, Charles JF, 1995. Low-level resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a field-treated population of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(3):525-530; 21 ref.

Sinegre G, Babinot M, Quermel JM, Gaven B, 1994. First field occurrence of Culex pipiens resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in southern France. In: VIII European Meeting of Society for Vector Ecology, 5-8 September 1994, Faculty of Biologia, University of Barcelona, Spain.

Singer S, 1981. Potential of Bacillus sphaericus and related spore-forming bacteria for pest control. In: Burges HD, ed. Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Disease 1970-1980. London, UK: Academic Press, 283-298.

Singer S, 1990. Introduction to the study of Bacillus sphaericus as a mosquito control agent. Bacterial control of mosquitoes & black flies: biochemistry, genetics & applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus., 221-227; 30 ref.

Smith RA, 1982. Effect of strain and medium variation on mosquito toxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 28:1089-1092.

Suludere Z, Kalender Y, cakmakci L, Alten B, Ayvali C, cetinkaya G, 1992. An electron microscope investigation of spores and parasporal crystals in various strains of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from Turkey. Doga Türk Tarim ve Ormancilik Dergisi, 16(1):1-14; 31 ref.

Suss A, Grampp B, Siegmund H, Eben C, 1974. Uptake of adsorbed monolinuron by plants. Isotope Tracer Studies of Chemical Residues in Food and the Agricultural Environment. Proceedings and Report of Research Coordination Meetings, Joint FAO/IpA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Ispra, 30 October-10 November 1972., 121-124

Suyanandana P, Sukhumavasi J, 1991. The utilization of agro-industrial wastes for the production of bacterial larvicide against mosquitoes. Microbial utilization of renewable resources. Vol 7 NRCT, NUS, DOST-JSPS Joint Seminar on Biotechnology December 22-26, 1990, Songkla, Thailand, and Singapore., 441-445; 3 ref.

Thanabalu T, Berry C, Hindley J, 1993. Cytotoxicity and ADP-ribosylating activity of the mosquitocidal toxin from Bacillus sphaericus SSII-1, possible roles of the 27-kilodalton and 70-kilodalton peptides. Journal of Bacteriology, 175:2314-2320.

Thanabalu T, Porter AG, 1996. A Bacillus sphaericus gene enconding a novel type of mosquitocidal toxin of 31.8kDa. Gene, 170:85-89.

Thiery I, Hamon S, Delecluse A, Orduz S, 1998. The introduction into Bacillus sphaericus of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin cryAbI gene results in higher susceptibility of resistant mosquito larva populations to B. sphaericus. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 64:3910-3916.

Trisrisook M, Pantuwatana S, Bhumiratana A, Panbangred W, 1990. Molecular cloning of the 130-kilodalton mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Bacillus sphaericus. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 56:1710-1716.

Turnbull PCB, Kramer JM, 1995. Bacillus. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th edn. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 349-356.

Vandenberg JD, 1990. Safety of four entomopathogens for caged adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):755-759; 16 ref.

Weiser J, 1984. A mosquito-virulent Bacillus sphaericus in adult Simulium damnosum from northern Nigeria. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie, 139(1):57-60; 11 ref.

Woodburn MA, Yousten AA, Hilu KH, 1995. Random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of mosquito-pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 45(2):212-217; 24 ref.

Yousten AA, 1984. Bacteriophage typing of mosquito pathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus.. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 43(1):124-125; 3 ref.

Yousten AA, Benfield EF, Genthner FJ, 1995. Bacillus sphaericus mosquito pathogens in the aquatic environment. Biotechnologic Applications of Entomopathogenic Bacteria, 23-27 May 1994, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 9(1):125-129.

Yousten AA, Wallis DA, 1987. Batch and continuous culture of the mosquito larval toxin of Bacillus sphaericus 2362. J. Ind. Microbiol., 277-283.

Zahiri NS, Su TY, Mulla MS, 2002. Strategies for the management of resistance in mosquitoes to the microbial control agent Bacillus sphaericus. Journal of Medical Entomology, 39(3):513-520.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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