Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Brassica napus



Brassica napus


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brassica napus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brassica napus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Brassica
  •                                 Species: Brassica napus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 May 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes




South KoreaPresent


United KingdomPresent

North America

United StatesPresent
-North DakotaPresent


-New South WalesPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

-Sao PauloPresent


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Gobatto, D., Oliveira, L. A. de, Franco, D. A. de S., Velásquez, N., Daròs, J. A., Eiras, M., 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses, 11(4), 355. doi: 10.3390/v11040355

Macharia, I., Backhouse, D., Wu, S. B., Ateka, E. M., 2016. Weed species in tomato production and their role as alternate hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its vector Frankliniella occidentalis. Annals of Applied Biology, 169(2), 224-235. doi: 10.1111/aab.12297

Piekarczyk, M., Wenda-Piesik, A., Gałęzewski, L., Kotwica, K., 2019. Weed infestation and yielding of field pea and yellow lupine depending on various doses of herbicide mixtures. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Agricultura, 18(1), 21-27.

Distribution References

Aghajani M A, Safaei N, 2008. New hosts for sclerotinia stem rot of canola. Journal of Plant Pathology. 90 (1), 147.

Agostini A, Johnson D A, Hulbert S, Demoz B, Fernando W G D, Paulitz T, 2013. First report of blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in Idaho. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 842. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-12-0956-PDN

Alkooranee J T, Liu S, Aledan T R, Yin Y, Li M, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cruciferarum on Brassica napus in China. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1651.

Amsden B, Kwiatkowski K, Dixon E, Thompson T, Williams M, Beale J, Pfeufer E, 2017. First report of downy mildew caused by Hyaloperonospora parasitica on Siberian kale in Kentucky. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1057. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0721-PDN

Asare-Bediako E, Jones J E, Hambidge A J, Stevens M, Mead A, Jenner C E, Walsh J A, 2020. The incidence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape crops (Brassica napus L.) in three different regions of England over three consecutive growing seasons and the relationship with the abundance of flying Myzus persicae. Annals of Applied Biology. 176 (2), 130-137. DOI:10.1111/aab.12565

Bilal Atta, Muhammad Rizwan, Sabir A M, Ayub M A, Akhtar M F, Ayyub M B, Sajid Nadeem, 2019. Comparative incidence and abundance of aphids and their associated predators on canola in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist. 41 (2), 147-152.

Chittem K, Mansouripour S M, Mendoza L E del R, 2014. First report of clubroot on canola caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in North Dakota. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1438. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0430-PDN

Cho S E, Park J H, Choi Y J, Choi I Y, Shin H D, 2016. First report of powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cruciferarum on oilseed rape in Korea. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1245. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1388-PDN

Duffield S J, Steer A P, 2006. The ecology of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia and the implications for tactical and strategic management. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 96 (6), 583-596. DOI:10.1017/BER2006462

Farzadfar S, Ahoonmanesh A, Mosahebi G H, Pourrahim R, Golnaraghi A R, 2007. Occurrence and distribution of Cauliflower mosaic virus on cruciferous plants in Iran. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 6 (1), 22-29.

Fernando W G D, Chen Y, 2003. First report on the presence of Leptosphaeria maculans pathogenicity group-3, the causal agent of blackleg of canola in Manitoba. Plant Disease. 87 (10), 1268. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.10.1268A

Gaafar Y Z A, Ziebell H, 2019. Two divergent isolates of turnip yellows virus from pea and rapeseed and first report of turnip yellows virus-associated RNA in Germany. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8 (17), e00214-19. DOI:10.1128/mra.00214-19

Gaetán S A, 2005. First outbreak of blackleg caused by Phoma lingam in commercial canola fields in Argentina. Plant Disease. 89 (4), 435. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0435B

Gaetán S A, Fernandez L, Madia M, 2006. Occurrence of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on canola in Argentina. Plant Disease. 90 (4), 524. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0524A

Gaetán S, López N, 2005. First outbreak of bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris on canola in Argentina. Plant Disease. 89 (6), 683. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0683B

Ghahari H, 2017. New records of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from Iran. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 69 (4), 501-506.

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Gossen B D, Rimmer S R, Holley J D, 2001. First report of resistance to benomyl fungicide in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease. 85 (11), 1206. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.11.1206C

Isakeit T, Woodward J E, Niu C, Wright R J, 2010. First report of Sclerotinia stem rot of canola caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Texas. Plant Disease. 94 (6), 792. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-6-0792B

Jedryczka M, Lewartowska E, Kachlicki P, Plachka E, Srobarova A, 2000. Characterisation of the strains of Leptosphaeria maculans isolated from oilseed rape in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 23 (6), 11-20.

Jun P E, Dítě D, Hajnalová M, Eliašová M, 2014. Current occurrence of rare weed Camelina rumelica (CELAK.) VELEN. in Slovakia. Thaiszia - Journal of Botany. 24 (2), 101-109.

Khangura R K, Wright D G, 2012. First report of club root caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae on canola in Australia. Plant Disease. 96 (7), 1075-1076. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-11-1006-PDN

Khangura R, Aberra M, 2009. First report of charcoal rot on canola caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Western Australia. Plant Disease. 93 (6), 666-667. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-6-0666C

Khangura R, MacLeod W J, 2013. First report of stem rot in canola caused by Sclerotinia minor in Western Australia. Plant Disease. 97 (12), 1660. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0559-PDN

Kuusk A K, Happstadius I, Zhou L, Steventon L A, Giese H, Dixelius C, 2002. Presence of Leptosphaeria maculans group A and group B isolates in Sweden. Journal of Phytopathology. 150 (6), 349-356. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00764.x

Lob S, Jaspers M V, Ridgway H J, Jones E E, 2013. First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa as a stem canker pathogen of brassicas in New Zealand. Plant Disease. 97 (8), 1113-1114. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1122-PDN

Macharia I, Backhouse D, Wu S B, Ateka E M, 2016. Weed species in tomato production and their role as alternate hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its vector Frankliniella occidentalis. Annals of Applied Biology. 169 (2), 224-235. DOI:10.1111/aab.12297

Mahdizadeh V, Safaie N, Goltapeh E M, Mayek-Perez N, 2012. Intraspecies diversity of Macrophomina phaseolina in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (8), 963-976. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.655146

Maširević S, Feldeždi M, Škrinjar M, Kocić-Tanackov S, Radujkov D, 2014. First report of Acremonium charticola (Lindau) W. Gams on rapeseed samples in storage during 2012 in Serbia. Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 46 (2), 178-181.

Mazraie M A, Faghihi M M, Samavi S, Seyahooei M A, Bagheri A, Rowshan G H, 2018. First report of a 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'-related strain associated with rapeseed witches' broom in Iran. New Disease Reports. 19. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.019

Mendoza L E del R, Nepal A, Bjerke J M, Boyles M, Peeper T, 2011. Identification of Leptosphaeria maculans pathogenicity group 4 causing blackleg on winter canola in Oklahoma. Plant Disease. 95 (5), 614. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0789

Milošević D, Marjanović-Jeromela A, Ignjatov M, Jovičić D, Stanković I, Bulajić A, Krstić B, 2015. First report of Turnip yellows virus on oilseed rape in Serbia. Plant Disease. 99 (12), 1869. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0503-PDN

Mirabadi A Z, Rahnama K, Esmaailifar A, 2009. First report of pathogenicity group 2 of Leptosphaeria maculans causing blackleg of oilseed rape in Iran. Plant Pathology. 58 (6), 1175. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02132.x

Mirzaei S, Goltapeh E M, Shams-Bakhsh M, Safaie N, 2008. Identification of Botrytis spp. on plants grown in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology. 156 (1), 21-28.

Mitrović P, Milovac Ž, Jocković M, Radić V, Marjanovic-Jeromela A, Lečić N, Marinković R, 2012. Prevalence of pathogenic groups of Leptosphaeria maculans in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28th September, 2012. [ed. by Marisavljević D]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Plant Protection and Environment. 274-281.

Owen M J, Powles S B, 2016. The frequency of herbicide-resistant wild oat (Avena spp.) populations remains stable in Western Australian cropping fields. Crop & Pasture Science. 67 (5), 520-527. DOI:10.1071/CP15295

Paulitz T C, Okubara P A, Schillinger W F, 2006. First report of damping-off of canola caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in Washington State. Plant Disease. 90 (6), 829. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0829B

Piekarczyk M, Wenda-Piesik A, Gałęzewski L, Kotwica K, 2019. Weed infestation and yielding of field pea and yellow lupine depending on various doses of herbicide mixtures. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Agricultura. 18 (1), 21-27.

Popović T, Balaž J, Starović M, Trkulja N, Ivanović Ž, Ignjatov M, Jošić D, 2013. First report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris as the causal agent of black rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Serbia. Plant Disease. 97 (3), 418. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0506-PDN

Ren Li, Jia JianGuang, Li Ming, Liu Fan, Cheng YuGui, Zhang MingHai, Chen KunRong, Fang XiaoPing, 2012. Distribution of rapeseed clubroot disease in Hubei Province and evaluation of yield loss. Agricultural Science & Technology - Hunan. 13 (4), 775-777, cover 3.

Rossi F R, Romero F M, Gárriz A, Ruíz O A, 2018. First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa 'Brassicae' as causal agent of phoma leaf spot in Brassica napus (canola) in Argentina. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2647-2648. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0600-PDN

Sosnowski M, Ramsey M, Murray G, Scott E, Wilmshurst C, 2001. Symptoms of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) on the roots of canola in Australia. Plant Pathology. 50 (6), 808. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00631.x

Strelkov S E, Manolii V P, Cao T, Xue S, Hwang S F, 2007. Pathotype classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae and its occurrence in Brassica napus in Alberta, Canada. Journal of Phytopathology. 155 (11-12), 706-712. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01303.x

Szlávik S, Barasits T, Fernando W G D, 2006. First report of pathogenicity group-3 of Leptosphaeria maculans on winter rape in Hungary. Plant Disease. 90 (5), 684. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0684C

Taylor S, Szot D, 2000. First record of damage to canola caused by the oat race of stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci). Australasian Plant Pathology. 29 (2), 153. DOI:10.1071/AP00027

Tsialtas J T, Eleftherohorinos I G, 2011. First report of branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) on oilseed rape (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), and wild vetch (Vicia spp.) in northern Greece. Plant Disease. 95 (10), 1322. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0462

Tziros G T, Bardas G A, Tsialtas J T, Karaoglanidis G S, 2008. First report of oilseed rape stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Greece. Plant Disease. 92 (10), 1473. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-10-1473C

Vagelas I, 2009. First report of phoma stem canker (Blackleg) of oilseed rape caused by the species complex Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa in Greece. Journal of Plant Pathology. 91 (4, Supplement), S4.98.

Xue L H, Liu Y, Zhang L, Huang X Q, Zhou X Q, Yang X X, Wu W X, 2019. Botrytis pseudocinerea, a new pathogen causing gray mold on Brassica napus in China. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 367. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0688-PDN

Zhao Lei, Feng ChaoHong, Hao XingAn, Wang RenRui, Hu LingYun, Wang QiaoChun, Wu YunFeng, 2014. Detection and molecular variability of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in Shaanxi, China. Journal of Phytopathology. 162 (7/8), 519-522. DOI:10.1111/jph.12207

Distribution Maps

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