Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brassica juncea
(mustard)

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Datasheet

Brassica juncea (mustard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brassica juncea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mustard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Brassica juncea has been distributed worldwide as a crop, and has escaped cultivation to become naturalized in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed. Seeds can persist in fields after harvesting and become...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit
Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit
Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Flowering habitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
FlowersBrassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
LeavesBrassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleSeedpods
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
SeedpodsBrassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
TitleSeeds
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
SeedsBrassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Title Invasive habit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Invasive habitBrassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

Preferred Common Name

  • mustard

Other Scientific Names

  • Brassica argyi H.Lév.
  • Brassica besseriana Andrz. ex Trautv.
  • Brassica cernua (Thunb.) F. B. Forbes & Hemsl.
  • Brassica cernua Forbes & Hemsley
  • Brassica integrifolia (H. West) Rupr.
  • Brassica japonica (Thunb.) Siebold ex Miq.
  • Brassica lanceolata (DC.) Lange
  • Brassica napiformis (Pailleux & Bois) L.H.Bailey
  • Brassica richeri Lange
  • Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) L.H. Bailey
  • Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) Prain
  • Brassica taquetii H.Lév.
  • Brassica willdenovii Boiss.
  • Crucifera juncea E.H.L. Krause
  • Raphanus junceus (L.) Crantz
  • Sinabraca juncea (L.) G.H. Loos
  • Sinapis abyssinica A. Braun
  • Sinapis cernua Thunb.
  • Sinapis chinensis L.
  • Sinapis cuneifolia Roxb.
  • Sinapis integrifolia H. West
  • Sinapis japonica Thunb.
  • Sinapis juncea L.
  • Sinapis lanceolata DC.
  • Sinapis patens Roxb.
  • Sinapis ramosa Roxb.
  • Sinapis ramosa Roxb. ex Fleming, Henry
  • Sinapis rugosa Roxb.
  • Sinapis timoriana DC.

International Common Names

  • English: brown mustard; canola; Chinese mustard; gai-choi; Indian mustard; oilseed mustard; oriental mustard; wild mustard
  • Spanish: mostaza

Local Common Names

  • China: jie-cai
  • Cuba: mostaza China; mostaza de la tierra
  • Czech Republic: brukev sítinovitá; kapusta sitinová
  • Denmark: ager-stedmorsblomst; håret viol; jernurt; marts-viol; tandbægret vårsalat
  • Estonia: sarepta kapsasrohi
  • Finland: karvaorvokki; pelto-orvokki; rikkavuonankaali; rohtorautayrtti; tuoksuorvokk
  • France: choux faux jonc; mountarde brune; moutarde de Chine; moutarde de Indie; moutarde de Sarepta; moutarde frisée; moutarde Indiennne
  • French Polynesia: pota tinito
  • Germany: Ruten-Kohl; Sareptasenf
  • Hungary: szareptai mustár
  • India: saiso
  • Japan: irana; karashi; karashi-na; setsuriko; takana
  • Kiribati: te kabiti; te kabiti n tiaina
  • Korea, Republic of: gas
  • Latvia: sareptas sinepe
  • Lithuania: sareptinis bastutis
  • Malaysia: kai choy; sawi pahit
  • Norway: åkerstemorsblom; jernurt; lodnefiol; marsfiol; tandbægret vårsalat
  • Spain: mostacilla; mostaza de la China; mostaza de la tierra; mostaza de Sarepta; mostaza India
  • Sweden: åkerviol; buskviol; järnört; luktviol; sommarklynne
  • Tonga: pauteni
  • USA: mustard greens

Summary of Invasiveness

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Brassica juncea has been distributed worldwide as a crop, and has escaped cultivation to become naturalized in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed. Seeds can persist in fields after harvesting and become a weed for subsequent crops. It is an invasive weed in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Americas, and many Pacific Islands, although it is not considered a significant weed in Canada. As some Brassica species use allelochemicals to inhibit other species and B. juncea extract has been shown to have a deleterious effect on sunflower germination and growth, this species could reduce local biodiversity.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Brassica
  •                                 Species: Brassica juncea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Brassica juncea was classified by Linneaus as Sinapis juncea in 1753 in Species Plantarum 2. Shortly after, in 1769, Cranz changed this species to Raphanus junceus. Cosson and Czernajew placed it in the genus Brassica ninety years later in 1859. It is a hybrid of Brassica nigra and Brassica rapa, believed to have originated 10,000 years ago (OECD, 2016) and has multiple varieties. All of these varieties have a chromosome number of 2n = 36 and they can be readily crossed and produce fully fertile offspring (Flora of China, 2015).

The high levels of polymorphism and the number of cultivars developed has led to a confusing taxonomy with regards to subspecies and varieties. Spect and Diedrichsen (2001) define 4 subspecies: integrifolia, juncea, napiformis and taisai. Whereas Flora of China (2015) revised the 7 varieties and 3 species defined in Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Cheo, 1987) into three varieties, juncea, napiformis and tumida. Most of the variation among varieties comes from the tremendous variation in basal leaf morphology of the species. All cultivars within these groups are used as vegetables, except for those of var. juncea, which is cultivated for its seeds and, less commonly, as animal feed.

Description

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Flora of China (2015), describes the biology of B. juncea as follows:

Herbs annual, (20-)30-100(-180) cm tall, pubescent or rarely glabrous, glaucous or not, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves long petiolate; petiole (1-)2-8(-15) cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (4-) 6-30(-80) × 1.5-15(-28) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid or pinnatisect; terminal lobe ovate, repand, dentate, or incised; lateral lobes 1-3 on each side of midvein, much smaller than terminal lobe, crisped incised, dentate, repand, or entire. Upper cauline leaves petiolate or subsessile, oblanceolate, oblong, lanceolate, or linear, to 10 × 5 cm, base cuneate to attenuate, margin entire or repand, rarely dentate. Fruiting pedicels straight, divaricate, (0.5-)0.8-1.5(-2) cm. Sepals oblong, (3.5-)4-6(-7) × 1-1.7 mm, spreading. Petals yellow, (6.5-)8-11(-13) × 5-7.5 mm, ovate or obovate, apex rounded or emarginate; claw 3-6 mm. Filaments 4-7 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-5(-6) cm × 3-4(-5) mm, terete or slightly 4-angled, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.5-)2-4.5 cm, 6-15(-20)-seeded per locule; valves with a prominent midvein, slightly torulose; terminal segment conical, (4-)5-10(-15) mm, seedless; style often obsolete. Seeds dark to light brown or grey, globose, 1-1.7 mm in diameter, minutely reticulate.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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This species is distributed worldwide, except in northern and polar areas with an annual average temperature below 6°C. Its original distribution is believed to be between Eastern Europe and China, where the range of its parent species, Brassica nigra and Brassica rapa, overlap, with centres of diversity in central and western China, eastern India, Myanmar, and through Iran to the Near East. It has been cultivated for centuries in many parts of Eurasia. These days, the species is mainly grown in Bangladesh, Central Africa, China, India, Japan, Nepal and Pakistan, as well as southern Russia north of the Caspian Sea.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
AngolaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
BurundiPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
CameroonPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); Warwick and Francis (1994)
ChadPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
ComorosPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019); Warwick and Francis (1994)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
DjiboutiPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
EgyptPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
EritreaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
GabonPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
LibyaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MayottePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
RéunionPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
RwandaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
SomaliaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
South SudanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
SudanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
TunisiaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
UgandaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
ChinaPresentNative and IntroducedPIER (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Reported as native and introduced and invasive. This may be due to regional variation
-AnhuiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-BeijingPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-FujianPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-GansuPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-GuangdongPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-GuangxiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-GuizhouPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HainanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HebeiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HeilongjiangPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HenanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HubeiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-HunanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-Inner MongoliaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-JiangsuPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-JiangxiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-JilinPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-LiaoningPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-NingxiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-QinghaiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ShaanxiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ShandongPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ShanghaiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-SichuanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-TianjinPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-XinjiangPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-YunnanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ZhejiangPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Cocos IslandsPresentNativePIER (2018)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedPIER (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Cultivated
IndiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
IranPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); Warwick and Francis (1994)
IraqPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveMito T and Uesugi T (2004)
KuwaitPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
MacauPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
MyanmarPresentIntroducedDuke (1983)
NepalPresentIntroducedDuke (1983)
OmanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
PakistanPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); Warwick and Francis (1994)
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
TurkmenistanPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
YemenPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
BulgariaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
CzechiaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Established
EstoniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
FinlandPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
GermanyPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
LatviaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
MoldovaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
NorwayPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Established
RomaniaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
RussiaPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
-Southern RussiaPresentIntroducedDuke (1983)
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
SwedenPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedWeber and Gut (2004); Warwick and Francis (1994)
UkrainePresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Established
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)Not established

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
CanadaPresentIntroducedCanadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)Present as a weed, but not abundant or problematic
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedCanadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedCanadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedCanadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedCanadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveMinisterio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (2012); UPRRP (2017)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Reported as both invasive and non-invasive
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
MexicoPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Weed
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Reported as both invasive and non-invasive
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell (2000)Weed
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)St Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution. Reported as invasive in some states.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasiveCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-DelawarePresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019); PIER (2018);
-IdahoPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-IndianaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-IowaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-KansasPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MainePresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasiveCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-MontanaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-NevadaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-OhioPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-OregonPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-TexasPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-UtahPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-VermontPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)
-WyomingPresentIntroducedCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2019)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall (2007); Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)Reported as invasive and non-invasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994); Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008); PIER (2018)Reported as invasive and non-invasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedOffice of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedOffice of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedOffice of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
FijiPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); PIER (2018)Reported as cultivated, non-invasive and invasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)Cultivated and invasive
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Occasionally cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
NauruPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedDuke (1983); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)Weed
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasiveOliveira et al. (2011)Invasive weed of winter crops
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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This species is already widespread and new introductions are not of concern.

Habitat

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This is a cultivated and naturalized species around the world. In the wild it is mainly found in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed.

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Brassica juncea is a natural amphidiploid (AABB genome, 2n=36) hybrid of Brassica rapa (AA genome, 2n=20) and Brassica nigra (BB genome, 2n=16). Axelsson et al. (2000) used linkage mapping to show that the B. juncea genome has remained largely unchanged since the hybridization event and contains the conserved genomes of both progenitor species.

Reproductive Biology

This species is mainly self-pollinated, although 20-30% cross pollination has been recorded. This cross pollination can be the result of the raceme of different individuals touching. Although the major pollinator for the species seems to be bees due to the heavy and sticky nature of its pollen (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008), at least 30 species of insect pollinators, belonging to ten families under four orders, were observed visiting brown mustard flowers in open pollinated and caged individuals in India, including the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) (Kunjwal et al., 2014). In farmlands in Indonesia, three bee species were found to make up approximately 88% of the pollinators, but a diversity of Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera species were observed (Atmowidi et al., 2007).

Environmental Requirements

Brassica juncea grows worldwide from Boreal Wet to Tropical Thorn through Tropical Wet Forest Life Zones. It is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 500 to 4200 mm, annual temperature of 6 to 27°C, and pH of 4.3 to 8.3.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 50

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 6 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5004200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Albugo candida Pathogen not specific ,
Athelia rolfsii Pathogen not specific
Cucumber mosaic virus Pathogen not specific
Entomoscelis americana not specific ,
Fusarium Pathogen not specific ,
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis Pathogen not specific ,
Heterodera schachtii Pathogen not specific ,
Leptosphaeria maculans Pathogen not specific ,
Macrophomina phaseolina Pathogen not specific ,
Meloidogyne hapla Pathogen not specific ,
Meloidogyne incognita Pathogen not specific ,
Murgantia histrionica not specific ,
Mycosphaerella brassicicola Pathogen not specific ,
Phasianus colchicus Seeds not specific ,
Pieris brassicae not specific
Pieris rapae not specific
Plutella xylostella not specific ,
Pontia protodice not specific
Pythium not specific ,
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Pathogen not specific ,
Turnip mosaic virus Pathogen not specific
Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae Pathogen not specific ,

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Brassica juncea seeds are released as its seed pods dry and shatter. It shows slightly greater shattering resistance than other closely related Brassica species, which may reduce its rate of dispersal (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008). A large number of small seeds are produced, which can be dispersed by wind and water (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Animals, including ants, birds and mammals, can disperse seeds (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Mathematical modelling of the spread of naturalized populations of B. juncea in New Zealand found the presence of seed storage facilities and transportation routes explained a high percentage of the variance in B. juncea presence or absence. This suggests human-mediated dispersal is a major pathway for spreading wild populations (Peltzer et al., 2008). 

Intentional Introduction

Brassica juncea is a crop that has been distributed worldwide through human introduction.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationBreeding programme for enhancement of crop traits for fodder and oil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Crop productionDeliberately introduced as a crop in most temperate and tropical areas Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Forage Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Industrial purposesOil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Internet sales Yes Yes
Medicinal use Yes Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008
Research Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health

Economic Impact

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In cultivation, B. juncea seed may escape harvest, allowing it to persist and become a weed of subsequent crops. It is a major weed in Australia, and considered a minor weed in Canada (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008). In Canada it is less common as a volunteer weed than other closely related species, such as Brassica napus, perhaps as a result of reduced shattering in B. juncea limiting its spread (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008).

Environmental Impact

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Some Brassica species have been shown to have an allelopathic effect on native species. Brassica nigra has been shown to inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which can prevent the establishment of native plants dependent on this symbiosis (Pakpour and Klironomos, 2015; Maltz et al., 2016). Extracts from B. juncea, B. napus and B. rapa were shown to reduce germination rate, seedling root, hypocotyl length and fresh and dry weight in sunflower (Jafariehyazdi and Javidfar, 2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Fast growing
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Hybridization

Uses

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Economic Value

Brassica juncea is one of six cultivated Brassicaceae species, and it is a major oil yielding crop (Sharma et al., 2014). B. juncea, B. rapa and B. napus are the primary sources of canola oil, due to the 35-45% oil content of their seeds. Brassica oilseed production represents 14% of the edible oil production, ranking third after Palm and Soybean edible oil (OECD-FAO, 2012). Of the three Brassica oilseed crops, B juncea has a higher heat tolerance and is more common in subtropical regions, such as Asia, compared to B. napus and B. rapa, which dominate in temperate regions. Mustard oil, produced from B. juncea or B. nigra, is a major cooking oil in India and is highly prized for vegetable and fish frying for its distinctive taste and pungency due to the presence of allyl-isothiocynate and related compounds (Malode and Shelke, 2010). Canola meal (a byproduct of canola oil process) can be used as animal food or a condiment, and plants cultivated as an oilseed crop can be collected in the spring and be used as hay (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008).

The species has some technological application in biodiesel production and bioremediation and for its insecticidal, fungicidal, nematicidal and medicinal properties (Lee et al., 2014; Main et al., 2014, Ngala et al., 2015; Oliveira et al., 2011; Perniola et al., 2014; Rodríguez-Vila et al., 2015; Jham et al., 2009; Smrithi et al., 2012). Its insecticidal activity is due mainly to its glucosinolate and erucic acid composition (Cartea et al., 2011). At least 34 phenolic compounds have been identified in B. juncea leaves, but only varieties with low phenolic content are used for canola oil production (Cartea et al., 2011; Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008).

Social Benefit

Brassica juncea is not a common medicine, but it is used in folk medicine, as reported by Duke (1983):

It is reported to be an anodyne, aperitif, emetic, rubefacient and stimulant, and used to treat arthritis, foot ache, lumbago, and rheumatism. In China, the seeds are used for treating tumours and leaves are eaten in soups to treat bladder disorders, inflammation or haemorrhage. In Korea it is used to treat abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism and stomach disorders, while is considered an antisyphilitic emmenagogue in Java. The root is used as a galactagogue in Africa and its ingestion may impart a body odour that serves as mosquito repellent. Mustard oil is used to treat skin conditions.

More recent studies have evaluated the healing and pharmacological properties of B. juncea. The seeds, oil and leaves are a source of a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals, but research into this area is still limited (Kumar et al., 2011; Malan et al., 2011).

Environmental Services

Brassica juncea is a potential candidate for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution as it has been found to significantly deplete levels of cadmium, lead and zinc in soil (Singh and Fulekar, 2012). In addition, this species has been suggested as a biological control of several plagues as a trap crop for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in South Africa (Charleston and Kfir, 2000; Badenes-Perez et al., 2004), among other pests, including fungi and nematodes (Ngala et al., 2015).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Fuels

  • Biofuels

General

  • Sociocultural value

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Oil/fat
  • Seeds
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Oils
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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This species is of hybrid origin. It closely resembles B. napus and B. rapa except that the upper leaves of these two species are clasping, while in B. juncea they are not. Brassica juncea seeds are very similar to those of Brassica niger, one of its parent species, both less than 2 mm in diameter, reddish-brown to brown or orange in colour. However, the seeds of B. juncea are more spherical than those of B. nigra, which are more oval or oblong. The seed texture varies, with B. juncea being defined by fine, distinct lines outlining flat-bottomed interspaces, while B. niger has thick, prominent ridges surrounding concave interspaces. B. juncea seeds have small, distinct stipples covering the entire seed, while the stipples on the seeds of B. niger are partially or completely obscured and may not be visible (Commercial Seed Analysts Association of Canada, 2010)

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Brassica juncea seed persists in soils for more than a year, contaminating subsequent crops, which can make this species difficult to eradicate once established. 

References

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Ashutosh Sharma, Li XiaoNan, Lim YongPyo, 2014. Comparative genomics of Brassicaceae crops. Breeding Science, 64(1), 3-13. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jsbbs doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.64.3

Atmowidi T, Buchori D, Manuwoto S, 2007. Diversity of pollinator insects in relation to seed set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae). HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 14(4), 155-161.

Augustine, R., Majee, M., Gershenzon, J., Bisht, N. C., 2013. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64(16), 4907-4921. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/ doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert280

Axelsson, T., Bowman, C. M., Sharpe, A. G., Lydiate, D. J., Lagercrantz, U., 2000. Amphidiploid Brassica juncea contains conserved progenitor genomes. Genome, 43(4), 679-688. doi: 10.1139/gen-43-4-679

Badenes-Perez, F. R., Shelton, A. M., Nault, B. A., 2004. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(4), 1365-1372. http://www.esa.catchword.org doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-97.4.1365

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008. The Biology of Brassica juncea (Canola/Mustard). Ottowa, Canada: Government of Canada.http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/applicants/directive-94-08/biology-documents/brassica-juncea/eng/1330727837568/1330727899677

Cartea, M. E., Francisco, M., Soengas, P., Velasco, P., 2011. Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables. Molecules, 16(1), 251-280. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/1/251/pdf doi: 10.3390/molecules16010251

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2019. Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia . https://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=5205

Charleston, D. S., Kfir, R., 2000. The possibility of using Indian mustard, Brassica juncea, as a trap crop for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in South Africa. Crop Protection, 19(7), 455-460. doi: 10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00037-5

Cheo TY, 1987. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae. Tomus 33: Crucifereae, Beijing, China: Science Press.483 pp.

Commercial Seed Analysts Association of Canada, 2010. Visual identification of seeds of five species of Brassica and one species of Sinapis. British Colombia, Canada: CSAAC.9 pp.

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Duke, J. A., 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. In: Handbook of Energy Crops . West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University.unpaginated. https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gulden, R. H., Warwick, S. I., Thomas, A. G., 2008. The biology of Canadian weeds. 137. Brassica napus l. and B. rapa l. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 88(5), 951-996. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/aic-journals/cjps.html

Jafariehyazdi, E., Javidfar, F., 2011. Comparison of allelopathic effects of some brassica species in two growth stages on germination and growth of sunflower. Plant, Soil and Environment, 57(2), 52-56.

Jham, G. N., Moser, B. R., Shah, S. N., Holser, R. A., Dhingra, O. D., Vaughn, S. F., Berhow, M. A., Winkler-Moser, J. K., Isbell, T. A., Holloway, R. K., Walter, E. L., Natalino, R., Anderson, J. C., Stelly, D. M., 2009. Wild Brazilian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(9), 917-926. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r45w7n770x236057/?p=b3e0211f623b4edca2389e555297d125&pi=10 doi: 10.1007/s11746-009-1431-2

Kumar V, Thakur AK, Barothia ND, Chatterjee SS, 2011. Therapeutic potentials of Brassica juncea: An overview. TANG: International Journal of Genuine Traditional Medicine, 1(1), 1-16.

Lee, N. K., Lee, J. H., Lim, S. M., Lee, K. A., Kim, Y. B., Chang, P. S., Paik, H. D., 2014. Antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 97(9), 5383-5386. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030214004925 doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8016

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Main, M., McCaffrey, J. P., Morra, M. J., 2014. Insecticidal activity of Brassica juncea seed meal to the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens Johannsen (Diptera:Sciaridae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 138(9), 701-707. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418 doi: 10.1111/jen.12128

Malan R, Walia A, Saini V, Gupta S, 2011. Comparison of different extracts leaf of Brassica juncea Linn on wound healing activity. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 1(2), 33-40.

Malode SN, Shelke PB, 2010. Morphological, phenological and anatomical studies in yellow seeded mutant Brassica juncea. Bionano Frontier, 3(2), 172-177.

Maltz, M. R., Bell, C. E., Mitrovich, M. J., Iyer, A. R., Treseder, K. K., 2016. Invasive plant management techniques alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecological Restoration, 34(3), 209-215. http://er.uwpress.org/content/34/3/209.abstract

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales.36 + 29 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2), 171-193.

Neha Kunjwal, Yogesh Kumar, Khan, M. S., 2014. Flower-visiting insect pollinators of Brown Mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss and their foraging behaviour under caged and open pollination. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(16), 1278-1286. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1397817999_Kunjwal%20%20et%20al.pdf

Ngala, B. M., Haydock, P. P. J., Woods, S., Back, M. A., 2015. Biofumigation with Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa for the management of field populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Pest Management Science, 71(5), 759-769. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3849/full doi: 10.1002/ps.3849

OECD, 2016. Brassica crops (Brassica species). In: Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms in the Environment, Volume 5: OECD Consensus Documents Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

OECD-FAO, 2012. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2012-2021, Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.281 pp.

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008. The biology of Brassica napus L. (canola). Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health.63 pp.

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017. The Biology of Brassica napus L. (canola) and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Indian mustard). Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health.

Oliveira, R. D. L., Dhingra, O. D., Lima, A. O., Jham, G. N., Berhow, M. A., Holloway, R. K., Vaughn, S. F., 2011. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Plant and Soil, 341(1/2), 155-164. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100326 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0631-8

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pakpour S, Klironomos J, 2015. The invasive plant, Brassica nigra, degrades local mycorrhizas across a wide geographical landscape. Royal Society Open Science, 2(9)

Peltzer, D. A., Ferriss, S., Fitzjohn, R. G., 2008. Predicting weed distribution at the landscape scale: using naturalized Brassica as a model system. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(2), 467-475. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01410.x doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01410.x

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall, R. P., 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status, [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Glen Osmond, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management.iv + 524 pp.

Rodri´guez-Vila A, Asensio V, Forja´n J, Covelo EF, 2015. Chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a mine soil amended with compost and biochar and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 158, 74-81.

Salvador Perniola, O., Staltari, S., Chorzempa, S. E., Astiz Gassó, M. M., Molina, M. del C., 2014. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum: use of Trichoderma spp. and biofumigation with aerial part of brassica juncea. (Control biológico de Fusarium graminearum: utilización de Trichoderma spp. y biofumigación con parte aérea de Brassica juncea). Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 46(2), 45-56. http://revista.fca.uncu.edu.ar/images/stories/pdfs/2014-02/Cp04_Perniola.pdf

Schippers RR , Mnzava NA, 2007. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. In: PROTA4U, [ed. by van der Vossen HAM, Mkamilo GS]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA.http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Singh A, Fulekar MH, 2012. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals by Brassica juncea in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment. In: The plant family Brassicaceae: contribution towards phytoremediation, [ed. by Naser A, Anjum NA, Ahmad I, Pereira ME, Duarte AC, Umar S, Khan NA]. Springer. 153-169.

Smrithi, A., Bhaigyabati, T., Usha, K., 2012. Bioremediation potential of Brassica juncea against textile disposal. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(2), 393-400. http://rjpbcs.com/pdf/2012_3(2)/[47].pdf

Spect CE, Diederichsen A, 2001. Brassica. In: Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops vol 3, [ed. by Hanelt P]. Springer-Verlag. 1453-1456.

Swearingen, J., Bargeron, C., 2016. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. In: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States . Tifton, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. In: The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1 Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

UPRRP, 2017. UPRRP Herbarium. In: UPRRP Herbarium San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico.http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/

Warwick SI, Francis A, 1994. Guide to the wild germplasm of Brassica and allied crops. Part V. Life History and Geographical Data for Wild Species in the Tribe Brassiceae (Cruciferae). Technical Bulletin 1994-2E. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture Canada Research Branch.61pp.

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Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008. The Biology of Brassica juncea (Canola/Mustard). Ottowa, Canada: Government of Canada. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/applicants/directive-94-08/biology-documents/brassica-juncea/eng/1330727837568/1330727899677

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2019. Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia. https://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=5205

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Duke J A, 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. In: Handbook of Energy Crops. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University. unpaginated. https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html

Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. 36 + 29 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research. 8 (2), 171-193.

Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008. The biology of Brassica napus L. (canola)., Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health. 63 pp.

Oliveira R D L, Dhingra O D, Lima A O, Jham G N, Berhow M A, Holloway R K, Vaughn S F, 2011. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Plant and Soil. 341 (1/2), 155-164. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100326 DOI:10.1007/s11104-010-0631-8

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall R P, 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. [ed. by Randall R P]. Glen Osmond, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management. iv + 524 pp.

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Weber E, Gut D, 2004. Assessing the risk of potentially invasive plant species in central Europe. Journal for Nature Conservation. 12 (3), 171-179. DOI:10.1016/j.jnc.2004.04.002

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Organizations

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China: BRASSICA DATABASE (BRAD), Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, http://brassicadb.org/brad/

Contributors

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22/06/17 Original text by:

Augusto C. Carvajal Vélez, Consultant, Puerto Rico

Distribution Maps

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