Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brassica juncea
(mustard)

Vélez A C C, 2017. Brassica juncea (mustard). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.91760.20203482778

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Datasheet

Brassica juncea (mustard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brassica juncea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mustard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Brassica juncea has been distributed worldwide as a crop, and has escaped cultivation to become naturalized in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed. Seeds can persist in fields after harvesting and become a weed for subsequent crops....

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit
Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit
Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Flowering habitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Flowering habit Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
FlowersBrassica juncea (mustard); flowers. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); flowering habit. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); habit. developing rosettes. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
LeavesBrassica juncea (mustard); leaves. Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitBrassica juncea (mustard); seeding habit. Northwest Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleSeedpods
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
SeedpodsBrassica juncea (mustard); green seedpods and stem. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
TitleSeeds
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.
SeedsBrassica juncea (mustard); seeds and pod. Northeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Title Invasive habit
CaptionBrassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Brassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Invasive habitBrassica juncea (mustard); invasive habit in a Laysan Albatross colony (Phoebastria immutabilis). Southeast Eastern Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

Preferred Common Name

  • mustard

Other Scientific Names

  • Brassica argyi H.Lév.
  • Brassica besseriana Andrz. ex Trautv.
  • Brassica cernua (Thunb.) F. B. Forbes & Hemsl.
  • Brassica cernua Forbes & Hemsley
  • Brassica integrifolia (H. West) Rupr.
  • Brassica japonica (Thunb.) Siebold ex Miq.
  • Brassica lanceolata (DC.) Lange
  • Brassica napiformis (Pailleux & Bois) L.H.Bailey
  • Brassica richeri Lange
  • Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) L.H. Bailey
  • Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) Prain
  • Brassica taquetii H.Lév.
  • Brassica willdenovii Boiss.
  • Crucifera juncea E.H.L. Krause
  • Raphanus junceus (L.) Crantz
  • Sinabraca juncea (L.) G.H. Loos
  • Sinapis abyssinica A. Braun
  • Sinapis cernua Thunb.
  • Sinapis chinensis L.
  • Sinapis cuneifolia Roxb.
  • Sinapis integrifolia H. West
  • Sinapis japonica Thunb.
  • Sinapis juncea L.
  • Sinapis lanceolata DC.
  • Sinapis patens Roxb.
  • Sinapis ramosa Roxb.
  • Sinapis ramosa Roxb. ex Fleming, Henry
  • Sinapis rugosa Roxb.
  • Sinapis timoriana DC.

International Common Names

  • English: brown mustard; canola; Chinese mustard; gai-choi; Indian mustard; oilseed mustard; oriental mustard; wild mustard
  • Spanish: mostaza

Local Common Names

  • China: jie-cai
  • Cuba: mostaza China; mostaza de la tierra
  • Czech Republic: brukev sítinovitá; kapusta sitinová
  • Denmark: ager-stedmorsblomst; håret viol; jernurt; marts-viol; tandbægret vårsalat
  • Estonia: sarepta kapsasrohi
  • Finland: karvaorvokki; pelto-orvokki; rikkavuonankaali; rohtorautayrtti; tuoksuorvokk
  • France: choux faux jonc; mountarde brune; moutarde de Chine; moutarde de Indie; moutarde de Sarepta; moutarde frisée; moutarde Indiennne
  • French Polynesia: pota tinito
  • Germany: Ruten-Kohl; Sareptasenf
  • Hungary: szareptai mustár
  • India: saiso
  • Japan: irana; karashi; karashi-na; setsuriko; takana
  • Kiribati: te kabiti; te kabiti n tiaina
  • Korea, Republic of: gas
  • Latvia: sareptas sinepe
  • Lithuania: sareptinis bastutis
  • Malaysia: kai choy; sawi pahit
  • Norway: åkerstemorsblom; jernurt; lodnefiol; marsfiol; tandbægret vårsalat
  • Spain: mostacilla; mostaza de la China; mostaza de la tierra; mostaza de Sarepta; mostaza India
  • Sweden: åkerviol; buskviol; järnört; luktviol; sommarklynne
  • Tonga: pauteni
  • USA: mustard greens

Summary of Invasiveness

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Brassica juncea has been distributed worldwide as a crop, and has escaped cultivation to become naturalized in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed. Seeds can persist in fields after harvesting and become a weed for subsequent crops. It is an invasive weed in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Americas, and many Pacific Islands, although it is not considered a significant weed in Canada. As some Brassica species use allelochemicals to inhibit other species and B. juncea extract has been shown to have a deleterious effect on sunflower germination and growth, this species could reduce local biodiversity.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Brassica
  •                                 Species: Brassica juncea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Brassica juncea was classified by Linneaus as Sinapis juncea in 1753 in Species Plantarum 2. Shortly after, in 1769, Cranz changed this species to Raphanus junceus. Cosson and Czernajew placed it in the genus Brassica ninety years later in 1859. It is a hybrid of Brassica nigra and Brassica rapa, believed to have originated 10,000 years ago (OECD, 2016) and has multiple varieties. All of these varieties have a chromosome number of 2n = 36 and they can be readily crossed and produce fully fertile offspring (Flora of China, 2015).

The high levels of polymorphism and the number of cultivars developed has led to a confusing taxonomy with regards to subspecies and varieties. Spect and Diedrichsen (2001) define 4 subspecies: integrifolia, juncea, napiformis and taisai. Whereas Flora of China (2015) revised the 7 varieties and 3 species defined in Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Cheo, 1987) into three varieties, juncea, napiformis and tumida. Most of the variation among varieties comes from the tremendous variation in basal leaf morphology of the species. All cultivars within these groups are used as vegetables, except for those of var. juncea, which is cultivated for its seeds and, less commonly, as animal feed.

Description

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Flora of China (2015), describes the biology of B. juncea as follows:

Herbs annual, (20-)30-100(-180) cm tall, pubescent or rarely glabrous, glaucous or not, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves long petiolate; petiole (1-)2-8(-15) cm; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (4-) 6-30(-80) × 1.5-15(-28) cm, lyrate-pinnatifid or pinnatisect; terminal lobe ovate, repand, dentate, or incised; lateral lobes 1-3 on each side of midvein, much smaller than terminal lobe, crisped incised, dentate, repand, or entire. Upper cauline leaves petiolate or subsessile, oblanceolate, oblong, lanceolate, or linear, to 10 × 5 cm, base cuneate to attenuate, margin entire or repand, rarely dentate. Fruiting pedicels straight, divaricate, (0.5-)0.8-1.5(-2) cm. Sepals oblong, (3.5-)4-6(-7) × 1-1.7 mm, spreading. Petals yellow, (6.5-)8-11(-13) × 5-7.5 mm, ovate or obovate, apex rounded or emarginate; claw 3-6 mm. Filaments 4-7 mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-5(-6) cm × 3-4(-5) mm, terete or slightly 4-angled, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.5-)2-4.5 cm, 6-15(-20)-seeded per locule; valves with a prominent midvein, slightly torulose; terminal segment conical, (4-)5-10(-15) mm, seedless; style often obsolete. Seeds dark to light brown or grey, globose, 1-1.7 mm in diameter, minutely reticulate.

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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This species is distributed worldwide, except in northern and polar areas with an annual average temperature below 6°C. Its original distribution is believed to be between Eastern Europe and China, where the range of its parent species, Brassica nigra and Brassica rapa, overlap, with centres of diversity in central and western China, eastern India, Myanmar, and through Iran to the Near East. It has been cultivated for centuries in many parts of Eurasia. These days, the species is mainly grown in Bangladesh, Central Africa, China, India, Japan, Nepal and Pakistan, as well as southern Russia north of the Caspian Sea.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced
AngolaPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced
ChadPresentIntroduced
ComorosPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
DjiboutiPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced
EritreaPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
LibyaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MayottePresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced
São Tomé and PríncipePresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
SomaliaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
South SudanPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
TunisiaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
AzerbaijanPresentIntroduced
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresentNative and IntroducedReported as native and introduced and invasive. This may be due to regional variation
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TianjinPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Cocos IslandsPresentNative
Hong KongPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndiaPresentNative
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
IranPresentIntroduced
IraqPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
KuwaitPresentIntroduced
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced
MacauPresent
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
OmanPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroducedCultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
TurkmenistanPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresent
YemenPresentIntroduced

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedNot established
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CzechiaPresentIntroducedNot established
DenmarkPresentIntroducedEstablished
EstoniaPresentIntroducedNot established
FinlandPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroducedNot established
GermanyPresentIntroducedNot established
HungaryPresentIntroducedNot established
IrelandPresentIntroducedNot established
LatviaPresentIntroducedNot established
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedNot established
MoldovaPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresentIntroducedNot established
Portugal
-AzoresPresentIntroducedEstablished
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentIntroduced
-Southern RussiaPresentIntroduced
SerbiaPresent
SpainPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresentIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroducedEstablished
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedNot established

North America

BelizePresentIntroduced
CanadaPresentIntroducedPresent as a weed, but not abundant or problematic
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedReported as both invasive and non-invasive
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedWeed
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedReported as both invasive and non-invasive
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedWeed
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasivePresent based on regional distribution. Reported as invasive in some states.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedReported as invasive and non-invasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedReported as invasive and non-invasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroducedReported as cultivated, non-invasive and invasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated and invasive
GuamPresentIntroducedOccasionally cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
NauruPresentIntroducedCultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedWeed
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive weed of winter crops
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Risk of Introduction

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This species is already widespread and new introductions are not of concern.

Habitat

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This is a cultivated and naturalized species around the world. In the wild it is mainly found in fields, wasteland and roadsides as a weed.

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Brassica juncea is a natural amphidiploid (AABB genome, 2n=36) hybrid of Brassica rapa (AA genome, 2n=20) and Brassica nigra (BB genome, 2n=16). Axelsson et al. (2000) used linkage mapping to show that the B. juncea genome has remained largely unchanged since the hybridization event and contains the conserved genomes of both progenitor species.

Reproductive Biology

This species is mainly self-pollinated, although 20-30% cross pollination has been recorded. This cross pollination can be the result of the raceme of different individuals touching. Although the major pollinator for the species seems to be bees due to the heavy and sticky nature of its pollen (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008), at least 30 species of insect pollinators, belonging to ten families under four orders, were observed visiting brown mustard flowers in open pollinated and caged individuals in India, including the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) (Kunjwal et al., 2014). In farmlands in Indonesia, three bee species were found to make up approximately 88% of the pollinators, but a diversity of Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera species were observed (Atmowidi et al., 2007).

Environmental Requirements

Brassica juncea grows worldwide from Boreal Wet to Tropical Thorn through Tropical Wet Forest Life Zones. It is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 500 to 4200 mm, annual temperature of 6 to 27°C, and pH of 4.3 to 8.3.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 50

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 6 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5004200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Albugo candida Pathogen not specific
Athelia rolfsii Pathogen not specific
Cucumber mosaic virus Pathogen not specific
Entomoscelis americana not specific
Fusarium Pathogen not specific
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis Pathogen not specific
Heterodera schachtii Pathogen not specific
Leptosphaeria maculans Pathogen not specific
Macrophomina phaseolina Pathogen not specific
Meloidogyne hapla Pathogen not specific
Meloidogyne incognita Pathogen not specific
Murgantia histrionica not specific
Mycosphaerella brassicicola Pathogen not specific
Phasianus colchicus Seeds not specific
Pieris brassicae not specific
Pieris rapae not specific
Plutella xylostella not specific
Pontia protodice not specific
Pythium not specific
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Pathogen not specific
Turnip mosaic virus Pathogen not specific
Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae Pathogen not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Brassica juncea seeds are released as its seed pods dry and shatter. It shows slightly greater shattering resistance than other closely related Brassica species, which may reduce its rate of dispersal (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008). A large number of small seeds are produced, which can be dispersed by wind and water (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Animals, including ants, birds and mammals, can disperse seeds (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Mathematical modelling of the spread of naturalized populations of B. juncea in New Zealand found the presence of seed storage facilities and transportation routes explained a high percentage of the variance in B. juncea presence or absence. This suggests human-mediated dispersal is a major pathway for spreading wild populations (Peltzer et al., 2008). 

Intentional Introduction

Brassica juncea is a crop that has been distributed worldwide through human introduction.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationBreeding programme for enhancement of crop traits for fodder and oil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Crop productionDeliberately introduced as a crop in most temperate and tropical areas Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Forage Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Industrial purposesOil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Internet sales Yes Yes
Medicinal use Yes Canadian Food Inspection Agency (2008)
Research Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health

Economic Impact

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In cultivation, B. juncea seed may escape harvest, allowing it to persist and become a weed of subsequent crops. It is a major weed in Australia, and considered a minor weed in Canada (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008). In Canada it is less common as a volunteer weed than other closely related species, such as Brassica napus, perhaps as a result of reduced shattering in B. juncea limiting its spread (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008).

Environmental Impact

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Some Brassica species have been shown to have an allelopathic effect on native species. Brassica nigra has been shown to inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which can prevent the establishment of native plants dependent on this symbiosis (Pakpour and Klironomos, 2015; Maltz et al., 2016). Extracts from B. juncea, B. napus and B. rapa were shown to reduce germination rate, seedling root, hypocotyl length and fresh and dry weight in sunflower (Jafariehyazdi and Javidfar, 2011).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Fast growing
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Hybridization

Uses

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Economic Value

Brassica juncea is one of six cultivated Brassicaceae species, and it is a major oil yielding crop (Sharma et al., 2014). B. juncea, B. rapa and B. napus are the primary sources of canola oil, due to the 35-45% oil content of their seeds. Brassica oilseed production represents 14% of the edible oil production, ranking third after Palm and Soybean edible oil (OECD-FAO, 2012). Of the three Brassica oilseed crops, B juncea has a higher heat tolerance and is more common in subtropical regions, such as Asia, compared to B. napus and B. rapa, which dominate in temperate regions. Mustard oil, produced from B. juncea or B. nigra, is a major cooking oil in India and is highly prized for vegetable and fish frying for its distinctive taste and pungency due to the presence of allyl-isothiocynate and related compounds (Malode and Shelke, 2010). Canola meal (a byproduct of canola oil process) can be used as animal food or a condiment, and plants cultivated as an oilseed crop can be collected in the spring and be used as hay (Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008).

The species has some technological application in biodiesel production and bioremediation and for its insecticidal, fungicidal, nematicidal and medicinal properties (Lee et al., 2014; Main et al., 2014, Ngala et al., 2015; Oliveira et al., 2011; Perniola et al., 2014; Rodríguez-Vila et al., 2015; Jham et al., 2009; Smrithi et al., 2012). Its insecticidal activity is due mainly to its glucosinolate and erucic acid composition (Cartea et al., 2011). At least 34 phenolic compounds have been identified in B. juncea leaves, but only varieties with low phenolic content are used for canola oil production (Cartea et al., 2011; Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008).

Social Benefit

Brassica juncea is not a common medicine, but it is used in folk medicine, as reported by Duke (1983):

It is reported to be an anodyne, aperitif, emetic, rubefacient and stimulant, and used to treat arthritis, foot ache, lumbago, and rheumatism. In China, the seeds are used for treating tumours and leaves are eaten in soups to treat bladder disorders, inflammation or haemorrhage. In Korea it is used to treat abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism and stomach disorders, while is considered an antisyphilitic emmenagogue in Java. The root is used as a galactagogue in Africa and its ingestion may impart a body odour that serves as mosquito repellent. Mustard oil is used to treat skin conditions.

More recent studies have evaluated the healing and pharmacological properties of B. juncea. The seeds, oil and leaves are a source of a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals, but research into this area is still limited (Kumar et al., 2011; Malan et al., 2011).

Environmental Services

Brassica juncea is a potential candidate for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution as it has been found to significantly deplete levels of cadmium, lead and zinc in soil (Singh and Fulekar, 2012). In addition, this species has been suggested as a biological control of several plagues as a trap crop for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in South Africa (Charleston and Kfir, 2000; Badenes-Perez et al., 2004), among other pests, including fungi and nematodes (Ngala et al., 2015).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Fuels

  • Biofuels

General

  • Sociocultural value

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Oil/fat
  • Seeds
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Oils
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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This species is of hybrid origin. It closely resembles B. napus and B. rapa except that the upper leaves of these two species are clasping, while in B. juncea they are not. Brassica juncea seeds are very similar to those of Brassica niger, one of its parent species, both less than 2 mm in diameter, reddish-brown to brown or orange in colour. However, the seeds of B. juncea are more spherical than those of B. nigra, which are more oval or oblong. The seed texture varies, with B. juncea being defined by fine, distinct lines outlining flat-bottomed interspaces, while B. niger has thick, prominent ridges surrounding concave interspaces. B. juncea seeds have small, distinct stipples covering the entire seed, while the stipples on the seeds of B. niger are partially or completely obscured and may not be visible (Commercial Seed Analysts Association of Canada, 2010)

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Brassica juncea seed persists in soils for more than a year, contaminating subsequent crops, which can make this species difficult to eradicate once established. 

References

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Ashutosh Sharma, Li XiaoNan, Lim YongPyo, 2014. Comparative genomics of Brassicaceae crops. Breeding Science, 64(1), 3-13. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jsbbs doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.64.3

Atmowidi T, Buchori D, Manuwoto S, 2007. Diversity of pollinator insects in relation to seed set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae). HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 14(4), 155-161.

Augustine, R., Majee, M., Gershenzon, J., Bisht, N. C., 2013. Four genes encoding MYB28, a major transcriptional regulator of the aliphatic glucosinolate pathway, are differentially expressed in the allopolyploid Brassica juncea. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64(16), 4907-4921. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/ doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert280

Axelsson, T., Bowman, C. M., Sharpe, A. G., Lydiate, D. J., Lagercrantz, U., 2000. Amphidiploid Brassica juncea contains conserved progenitor genomes. Genome, 43(4), 679-688. doi: 10.1139/gen-43-4-679

Badenes-Perez, F. R., Shelton, A. M., Nault, B. A., 2004. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(4), 1365-1372. http://www.esa.catchword.org doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-97.4.1365

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008. The Biology of Brassica juncea (Canola/Mustard). Ottowa, Canada: Government of Canada.http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/applicants/directive-94-08/biology-documents/brassica-juncea/eng/1330727837568/1330727899677

Cartea, M. E., Francisco, M., Soengas, P., Velasco, P., 2011. Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables. Molecules, 16(1), 251-280. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/1/251/pdf doi: 10.3390/molecules16010251

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2019. Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia . https://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=5205

Charleston, D. S., Kfir, R., 2000. The possibility of using Indian mustard, Brassica juncea, as a trap crop for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in South Africa. Crop Protection, 19(7), 455-460. doi: 10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00037-5

Cheo TY, 1987. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae. Tomus 33: Crucifereae, Beijing, China: Science Press.483 pp.

Commercial Seed Analysts Association of Canada, 2010. Visual identification of seeds of five species of Brassica and one species of Sinapis. British Colombia, Canada: CSAAC.9 pp.

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Duke, J. A., 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. In: Handbook of Energy Crops . West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Centre for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University.unpaginated. https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/dukeindex.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Gulden, R. H., Warwick, S. I., Thomas, A. G., 2008. The biology of Canadian weeds. 137. Brassica napus l. and B. rapa l. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 88(5), 951-996. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/aic-journals/cjps.html

Jafariehyazdi, E., Javidfar, F., 2011. Comparison of allelopathic effects of some brassica species in two growth stages on germination and growth of sunflower. Plant, Soil and Environment, 57(2), 52-56.

Jham, G. N., Moser, B. R., Shah, S. N., Holser, R. A., Dhingra, O. D., Vaughn, S. F., Berhow, M. A., Winkler-Moser, J. K., Isbell, T. A., Holloway, R. K., Walter, E. L., Natalino, R., Anderson, J. C., Stelly, D. M., 2009. Wild Brazilian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(9), 917-926. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r45w7n770x236057/?p=b3e0211f623b4edca2389e555297d125&pi=10 doi: 10.1007/s11746-009-1431-2

Kumar V, Thakur AK, Barothia ND, Chatterjee SS, 2011. Therapeutic potentials of Brassica juncea: An overview. TANG: International Journal of Genuine Traditional Medicine, 1(1), 1-16.

Lee, N. K., Lee, J. H., Lim, S. M., Lee, K. A., Kim, Y. B., Chang, P. S., Paik, H. D., 2014. Antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 97(9), 5383-5386. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030214004925 doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8016

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Main, M., McCaffrey, J. P., Morra, M. J., 2014. Insecticidal activity of Brassica juncea seed meal to the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens Johannsen (Diptera:Sciaridae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 138(9), 701-707. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418 doi: 10.1111/jen.12128

Malan R, Walia A, Saini V, Gupta S, 2011. Comparison of different extracts leaf of Brassica juncea Linn on wound healing activity. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 1(2), 33-40.

Malode SN, Shelke PB, 2010. Morphological, phenological and anatomical studies in yellow seeded mutant Brassica juncea. Bionano Frontier, 3(2), 172-177.

Maltz, M. R., Bell, C. E., Mitrovich, M. J., Iyer, A. R., Treseder, K. K., 2016. Invasive plant management techniques alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecological Restoration, 34(3), 209-215. http://er.uwpress.org/content/34/3/209.abstract

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 2012. Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales.36 + 29 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2), 171-193.

Neha Kunjwal, Yogesh Kumar, Khan, M. S., 2014. Flower-visiting insect pollinators of Brown Mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss and their foraging behaviour under caged and open pollination. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(16), 1278-1286. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1397817999_Kunjwal%20%20et%20al.pdf

Ngala, B. M., Haydock, P. P. J., Woods, S., Back, M. A., 2015. Biofumigation with Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa for the management of field populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Pest Management Science, 71(5), 759-769. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3849/full doi: 10.1002/ps.3849

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Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2017. The Biology of Brassica napus L. (canola) and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Indian mustard). Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health.

Oliveira, R. D. L., Dhingra, O. D., Lima, A. O., Jham, G. N., Berhow, M. A., Holloway, R. K., Vaughn, S. F., 2011. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Plant and Soil, 341(1/2), 155-164. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100326 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0631-8

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pakpour S, Klironomos J, 2015. The invasive plant, Brassica nigra, degrades local mycorrhizas across a wide geographical landscape. Royal Society Open Science, 2(9)

Peltzer, D. A., Ferriss, S., Fitzjohn, R. G., 2008. Predicting weed distribution at the landscape scale: using naturalized Brassica as a model system. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(2), 467-475. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01410.x doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01410.x

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Rodri´guez-Vila A, Asensio V, Forja´n J, Covelo EF, 2015. Chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a mine soil amended with compost and biochar and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. Journal of Geochemical Exploration , 158, 74-81.

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Smrithi, A., Bhaigyabati, T., Usha, K., 2012. Bioremediation potential of Brassica juncea against textile disposal. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(2), 393-400. http://rjpbcs.com/pdf/2012_3(2)/[47].pdf

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Distribution References

Anirban Roy, Poreddy Spoorthi, Bag M K, Prasad T V, Ranbir Singh, Manoranjan Dutta, Bikash Mandal, 2013. A leaf curl disease in germplasm of rapeseed-mustard in India: molecular evidence of a weed-infecting begomovirus-betasatellite complex emerging in a new crop. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (7/8), 522-535. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Babu S R, 2009. Records of overwintering adults of red cotton bug, Dysdercus cingulatus Gab. in different host plants of southern humid zone of Rajasthan. Insect Environment. 14 (4), 176-177.

Baiswar P, Ngachan S V, Verma V K, Chandra S, 2016. Molecular evidence reveals presence of Albugo candida on Brassicajuncea var rugosa in northeast India. Environment and Ecology. 34 (4A), 1849-1851. http://www.environmentandecology.com/

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2008. The Biology of Brassica juncea (Canola/Mustard). Ottowa, Canada: Government of Canada. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plants-with-novel-traits/applicants/directive-94-08/biology-documents/brassica-juncea/eng/1330727837568/1330727899677

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Oliveira R D L, Dhingra O D, Lima A O, Jham G N, Berhow M A, Holloway R K, Vaughn S F, 2011. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Plant and Soil. 341 (1/2), 155-164. DOI:10.1007/s11104-010-0631-8

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Sharma P, Verma R K, Mishra R, Choudhary D K, Gaur R K, 2013. First report of Turnip yellow virus (TuYV) in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) in India. New Disease Reports. 21. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.027.021

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Organizations

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China: BRASSICA DATABASE (BRAD), Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, http://brassicadb.org/brad/

Contributors

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22/06/17 Original text by:

Augusto C. Carvajal Vélez, Consultant, Puerto Rico

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