Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

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Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine leukemia virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Retroviridae
  •       Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •         Species: bovine leukemia virus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine leukemia virus

International Common Names

  • English: BLV; bovine leukaemia virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Retroviridae
  •             Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •                 Species: bovine leukemia virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungarySerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Last reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bovine leukosis virus and other retroviruses are called retroviruses because they all have a gene that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (Coffin, 1996; Murphy et al., 1999). This enzyme permits the viruses to convert their viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to integrate the viral DNA into the DNA of the target cells of their respective hosts, yielding a provirus. Similar to other retroviruses, the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) provirus includes a long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, pol, and an env region (Schwartz and Lévy, 1994). The gag, pol, env and prt regions contain the genetic information for the core proteins, the reverse transcriptase, the envelope proteins, and the viral protease, respectively. The major core proteins are p24, p15, p12, and p10. The p24, the first recognized structural protein of BLV, has been purified, sequenced and was found to be distinct from the major core protein of most other retroviruses. The major glycoproteins of the envelope of BLV particles are gp51 and gp30. The gp51 facilitates recognition of the cellular viral receptor (Voneche et al., 1992a). The gp30 anchors the gp51/gp30 complex into the viral envelope and the infected cell membrane (Voneche et al., 1992b). p24 and gp51 are the basis for the most commonly used, antibody-based diagnostic tests for BLV infection.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Anopheles albimanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles freeborniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles quadrimaculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
TabanidaeInsect
Tabanus atratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Tabanus fuscicostatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Coffin JM, 1996. Retroviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP et al, eds. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott-Raven. Fields Virology, 1767-1847.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Schwartz I; Lévy D, 1994. Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus. Veterinary Research, 25(6):521-536; 78 ref.

Voneche V; Callebaut I; Kettmann R; Brasseur R; Burny A; Portetelle D, 1992. The 19-27 amino acid segment of gp51 adopts an amphiphilic structure and plays a key role in the fusion events induced by bovine leukemia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 21(267):15193-15197.

Voneche V; Portetelle D; Kettmann R; Willems L; Limbach K; Paoletti E; Ruysschaert JM; Burny A; Brasseur R, 1992. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(9):3810-3814.

Distribution Maps

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