Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

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Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine leukemia virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Retroviridae
  •       Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •         Species: bovine leukemia virus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine leukemia virus

International Common Names

  • English: BLV; bovine leukaemia virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Retroviridae
  •             Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •                 Species: bovine leukemia virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
RéunionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
JapanPresent
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
EstoniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MoldovaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SpainPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SwedenPresent
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresent

Oceania

New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bovine leukosis virus and other retroviruses are called retroviruses because they all have a gene that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (Coffin, 1996; Murphy et al., 1999). This enzyme permits the viruses to convert their viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to integrate the viral DNA into the DNA of the target cells of their respective hosts, yielding a provirus. Similar to other retroviruses, the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) provirus includes a long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, pol, and an env region (Schwartz and Lévy, 1994). The gag, pol, env and prt regions contain the genetic information for the core proteins, the reverse transcriptase, the envelope proteins, and the viral protease, respectively. The major core proteins are p24, p15, p12, and p10. The p24, the first recognized structural protein of BLV, has been purified, sequenced and was found to be distinct from the major core protein of most other retroviruses. The major glycoproteins of the envelope of BLV particles are gp51 and gp30. The gp51 facilitates recognition of the cellular viral receptor (Voneche et al., 1992a). The gp30 anchors the gp51/gp30 complex into the viral envelope and the infected cell membrane (Voneche et al., 1992b). p24 and gp51 are the basis for the most commonly used, antibody-based diagnostic tests for BLV infection.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Anopheles albimanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles freeborniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles quadrimaculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
TabanidaeInsect
Tabanus atratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Tabanus fuscicostatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Coffin JM, 1996. Retroviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP et al, eds. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott-Raven. Fields Virology, 1767-1847.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Schwartz I; Lévy D, 1994. Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus. Veterinary Research, 25(6):521-536; 78 ref.

Voneche V; Callebaut I; Kettmann R; Brasseur R; Burny A; Portetelle D, 1992. The 19-27 amino acid segment of gp51 adopts an amphiphilic structure and plays a key role in the fusion events induced by bovine leukemia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 21(267):15193-15197.

Voneche V; Portetelle D; Kettmann R; Willems L; Limbach K; Paoletti E; Ruysschaert JM; Burny A; Brasseur R, 1992. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(9):3810-3814.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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