bovine leukemia virus
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- bovine leukemia virus
International Common Names
- English: BLV; bovine leukaemia virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
- Family: Retroviridae
- Genus: Deltaretroviruses
- Species: bovine leukemia virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Bovine leukosis virus and other retroviruses are called retroviruses because they all have a gene that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (Coffin, 1996; Murphy et al., 1999). This enzyme permits the viruses to convert their viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to integrate the viral DNA into the DNA of the target cells of their respective hosts, yielding a provirus. Similar to other retroviruses, the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) provirus includes a long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, pol, and an env region (Schwartz and Lévy, 1994). The gag, pol, env and prt regions contain the genetic information for the core proteins, the reverse transcriptase, the envelope proteins, and the viral protease, respectively. The major core proteins are p24, p15, p12, and p10. The p24, the first recognized structural protein of BLV, has been purified, sequenced and was found to be distinct from the major core protein of most other retroviruses. The major glycoproteins of the envelope of BLV particles are gp51 and gp30. The gp51 facilitates recognition of the cellular viral receptor (Voneche et al., 1992a). The gp30 anchors the gp51/gp30 complex into the viral envelope and the infected cell membrane (Voneche et al., 1992b). p24 and gp51 are the basis for the most commonly used, antibody-based diagnostic tests for BLV infection.
Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
Host AnimalsTop of page
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
|Anopheles albimanus||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Anopheles freeborni||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Anopheles quadrimaculatus||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Anopheles stephensi||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Boophilus microplus||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Tick|
|Stomoxys calcitrans||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Tabanus atratus||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
|Tabanus fuscicostatus||MINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0||Insect|
ReferencesTop of page
Coffin JM, 1996. Retroviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP et al, eds. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott-Raven. Fields Virology, 1767-1847.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Voneche V; Callebaut I; Kettmann R; Brasseur R; Burny A; Portetelle D, 1992. The 19-27 amino acid segment of gp51 adopts an amphiphilic structure and plays a key role in the fusion events induced by bovine leukemia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 21(267):15193-15197.
Voneche V; Portetelle D; Kettmann R; Willems L; Limbach K; Paoletti E; Ruysschaert JM; Burny A; Brasseur R, 1992. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(9):3810-3814.
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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