Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

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Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine leukemia virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Retroviridae
  •       Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •         Species: bovine leukemia virus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine leukemia virus

International Common Names

  • English: BLV; bovine leukaemia virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Retroviridae
  •             Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •                 Species: bovine leukemia virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IranAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanPresentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaPresentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreecePresentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkrainePresentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaPresentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsentJan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bovine leukosis virus and other retroviruses are called retroviruses because they all have a gene that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (Coffin, 1996; Murphy et al., 1999). This enzyme permits the viruses to convert their viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to integrate the viral DNA into the DNA of the target cells of their respective hosts, yielding a provirus. Similar to other retroviruses, the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) provirus includes a long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, pol, and an env region (Schwartz and Lévy, 1994). The gag, pol, env and prt regions contain the genetic information for the core proteins, the reverse transcriptase, the envelope proteins, and the viral protease, respectively. The major core proteins are p24, p15, p12, and p10. The p24, the first recognized structural protein of BLV, has been purified, sequenced and was found to be distinct from the major core protein of most other retroviruses. The major glycoproteins of the envelope of BLV particles are gp51 and gp30. The gp51 facilitates recognition of the cellular viral receptor (Voneche et al., 1992a). The gp30 anchors the gp51/gp30 complex into the viral envelope and the infected cell membrane (Voneche et al., 1992b). p24 and gp51 are the basis for the most commonly used, antibody-based diagnostic tests for BLV infection.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Anopheles albimanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles freeborniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles quadrimaculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
TabanidaeInsect
Tabanus atratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Tabanus fuscicostatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Coffin JM, 1996. Retroviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP et al, eds. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott-Raven. Fields Virology, 1767-1847.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Schwartz I; Lévy D, 1994. Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus. Veterinary Research, 25(6):521-536; 78 ref.

Voneche V; Callebaut I; Kettmann R; Brasseur R; Burny A; Portetelle D, 1992. The 19-27 amino acid segment of gp51 adopts an amphiphilic structure and plays a key role in the fusion events induced by bovine leukemia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 21(267):15193-15197.

Voneche V; Portetelle D; Kettmann R; Willems L; Limbach K; Paoletti E; Ruysschaert JM; Burny A; Brasseur R, 1992. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(9):3810-3814.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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