Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

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Datasheet

bovine leukemia virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine leukemia virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Retroviridae
  •       Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •         Species: bovine leukemia virus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine leukemia virus

International Common Names

  • English: BLV; bovine leukaemia virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Retroviridae
  •             Genus: Deltaretroviruses
  •                 Species: bovine leukemia virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bovine leukosis virus and other retroviruses are called retroviruses because they all have a gene that codes for the enzyme reverse transcriptase (Coffin, 1996; Murphy et al., 1999). This enzyme permits the viruses to convert their viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to integrate the viral DNA into the DNA of the target cells of their respective hosts, yielding a provirus. Similar to other retroviruses, the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) provirus includes a long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, pol, and an env region (Schwartz and Lévy, 1994). The gag, pol, env and prt regions contain the genetic information for the core proteins, the reverse transcriptase, the envelope proteins, and the viral protease, respectively. The major core proteins are p24, p15, p12, and p10. The p24, the first recognized structural protein of BLV, has been purified, sequenced and was found to be distinct from the major core protein of most other retroviruses. The major glycoproteins of the envelope of BLV particles are gp51 and gp30. The gp51 facilitates recognition of the cellular viral receptor (Voneche et al., 1992a). The gp30 anchors the gp51/gp30 complex into the viral envelope and the infected cell membrane (Voneche et al., 1992b). p24 and gp51 are the basis for the most commonly used, antibody-based diagnostic tests for BLV infection.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Anopheles albimanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles freeborniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles quadrimaculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
TabanidaeInsect
Tabanus atratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Tabanus fuscicostatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Coffin JM, 1996. Retroviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP et al, eds. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott-Raven. Fields Virology, 1767-1847.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Schwartz I; Lévy D, 1994. Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus. Veterinary Research, 25(6):521-536; 78 ref.

Voneche V; Callebaut I; Kettmann R; Brasseur R; Burny A; Portetelle D, 1992. The 19-27 amino acid segment of gp51 adopts an amphiphilic structure and plays a key role in the fusion events induced by bovine leukemia virus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 21(267):15193-15197.

Voneche V; Portetelle D; Kettmann R; Willems L; Limbach K; Paoletti E; Ruysschaert JM; Burny A; Brasseur R, 1992. Fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(9):3810-3814.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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