Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
Electron micrographElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.Etienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
TitleGenome
CaptionThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
GenomeThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.Etienne Thiry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine herpesvirus 1

International Common Names

  • English: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

English acronym

  • BoHV-1
  • IBRV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Varicellovirus
  •                         Species: bovine herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayottePresentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanPresentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraPresentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreecePresentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManPresent
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaltaPresentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaPresentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsentJan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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BHV-1 belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. BHV-1 is an enveloped virus with an icosahedric capsid made of 162 capsomeres (Schwyzer and Ackermann, 1996). BHV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus, 135-140 kbp in size (Mayfield et al., 1983; Wyler et al., 1989). At least ten glycoproteins are present on the envelope. They can be differentiated into glycoproteins essential for virus replication like gB, gD and gH, and non essential glycoproteins like gC, gE and gI (Baranowski et al., 1996). The three major glycoproteins, i.e. the most abundant ones in the virion, are gB, gC and gD.

The virus exhibits a tropism for epithelial cells, blood mononuclear cells and neurones. Virus replication takes place in the nucleus of the infected cell.

BHV-1 has two subtypes, called subtype 1 and 2, which can be characterized by the restriction endonuclease profiles of viral DNA (Engels et al., 1987), and by a few discriminating monoclonal antibodies (Metzler et al., 1985; Rijsewijk et al., 1999). All BHV-1 strains are very close, both antigenically and genomically. Since the 1970s, strains of subtype 1 have mainly been isolated from the respiratory tract (IBR strains). Strains of subtype 2 are mainly genital viruses, which had been isolated before the 1970s (Edwards et al., 1990). However, the subtype distinction does not segregate all the respiratory strains from the genital isolates. Strains isolated from aborted foetuses mainly belong to subtype 1 (Pauli et al., 1984; Miller et al., 1991). Whatever the vaccine strain used, each subtype will successfully protect against the other one.

Previously, BHV-1 subtype 3 was assigned a virus species and is now called BHV-5 or bovine encephalitis herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985).

BHV-1 strains can also be distinguished on the basis of their virulence. Hypervirulent and attenuated strains have been characterized by the induced clinical signs in experimentally infected animals (Kaashoek et al., 1996). However, the virulence character cannot be linked to a biochemical marker.

Several alphaherpesviruses isolated from other ruminant species are closely related to BHV-1: caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) (Engels et al., 1987), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CerHV-1) (Inglis et al., 1983), rangiferine herpesvirus 1 (RanHV-1) (Ek-Kommonen et al., 1986) and buffalo herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985). Recently, a herpesvirus related to BHV-1 was also isolated from elk (Deregt et al., 2000).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Baranowski E; Keil G; Lyaku J; Rijsewijk FAM; Oirschot JTvan; Pastoret PP; Thiry E, 1996. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):91-101; 73 ref.

Brake F; Studdert MJ, 1985. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of ruminant herpesviruses including bovine, buffalo and caprine herpesviruses 1 and bovine encephalitis herpesvirus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 62(10):331-334; 21 ref.

Deregt D et al., 2000. Antigenic and molecular characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from a North American elk. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61:1614-1618.

Edwards S; White H; Nixon P, 1990. A study of the predominant genotypes of bovid herpesvirus 1 found in the UK. Veterinary Microbiology, 22(2/3):213-223; 21 ref.

Ek-Kommonen C; Pelkonen S; Nettleton PF, 1986. Isolation of a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 from a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 27:299-301.

Engels M et al., 1987. The genome of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) strains exhibiting a neuropathogenic potential compared to known BHV-1 strains by restriction site mapping and cross-hybridization. Virus Research, 6:57-73.

Engels M; Loepfe E; Wild P; Schraner E; Wyler R, 1987. The genome of caprine herpesvirus 1: genome structure and relatedness to bovine herpesvirus 1. Journal of General Virology, 68(7):2019-2023; 17 ref.

Inglis DM; Bowie JM; Allan MJ; Nettleton PF, 1983. Ocular disease in red deer calves associated with a herpes virus infection. Veterinary Record, 113:182-183.

Kaashoek MJ; Straver PH; Rooij EMAvan; Quak J; Oirschot JTvan, 1996. Virulence, immunogenicity and reactivation of seven bovine herpesvirus 1.1 strains: clinical and virological aspects. Veterinary Record, 139(17):416-421; 19 ref.

Mayfield JE; Good PJ; VanOort HJ; Campbell AR; Reed DE, 1983. Cloning and cleavage site mapping of DNA from bovine herpesvirus 1 (Cooper strain). Journal of Virology, 47(1):259-264.

Metzler AE et al., 1985. European isolates of bovine herpesvirus 1: a comparison of restriction endonuclease sites, polypeptides and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. Archives of Virology, 85:57-69.

Miller JM; Whetstone CA; Maaten MJvan der, 1991. Abortifacient property of bovine herpesvirus type 1 isolates that represent three subtypes determined by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(3):458-461; 36 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pauli G; Gregersen J-P; Storz J; Ludwig H, 1984. Biology and molecular biology of latent bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1). Latent herpesvirus infections in veterinary medicine, 229-239; [Series: Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, volume 27]; 14 ref.

Rijsewijk FAM; Kaashoek MJ; Langeveld JPM; Meloen R; Judek J; Bienkowska-Szewczyk K; Maris-Veldhuis MA; Oirschot JTvan, 1999. Epitopes on glycoprotein C of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) that allow differentiation between BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 strains. Journal of General Virology, 80(6):1477-1483; 29 ref.

Schwyzer M; Ackermann M, 1996. Molecular virology of ruminant herpesviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):17-29; 83 ref.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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