Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
Electron micrographElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.Etienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
TitleGenome
CaptionThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
GenomeThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.Etienne Thiry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine herpesvirus 1

International Common Names

  • English: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

English acronym

  • BoHV-1
  • IBRV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Varicellovirus
  •                         Species: bovine herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptPresent
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
India
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitPresent
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AndorraPresent
AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
CzechiaPresent
EstoniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandPresent
Isle of ManPresent
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
LuxembourgPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PolandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MartiniquePresent
NicaraguaPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
UruguayPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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BHV-1 belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. BHV-1 is an enveloped virus with an icosahedric capsid made of 162 capsomeres (Schwyzer and Ackermann, 1996). BHV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus, 135-140 kbp in size (Mayfield et al., 1983; Wyler et al., 1989). At least ten glycoproteins are present on the envelope. They can be differentiated into glycoproteins essential for virus replication like gB, gD and gH, and non essential glycoproteins like gC, gE and gI (Baranowski et al., 1996). The three major glycoproteins, i.e. the most abundant ones in the virion, are gB, gC and gD.

The virus exhibits a tropism for epithelial cells, blood mononuclear cells and neurones. Virus replication takes place in the nucleus of the infected cell.

BHV-1 has two subtypes, called subtype 1 and 2, which can be characterized by the restriction endonuclease profiles of viral DNA (Engels et al., 1987), and by a few discriminating monoclonal antibodies (Metzler et al., 1985; Rijsewijk et al., 1999). All BHV-1 strains are very close, both antigenically and genomically. Since the 1970s, strains of subtype 1 have mainly been isolated from the respiratory tract (IBR strains). Strains of subtype 2 are mainly genital viruses, which had been isolated before the 1970s (Edwards et al., 1990). However, the subtype distinction does not segregate all the respiratory strains from the genital isolates. Strains isolated from aborted foetuses mainly belong to subtype 1 (Pauli et al., 1984; Miller et al., 1991). Whatever the vaccine strain used, each subtype will successfully protect against the other one.

Previously, BHV-1 subtype 3 was assigned a virus species and is now called BHV-5 or bovine encephalitis herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985).

BHV-1 strains can also be distinguished on the basis of their virulence. Hypervirulent and attenuated strains have been characterized by the induced clinical signs in experimentally infected animals (Kaashoek et al., 1996). However, the virulence character cannot be linked to a biochemical marker.

Several alphaherpesviruses isolated from other ruminant species are closely related to BHV-1: caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) (Engels et al., 1987), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CerHV-1) (Inglis et al., 1983), rangiferine herpesvirus 1 (RanHV-1) (Ek-Kommonen et al., 1986) and buffalo herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985). Recently, a herpesvirus related to BHV-1 was also isolated from elk (Deregt et al., 2000).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Baranowski E; Keil G; Lyaku J; Rijsewijk FAM; Oirschot JTvan; Pastoret PP; Thiry E, 1996. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):91-101; 73 ref.

Brake F; Studdert MJ, 1985. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of ruminant herpesviruses including bovine, buffalo and caprine herpesviruses 1 and bovine encephalitis herpesvirus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 62(10):331-334; 21 ref.

Deregt D et al., 2000. Antigenic and molecular characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from a North American elk. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61:1614-1618.

Edwards S; White H; Nixon P, 1990. A study of the predominant genotypes of bovid herpesvirus 1 found in the UK. Veterinary Microbiology, 22(2/3):213-223; 21 ref.

Ek-Kommonen C; Pelkonen S; Nettleton PF, 1986. Isolation of a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 from a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 27:299-301.

Engels M et al., 1987. The genome of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) strains exhibiting a neuropathogenic potential compared to known BHV-1 strains by restriction site mapping and cross-hybridization. Virus Research, 6:57-73.

Engels M; Loepfe E; Wild P; Schraner E; Wyler R, 1987. The genome of caprine herpesvirus 1: genome structure and relatedness to bovine herpesvirus 1. Journal of General Virology, 68(7):2019-2023; 17 ref.

Inglis DM; Bowie JM; Allan MJ; Nettleton PF, 1983. Ocular disease in red deer calves associated with a herpes virus infection. Veterinary Record, 113:182-183.

Kaashoek MJ; Straver PH; Rooij EMAvan; Quak J; Oirschot JTvan, 1996. Virulence, immunogenicity and reactivation of seven bovine herpesvirus 1.1 strains: clinical and virological aspects. Veterinary Record, 139(17):416-421; 19 ref.

Mayfield JE; Good PJ; VanOort HJ; Campbell AR; Reed DE, 1983. Cloning and cleavage site mapping of DNA from bovine herpesvirus 1 (Cooper strain). Journal of Virology, 47(1):259-264.

Metzler AE et al., 1985. European isolates of bovine herpesvirus 1: a comparison of restriction endonuclease sites, polypeptides and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. Archives of Virology, 85:57-69.

Miller JM; Whetstone CA; Maaten MJvan der, 1991. Abortifacient property of bovine herpesvirus type 1 isolates that represent three subtypes determined by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(3):458-461; 36 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pauli G; Gregersen J-P; Storz J; Ludwig H, 1984. Biology and molecular biology of latent bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1). Latent herpesvirus infections in veterinary medicine, 229-239; [Series: Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, volume 27]; 14 ref.

Rijsewijk FAM; Kaashoek MJ; Langeveld JPM; Meloen R; Judek J; Bienkowska-Szewczyk K; Maris-Veldhuis MA; Oirschot JTvan, 1999. Epitopes on glycoprotein C of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) that allow differentiation between BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 strains. Journal of General Virology, 80(6):1477-1483; 29 ref.

Schwyzer M; Ackermann M, 1996. Molecular virology of ruminant herpesviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):17-29; 83 ref.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

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