Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

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Datasheet

bovine herpesvirus 1

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine herpesvirus 1
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
TitleElectron micrograph
CaptionElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
Electron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.
Electron micrographElectron micrograph of bovine herpesvirus 1 particles. The envelope surrounds the icosahedral capsid.Etienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
TitleGenome
CaptionThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
CopyrightEtienne Thiry
The Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.
GenomeThe Bovine herpesvirus 1 genome is subdivided in two parts covalently linked: a long unit (UL, 104 kbp) and a short unit (US, 10 kbp), flanked by two inverted repeat regions of 11 kbp (Internal Repeat (IR) and Terminal Repeat (TR)). The localization of glycoprotein genes is indicated.Etienne Thiry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine herpesvirus 1

International Common Names

  • English: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

English acronym

  • BoHV-1
  • IBRV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Genus: Varicellovirus
  •                         Species: bovine herpesvirus 1

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaLast reported1968OIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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BHV-1 belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. BHV-1 is an enveloped virus with an icosahedric capsid made of 162 capsomeres (Schwyzer and Ackermann, 1996). BHV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus, 135-140 kbp in size (Mayfield et al., 1983; Wyler et al., 1989). At least ten glycoproteins are present on the envelope. They can be differentiated into glycoproteins essential for virus replication like gB, gD and gH, and non essential glycoproteins like gC, gE and gI (Baranowski et al., 1996). The three major glycoproteins, i.e. the most abundant ones in the virion, are gB, gC and gD.

The virus exhibits a tropism for epithelial cells, blood mononuclear cells and neurones. Virus replication takes place in the nucleus of the infected cell.

BHV-1 has two subtypes, called subtype 1 and 2, which can be characterized by the restriction endonuclease profiles of viral DNA (Engels et al., 1987), and by a few discriminating monoclonal antibodies (Metzler et al., 1985; Rijsewijk et al., 1999). All BHV-1 strains are very close, both antigenically and genomically. Since the 1970s, strains of subtype 1 have mainly been isolated from the respiratory tract (IBR strains). Strains of subtype 2 are mainly genital viruses, which had been isolated before the 1970s (Edwards et al., 1990). However, the subtype distinction does not segregate all the respiratory strains from the genital isolates. Strains isolated from aborted foetuses mainly belong to subtype 1 (Pauli et al., 1984; Miller et al., 1991). Whatever the vaccine strain used, each subtype will successfully protect against the other one.

Previously, BHV-1 subtype 3 was assigned a virus species and is now called BHV-5 or bovine encephalitis herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985).

BHV-1 strains can also be distinguished on the basis of their virulence. Hypervirulent and attenuated strains have been characterized by the induced clinical signs in experimentally infected animals (Kaashoek et al., 1996). However, the virulence character cannot be linked to a biochemical marker.

Several alphaherpesviruses isolated from other ruminant species are closely related to BHV-1: caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) (Engels et al., 1987), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CerHV-1) (Inglis et al., 1983), rangiferine herpesvirus 1 (RanHV-1) (Ek-Kommonen et al., 1986) and buffalo herpesvirus (Brake and Studdert, 1985). Recently, a herpesvirus related to BHV-1 was also isolated from elk (Deregt et al., 2000).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Baranowski E; Keil G; Lyaku J; Rijsewijk FAM; Oirschot JTvan; Pastoret PP; Thiry E, 1996. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):91-101; 73 ref.

Brake F; Studdert MJ, 1985. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of ruminant herpesviruses including bovine, buffalo and caprine herpesviruses 1 and bovine encephalitis herpesvirus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 62(10):331-334; 21 ref.

Deregt D et al., 2000. Antigenic and molecular characterization of a herpesvirus isolated from a North American elk. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61:1614-1618.

Edwards S; White H; Nixon P, 1990. A study of the predominant genotypes of bovid herpesvirus 1 found in the UK. Veterinary Microbiology, 22(2/3):213-223; 21 ref.

Ek-Kommonen C; Pelkonen S; Nettleton PF, 1986. Isolation of a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 from a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 27:299-301.

Engels M et al., 1987. The genome of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) strains exhibiting a neuropathogenic potential compared to known BHV-1 strains by restriction site mapping and cross-hybridization. Virus Research, 6:57-73.

Engels M; Loepfe E; Wild P; Schraner E; Wyler R, 1987. The genome of caprine herpesvirus 1: genome structure and relatedness to bovine herpesvirus 1. Journal of General Virology, 68(7):2019-2023; 17 ref.

Inglis DM; Bowie JM; Allan MJ; Nettleton PF, 1983. Ocular disease in red deer calves associated with a herpes virus infection. Veterinary Record, 113:182-183.

Kaashoek MJ; Straver PH; Rooij EMAvan; Quak J; Oirschot JTvan, 1996. Virulence, immunogenicity and reactivation of seven bovine herpesvirus 1.1 strains: clinical and virological aspects. Veterinary Record, 139(17):416-421; 19 ref.

Mayfield JE; Good PJ; VanOort HJ; Campbell AR; Reed DE, 1983. Cloning and cleavage site mapping of DNA from bovine herpesvirus 1 (Cooper strain). Journal of Virology, 47(1):259-264.

Metzler AE et al., 1985. European isolates of bovine herpesvirus 1: a comparison of restriction endonuclease sites, polypeptides and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies. Archives of Virology, 85:57-69.

Miller JM; Whetstone CA; Maaten MJvan der, 1991. Abortifacient property of bovine herpesvirus type 1 isolates that represent three subtypes determined by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52(3):458-461; 36 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pauli G; Gregersen J-P; Storz J; Ludwig H, 1984. Biology and molecular biology of latent bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1). Latent herpesvirus infections in veterinary medicine, 229-239; [Series: Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, volume 27]; 14 ref.

Rijsewijk FAM; Kaashoek MJ; Langeveld JPM; Meloen R; Judek J; Bienkowska-Szewczyk K; Maris-Veldhuis MA; Oirschot JTvan, 1999. Epitopes on glycoprotein C of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) that allow differentiation between BHV-1.1 and BHV-1.2 strains. Journal of General Virology, 80(6):1477-1483; 29 ref.

Schwyzer M; Ackermann M, 1996. Molecular virology of ruminant herpesviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 53(1/2):17-29; 83 ref.

Distribution Maps

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