bovine viral diarrhea virus
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- bovine viral diarrhea virus
International Common Names
- English: bovine diarrhoea virus; bovine diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus; bovine pestivirus; bovine viral diarrhoea virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Nidovirales
- Family: Flaviviridae
- Genus: Pestivirus
- Species: bovine viral diarrhea virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae and is closely related to classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. Two antigenically distinct genotypes of BVDV exist, types 1 and 2. They may be differentiated from each other, and from other pestiviruses, by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the E2 major glycoprotein, or by genetic analysis (Pellerin et al., 1994; Ridpath et al., 1994). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been described that enables virus typing direct from blood samples (Gilbert et al., 1999). Type 1 virus is generally more common, although the prevalence of type 2 is reported to be almost as high as type 1 in North America. BVDV of both genotypes may occur in non-cytopathogenic and cytopathogenic forms (biotypes), classified according to whether or not it produces visible change in cell cultures. Usually, it is the non-cytopathogenic biotype that circulates in cattle populations. Each biotype has a specific role in a variety of clinical syndromes - acute, congenital and chronic infections. Type 2 viruses are usually non-cytopathogenic and have been associated with outbreaks of severe acute infection. Clinically inapparent infections are common with both genotypes.
There is an increasing awareness of an “atypical” or “HoBi-like” pestivirus - a putative BVDV type 3, in cattle, also associated with clinical disease (Bauermann and Ridpath, 2015; Giammarioli et al., 2015; Weber et al., 2016).
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Bos grunniens (yaks)|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)||Domesticated host|
|Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)|
|Cervus elaphus (red deer)|
|Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host|
|Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)||Domesticated host|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Bauermann FV; Ridpath JF, 2015. HoBi-like viruses - the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'. Animal Health Research Reviews [A joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology entitled "Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges", Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 14-15 October 2014.], 16(1):64-69. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR
Giammarioli M; Ridpath JF; Rossi E; Bazzucchi M; Casciari C; Mia GMde, 2015. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches. Biologicals, 43(4):220-224. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10451056
Gilbert SA; Burton KM; Prins SE; Deregt D, 1999. Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(6):2020-2023; 28 ref.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Pellerin C; Vandenhurk J; Lecomte J; Tijssen P, 1994. Identification of a new group of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains associated with severe outbreaks and high mortalities. Virology, 203:260-268.
Weber MN; Mósena ACS; Simões SVD; Almeida LL; Pessoa CRM; Budaszewski RF; Silva TR; Ridpath JF; Riet-Correa F; Driemeier D; Canal CW, 2016. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(1):92-100. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12223/full
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/