Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bovine viral diarrhea virus

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Datasheet

bovine viral diarrhea virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine viral diarrhea virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine viral diarrhea virus

International Common Names

  • English: bovine diarrhoea virus; bovine diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus; bovine pestivirus; bovine viral diarrhoea virus

English acronym

  • BVDV
  • BV-MDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Pestivirus
  •                         Species: bovine viral diarrhea virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresent
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshPresentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkPresentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManPresent
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinPresentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
-OntarioPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae and is closely related to classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. Two antigenically distinct genotypes of BVDV exist, types 1 and 2. They may be differentiated from each other, and from other pestiviruses, by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the E2 major glycoprotein, or by genetic analysis (Pellerin et al., 1994; Ridpath et al., 1994). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been described that enables virus typing direct from blood samples (Gilbert et al., 1999). Type 1 virus is generally more common, although the prevalence of type 2 is reported to be almost as high as type 1 in North America. BVDV of both genotypes may occur in non-cytopathogenic and cytopathogenic forms (biotypes), classified according to whether or not it produces visible change in cell cultures. Usually, it is the non-cytopathogenic biotype that circulates in cattle populations. Each biotype has a specific role in a variety of clinical syndromes - acute, congenital and chronic infections. Type 2 viruses are usually non-cytopathogenic and have been associated with outbreaks of severe acute infection. Clinically inapparent infections are common with both genotypes.

There is an increasing awareness of an “atypical” or “HoBi-like” pestivirus - a putative BVDV type 3, in cattle, also associated with clinical disease (Bauermann and Ridpath, 2015; Giammarioli et al., 2015; Weber et al., 2016).

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Stomoxys calcitransInsect

References

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Bauermann FV; Ridpath JF, 2015. HoBi-like viruses - the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'. Animal Health Research Reviews [A joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology entitled "Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges", Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 14-15 October 2014.], 16(1):64-69. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR

Giammarioli M; Ridpath JF; Rossi E; Bazzucchi M; Casciari C; Mia GMde, 2015. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches. Biologicals, 43(4):220-224. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10451056

Gilbert SA; Burton KM; Prins SE; Deregt D, 1999. Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(6):2020-2023; 28 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pellerin C; Vandenhurk J; Lecomte J; Tijssen P, 1994. Identification of a new group of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains associated with severe outbreaks and high mortalities. Virology, 203:260-268.

Ridpath JF; Bolin SR; Dubovi EJ, 1994. Segregation of bovine diarrhea virus into genotypes. Virology (New York), 205(1):66-74; 47 ref.

Weber MN; Mósena ACS; Simões SVD; Almeida LL; Pessoa CRM; Budaszewski RF; Silva TR; Ridpath JF; Riet-Correa F; Driemeier D; Canal CW, 2016. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(1):92-100. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12223/full

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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