Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


bovine adenoviruses infections



bovine adenoviruses infections


  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine adenoviruses infections
  • Overview

  • Rowe et al. (1953) isolated a new virus from cultures of human adenoids. The currently accepted name, "adenovirus", was proposed for this group...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Lung from an animal experimentally infected with an adenovirus with large red areas of consolidation in the middle and caudal lobes.
CaptionLung from an animal experimentally infected with an adenovirus with large red areas of consolidation in the middle and caudal lobes.
Lung from an animal experimentally infected with an adenovirus with large red areas of consolidation in the middle and caudal lobes.
PathologyLung from an animal experimentally infected with an adenovirus with large red areas of consolidation in the middle and caudal lobes.NADC, ARS-USDA
Histopathology observed in a calf with a natural adenovirus infection. Note the intranuclear inclusions in a blood vessel epithelial cell (A) and in the epithelial cells of the bronchiole (B).
CaptionHistopathology observed in a calf with a natural adenovirus infection. Note the intranuclear inclusions in a blood vessel epithelial cell (A) and in the epithelial cells of the bronchiole (B).
Histopathology observed in a calf with a natural adenovirus infection. Note the intranuclear inclusions in a blood vessel epithelial cell (A) and in the epithelial cells of the bronchiole (B).
HistopathologyHistopathology observed in a calf with a natural adenovirus infection. Note the intranuclear inclusions in a blood vessel epithelial cell (A) and in the epithelial cells of the bronchiole (B).NADC, ARS-USDA


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine adenoviruses infections

International Common Names

  • English: adenovirus infection in ruminants


Top of page

Rowe et al. (1953) isolated a new virus from cultures of human adenoids. The currently accepted name, "adenovirus", was proposed for this group of viruses by Enders et al. (1956). The family Adenoviridae now comprises a well-defined group of viruses with wide distribution in nature. Adenovirus types are defined based on the species of origin of the virus and quantitative neutralization assays with antisera prepared in non-host species. The family Adenoviridae is currently divided into three genera, Mastadenovirus,Aviadenovirus, and Atadenovirus (Benkö et al., 2000).

Klein et al. (1959) reported the first isolation of a bovine adenovirus (BAdV). Bovine adenoviruses have been isolated from healthy cattle, but more often, the isolations are associated with some form of clinical disease. The preponderance of isolations from cattle with clinical disease is because this is the type sample submitted to diagnostic laboratories. Most adenovirus infections in cattle involve either the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. In addition there have been reports of adenovirus associated with conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and weak calf syndrome. Currently the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recognizes 10 types in cattle (Benkö et al., 2000). Strain Rus is being evaluated as a potential new type (Zakharchuk et al., 1993). The table shows prototype strains and origin.

SerotypeStrainReferenceBAdV-1No. 10Klein et al., 1959BAdV-2No. 19Klein et al., 1960BAdV-3WBR 1Darbyshire et al., 1965aBAdV-4THT/62Bartha and Áldásy, 1966BAdV-5B4/65Bartha and Áldásy, 1966BAdV-6671130Rondhuis, 1968BAdV-7FukuroiInaba et al., 1968BAdV-8Misk/67Bartha et al., 1970(BAdV-9)Sofia 4/67Guenov et al., 1970BAdV-1078-5371Horner et al., 1989(BAdV-11)RusZakharchuk et al., 1993

BAdVs were originally divided into two groups based on cultural and antigenic characteristics by Bartha (1969). Subgroup 1 contained BAdV 1, 2, and 3 with similarities to human and other mammalian adenoviruses. Subgroup 2 contained the atypical BAdV 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 that could not replicate in kidney epithelial cells, produced noticeably different nuclear inclusion bodies, and lacked the common complement-fixing antigen found in members of the genus Mastadenovirus. Division was further supported after genomic analysis demonstrated marked differences in the two groups. The subgroup 1 BAdVs (BAdV-1 through -3 and -9) are members of the genus Mastadenovirus and the subgroup 2 BAdVs (BAdV-4 through -8) have been recently assigned to a proposed new Atadenovirus genus within the family Adenoviridae (Benkö and Harrach 1998; Benkö et al, 2000). BAdV 10 does not fit clearly into either genus (Maitz et al., 1998) but, based on genomic analysis, has been assigned to the genus Atadenovirus for now (Benkö et al., 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Adenoviruses are generally confined to one host species or closely related species and are classified on the basis of species of origin and antigenic reactivity. Because bovine adenoviruses or closely related antigenic viruses have been isolated from a variety of other ruminant species (Belák and Palfi, 1974; Davies and Humphreys, 1977; Baber and Candy, 1981; Boros et al., 1985), the potential for infection across species exists among adenovirus isolates from ruminants.


Top of page

Bovine adenoviruses are found worldwide as indicated by either serology or virus isolation. Antibodies to adenoviruses have been demonstrated in sera in virtually every cattle population tested. Serum-virus neutralization tests have been used to detect adenovirus type-specific antibodies, and complement fixation and agar gel immunodiffusion tests have been used to detect the adenovirus group-specific antibody in serological surveys.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IranPresentAfshar, 1969
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuWidespreadInaba et al., 1968; Tanaka et al., 1968
Korea, Republic ofPresentChoi et al., 1982; Cho et al., 1985
SyriaPresentGiangaspero et al., 1992
TurkeyWidespreadBurgu and Akca, 1982; Burgu and Toker, 1985; öztürk and Toker, 1988; YonguÇ et al., 1988


Congo Democratic RepublicPresentEyanga et al., 1989
EgyptPresentHafez and Krauss, 1979
MoroccoPresentMahin et al., 1985
NigeriaPresentObi and Taylor, 1984
SomaliaPresentMani et al., 1978; Agrimi et al., 1982
TogoPresentEspinasse et al., 1980
ZambiaPresentGhirotti et al., 1991
ZimbabwePresentBaber and Candy, 1981

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentBulmer et al., 1975; Thompson et al., 1981
-QuebecPresentKey and Derbyshire, 1984; Richer et al., 1988
-SaskatchewanPresentOrr, 1984
MexicoPresentSuzan et al., 1983; Ramírez and Trigo, 1986
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentRossi et al., 1973
-CaliforniaPresentBibrack and McKercher, 1971; Lehmkuhl et al., 1999
-IdahoPresentStauber et al., 1976; Stauber et al., 1986
-IowaPresentLehmkuhl et al., 1975; Lehmkuhl and Gough, 1977; Coria and Lehmkuhl, 1978; Coria and McClurkin, 1978
-MarylandPresentMohanty and Lillie, 1970
-MinnesotaPresentBaker et al., 1986a; Baker et al., 1986b; Reed et al., 1978
-OregonPresentMattson, 1973; Mattson and Smith, 1977; Mattson et al., 1988
-PennsylvaniaPresentWelch and Dellers, 1973
-South DakotaPresentReed et al., 1978; Kirkbride, 1992
-TennesseePresentLehmkuhl et al., 1998
-WashingtonPresentStauber et al., 1986

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentNunez and Castell, 1985

South America

ArgentinaPresentCarrillo et al., 1986


AustriaPresentBurki et al., 1978; Coulibaly, 1990; Pernthaner et al., 1990; Peinhopf et al., 1996
BelgiumPresentMammerickx et al., 1989
BulgariaWidespreadHaralambiev and Azev, 1969
CroatiaPresentZupancic et al., 1984; Sabirovic et al., 1987; Sabirovic, 1988
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentKrpata, 1978; Novak, 1982
DenmarkPresentUttenthal et al., 1996; Tegtmeier et al., 1999
FinlandPresentSihvonen and Tuomi, 1978
GermanyWidespreadMayr et al., 1970; Kretzschmar, 1973
HungaryWidespreadBartha and Áldásy, 1966; Bartha et al., 1970; Bartha et al., 1984; Rusvai and Fodor, 1998; Endre, 1999
IrelandPresentTimoney, 1971
ItalyWidespreadCancellotti et al., 1976
NetherlandsPresentRondhuis, 1968; Opdenbosch et al., 1986
NorwayPresentSaxegaard and Bratberg, 1971
PolandWidespreadBuczek and Wrzolek-Lobocka, 1977; Majewska et al., 1978
RomaniaPresentIstrate et al., 1983
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentShichkina et al., 1971; Kis, 1977; Frolov, 1984
-Southern RussiaPresentDreizin et al., 1973; Zhumabaev et al., 1993
SwitzerlandPresentLäuchli et al., 1990
UKWidespreadDarbyshire et al., 1965a; Darbyshire et al., 1965b; Phillip and Sands, 1972


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentWilcox, 1969; Cole, 1970; Wilcox, 1970
New ZealandPresentThompson, 1977; Horner et al., 1980


Top of page

Gross lesions in cattle are limited primarily to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and consist of atelectasis and consolidation of the lungs and erosions, ulcerations and haemorrhage in the intestinal tract. Bronchiolar, mediastinal, and mesenteric lymph nodes are usually enlarged. Depending on adenovirus serotype, either epithelial or epithelial and vascular endothelial cells are the primary targets for viral cytopathology. Microscopically the basic lesion is bronchiolitis with necrosis and sloughing early and hyperplasia later in the course of the infection. Amphophilic, intranuclear inclusions are seen in swollen cells in the respiratory epithelium and sloughed in the lumen. Where the gastrointestinal tract is involved, the basic lesions are fibrinonecrotic plaques overlying foci of haemorrhage and necrosis. Amphophilic intranuclear inclusions are seen in enterocytes as well as in vascular endothelial cells.


Top of page

Because adenoviruses can be isolated from apparently healthy cattle, isolation of adenoviruses from clinically sick calves does not necessarily mean that the isolated adenovirus type plays an aetiological role in the clinical disease. For adenovirus to be considered as the aetiologic agent in a particular disease, the antibody titre should be low at the onset of the infection and result in at least a four-fold increase in neutralizing antibodies to the virus type in question, either characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies should be observed in tissues showing gross lesions or presence of viral antigen must be demonstrated by immunohistochemical methods, and finally, virus must be isolated from tissues showing gross lesions at the height of the clinical disease.

Adenovirus infection can be diagnosed morphometrically, serologically, and by virus isolation. Rapid presumptive diagnosis can be made either by observation of characteristic virus morphology in intranuclear inclusions by transmission electron microscopy or by immunofluorescent or immunohistochemical labeling of adenovirus antigens in tissues with gross lesions. Serotype-specific diagnosis, while not important to the treatment of clinical disease, is important in the development of a database from which to evaluate the role of each viral serotype in disease production. For a serotype to be considered as the aetiologic agent in a clinical syndrome, it must be isolated from many cases with similar clinical syndromes and be capable of reproducing the disease experimentally.

Because of the number of types of adenoviruses infecting cattle, virus isolation is necessary to definitively identify the virus. Virus can be isolated from nasal secretions, tracheal fluids, intestinal contents and tissue homogenates. Adenoviruses are best-propagated in homologous cell cultures. Low passage bovine fetal cornea, lung, and turbinate cell cultures, are preferred for virus isolation, because these cells will support replication of all known BAdV types. A permanent heteroploid embryonic calf thyroid cell culture has been developed that allows replication of all bovine adenoviruses although at a somewhat lower titre than those obtained on primary calf testicles (Benkö et al., 1989). Primary adenovirus isolation may require sub-passage of the cultures before viral-induced cytopathic effect appears.

Serologic confirmation of adenovirus infection can be done by demonstrating the presence of adenovirus group-specific antigen by immunofluorescent, immunohistochemical, and complement fixation tests, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reciprocal cross-neutralization tests detect type-specific antigens and further distinguish serotypes. Caution must be exercised when interpreting serum-virus neutralization test results because of demonstrated cross neutralization both among and between adenoviruses isolated from different ruminant species. Molecular characterization of adenovirus using DNA hybridization, restriction endonuclease digestion patterns and polymerase chain reaction has been used for virus identification and classification (Benkö et al., 1988; Benkö et al., 1995; Matiz et al., 1998). Phylogenetic analysis based on the adenovirus protease, hexon and DNA polymerase gene nucleic acid sequences filed with GenBank should make it possible to precisely compare newly isolated adenovirus (Benkö et al., 2000).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Melena or occult blood in faeces, stools Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Intraocular mass, swelling interior of eye Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, chest, thorax, ribs, sternum Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, kidney, ureters, on palpation Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, pharynx, larynx, trachea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Vaginal or cervical ulcers, vesicles, erosions, tears, papules, pustules Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Change in voice, vocal strength Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Decreased respiratory rate Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Decreased, muffled, lung sounds, absent respiratory sounds Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dull areas on percussion of chest, thorax Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Haemoptysis coughing up blood Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Nasal mucosal ulcers, vesicles, erosions, cuts, tears, papules, pustules Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign

Disease Course

Top of page

Adenoviruses infections are frequently inapparent, but may also result in self-limiting disease. Multiple attributes involving host, viral, and husbandry practices influence disease production. Host factors include age and immune status, viral factors include serotype and, possibly, strain of the infecting adenovirus, and husbandry factors include practices causing stress. Infections with currently recognized bovine adenovirus types are usually associated with either pneumonitis or pneumonitis with enteritis (pneumoenteritis). Pneumonitis is usually more prominent and consistent than is enteritis. Clinical disease produced by inoculation of calves with field isolates does not mimic that seen naturally, indicating that the clinical signs and lesions observed naturally result from other superimposed factors such as secondary bacteria and immunosuppression.

Infection most frequently occurs in calves of 2 weeks to 4 months old but animals of any age can be infected. Colostral antibodies will only protect against the homologous adenovirus types, and infection can occur as antibody wanes. Under natural conditions, the incubation period is probably 5 to 10 days. The serological response to adenovirus infection develops about 7 days after the onset of illness and maximum titres are attained after 3 to 4 weeks. Adenovirus antibody titres decrease little over the life of the animal. Infection by heterologous adenovirus serotypes can result in an anamnestic response for any prior infecting adenoviruses. Fever (39.5 to 41.0°C) usually develops 3 to 5 days after infection, lasting for 2 to 5 days. Respiratory and enteric symptoms usually occur following the onset of the febrile response. Respiratory symptoms include serous excretions (purulent with secondary bacterial infections) from the nose and eyes. Coughing often occurs and can be elicited with exercise or by grasping the trachea. Rapid respiration, anorexia and listlessness are frequent clinical signs. Enteric symptoms may include excessive salivation and loose stools to profuse diarrhoea. With BAdV-10 infection, minimal clinical signs followed by sudden death within 12 to 48 h is common. The prominent clinical sign with BAdV-10 may be severe diarrhoea containing blood and fibrin clots. With uncomplicated infections, clinical improvement is seen after 7 to 9 days.


Top of page

The respiratory and enteric tracts are the primary targets for adenovirus infection. Infection with adenovirus usually results in cell lysis and virus shedding, but some cells accumulate virus particles in the nucleus without lysis establishing persistent infections. Respiratory and faecal shedding usually last for about 10 days and, where the kidney is involved, virus can be excreted for over 10 weeks in urine (Aldásy et al., 1965). With persistent infection, lysis of fragile infected cells produces virus-shedding resulting in infection of susceptible animals that come in contact with the virus.

Adenovirus infection is common in younger animals. Maternal antibodies provide protection from infection by homologous BAdV types. As specific maternal antibodies wane, calves can become infected if that particular adenovirus type is present in the calf’s environment. Depending on maternal antibody level, virus exposure can result in either a subclinical infection followed by an active antibody response or if the antibody level is high enough, virus replication can be prevented. The incidence of infection with a serotype appears to be high within a geographic area for a period of time and then may virtually disappear from a region when herd immunity reaches a certain level. Because of the number of adenovirus types and the lack of cross protection, newly introduced adenovirus types may emerge as the predominant infecting type.

Impact: Economic

Top of page

Adenoviruses contribute to clinical disease and economic loss in cattle but have not been extensively evaluated to determine their precise role. Economic loss is difficult to assess because clinical signs and gross lesions produced by adenovirus infections are similar to those produced by many other respiratory and enteric infections. Experimental infections and serological studies can clarify the epidemiological significance of the recognized serotypes of adenoviruses isolated from cattle. Isolation of adenoviruses from sick cattle provides circumstantial evidence that adenoviruses are aetiological agents of the observed clinical disease. As with other viruses, adenovirus infection and seroconversion can occur in the absence of clinical disease when maternal antibodies decline and virus is circulating in the herd. An exception to this may be BAdV 10, which has only been isolated from samples collected at postmortem from multiple aged cattle (Adair et al., 1996).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

Top of page

Because adenoviruses are usually confined to one host species or closely related species, the zoonotic and food safety threat is very low. To date there are no documented cases of clinical disease in humans caused by bovine adenoviruses.

Disease Treatment

Top of page

When economically feasible, cattle can be treated to provide relief from clinical signs associated with adenoviral infection. Left untreated however, the uncomplicated clinical disease will run its course in seven to 10 days. Because secondary bacterial infections such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus somnus are common in cattle, antibiotics are often used as part of the treatment. Where clinical signs are detected early and treated there are few long-term effects.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Maternal antibodies provide protection against homologous virus type, thus it is important for calves to get colostrum to provide early protection from adenoviruses that might be in the calve’s environment. As calves loose maternal antibodies, they develop post-infection immunity to the prevalent adenovirus types in their environment. Husbandry conditions where calves are weaned at a young age (stressed) and mixed with calves with varying immune status and unknown adenovirus carrier status should be avoided when possible. Calves weaned at 5 to 6 months of age generally have a decreased susceptibility to adenovirus-induced disease.

Both modified live and inactivated adenovirus vaccines have been developed and evaluated for use in cattle (Bartha, 1967; Tribe et al., 1969; Bartha, 1974; Bartha, 1975; Haralambiev, 1975; Khristov et al., 1976; Baczynski et al., 1977; Morzaria et al., 1979; Bergamaschi et al., 1981; Becker et al., 1982; Litvinov et al., 1983; Zygraich and Delforge, 1983; Mattson et al., 1987; Pavlov et al., 1987; Wrzolek-Lobocka, 1988b; Belousova, 1989; Nurgaziev and Belousova, 1989; Wrzolek-Lobocka et al., 1990; Deptula et al., 1991; Belousova et al., 1993). It has been difficult to attenuate live vaccines to the point where clinical disease is no longer produced following vaccination. ß-propriolactone- or formalin-inactivated adenoviruses however, elicit excellent antibody response providing immunity to homologous adenovirus. The value of subunit vaccines for bovine adenoviruses has not been fully evaluated (York and Thorsen, 1992). Where vaccines are available for prevailing bovine adenovirus serotypes, they should be administered when maternal antibodies have waned, but 2 to 3 weeks before calves from different places are assembled under stressful conditions.

Bovine adenovirus vaccines are available in Europe and Japan, but there are no commercial adenovirus vaccines available in the USA. Most vaccines are formulated in combination with other agents. Two to 4 doses of vaccine administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly are recommended to provide proper protection. Vaccination has not eliminated infection entirely, but has resulted in the reduction in disease incidence and treatment costs.


Top of page

Adair BM; McKillop ER; Smyth JA; Curran WL; McNulty MS, 1996. Bovine adenovirus type 10: properties of viruses isolated from cases of bovine haemorrhagic enterocolitis. Veterinary Record, 138(11):250-252; 15 ref.

Afshar A, 1969. The occurrence of precipitating antibodies to bovine adenovirus in sera of farm animals and man in Iran. Veterinary Record, 84(23):571-2.

Agrimi P; Valente C, Andreani E et al. , 1982. Sero-epidemiological studies on groups of various domestic animals in Somalia for bovine leukosis virus (BLV), rotavirus, adenovirus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR IPV virus) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3). Bollettino Scientifico della Facolta di Zootecnia e Veterinaria, Universita Nazionale Somalia, 3:171-183.

Áldásy P; Rusvai M; Bartha A, 1965. Pneumo-enteritis in calves caused by adenoviruses. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 15:167-175.

Alkan F, 1998. Rapid diagnosis of bovine adenovirus subgroup 1 infections in cattle with acute respiratory disease by a direct immunofluorescence technique. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, Ankara üniversitesi, 45(1):181-184; 15 ref.

Baber DJ; Candy JB, 1981. Isolation and characterization of bovine adenoviruses types 3, 4 and 8 from free living African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Research in Veterinary Science, 31(1):69-75.

Baczynski Z; Majewska H; Markowski A; Czaki M, 1977. Evaluation of the trivalent vaccine "Skabovac" (parainfluenza, adenovirus, reovirus) against respiratory disease of cattle. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 33(2):74-76.

Baker JC; Ames TR; Werdin RE, 1986. Seroepizootiologic study of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef herd. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 47(2):246-253; 33 ref.

Baker JC; Werdin RE; Ames TR; Markham RJF; Larson VL, 1986. Study on the etiologic role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in pneumonia of dairy calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 189(1):66-70; 37 ref.

Bartha A, 1967. Immunization experiments on calves with type 4 bovine adenovirus. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 17(2):209-216.

Bartha A, 1969. Proposal for sub-grouping of bovine adenoviruses. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 19:(3)319-321.

Bartha A, 1974. Immunization of cattle with apolyvalent bovine adenovirus vaccine. Developments in Biological Standardization, 26:15-18.

Bartha A, 1975. Active immunization against enteric and respiratory disease of cattle with BVD, IBR and adenovirus vaccines. Veterinarno Meditsinski Nauki, 12(3):60-61.

Bartha A; Áldásy P, 1966. Further two serotypes of bovine adenoviruses (serotypes 4 and 5). Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 16(1):107-108.

Bartha A; Máthé S; Áldásy P, 1970. New serotype 8 of bovine adenoviruses. Acta Veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 20(4):399-400.

Bartha A; Vetési F; Máté Z, 1984. Mass outbreak of respiratory disease in beef cattle and young heifers infected with bovine adenoviruses. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, 39(1):27-32; 11 ref.

Beccaria E; Ferrari A, Bergui U et al. , 1982. Serological studies on the distribution of some viral respiratory diseases of cattle in the Piedmont region of Italy. Atti Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie, 35:718-719.

Becker W; Bengelsdorff HJ; Jaeger O, 1982. Investigation of antibody formation after two and three vaccinations with Bovigrip (combined vaccine for bovine enzootic bronchopneumonia). Blauen Hefte fur den Tierarzt, 65:221-227.

Belák S; Palfi V, 1974. An adenovirus isolated from sheep and its relationship to type 2 bovine adenovirus. Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, 46(3-4):366-369.

Belousova RV, 1989. Vaccine against bovine adenovirus infection. Veterinariya (Moskva), No.9:23-25; 10 ref.

Belousova RV; Kopenkin AE; Zhumabaev KhZh; Korol'kov VI, 1993. Trial of a combined vaccine against adenoviral infection and pasteurellosis in cattle. Voprosy veterinarnoi biologii., 54-56.

Belousova RV; Nurgaziev RKh; Frolov VS; Korol'kov VI, 1989. Adenovirus infection in cattle. Veterinariya, Moscow, No.1:29-30; 9 ref.

Benko M; Harrach B; Russell WC, 2000. Family Adenoviridae. In: Van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB, eds. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. New York, San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 227-238.

Benkö M; Bartha A; Möstl K; Bürki F, 1989. A heteroploid permanent cell line originating from embryonic calf thyroid supporting the replication of all known bovine adenovirus serotypes. Veterinary Microbiology, 19(4):317-324; 10 ref.

Benkö M; Bartha A; Wadell G, 1988. DNA restriction enzyme analysis of bovine adenoviruses. Intervirology, 29(6):346-350; 22 ref.

Benkö M; Harrach B, 1998. A proposal for a new (third) genus within the family Adenoviridae. Archives of Virology, 143(4):829-837; 42 ref.

Benkö M; Smyth JA; Adair BM; Harrach B, 1995. Genome typing of adenovirus isolates from fatal enterocolitis cases of cattle for the elaboration of a rapid diagnostic method. Immunobiology of viral infections. Proceedings 3rd Congress of the European Society for Veterinary Virology Interlaken, Switzerland, 4-7 September, 1994., 484-488; 9 ref.

Bergamaschi A; Delforge JL; Dell' Orto V, 1981. Economic importance of vaccination with a thermospecific trivalent vaccine against respiratory viral infections of fattening cattle in Italy. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 9:45-47.

Bibrack B; McKercher DG, 1971. Serologic evidence for adenovirus infection in California cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 32(5):805-807.

Boros G; Graf Z; Benkö M; Bartha A, 1985. Isolation of a bovine adenovirus from fallow deer (Dama dama). Acta Veterinaria Hungracia, 33(1-2):119-123.

Buczek J; Wrzolek-Lobocka G, 1977. Isolation of adenovirus from calves with symptoms of pneumonia. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 33(12):741-743.

Bulmer WS; Tsai KS; Little PB, 1975. Adenovirus infection in two calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 166(3):233-238.

Burgu I; Akca Y, 1982. Serological studies on some viral infections in cattle on the Gelemen state farm, Turkey. Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi Ankara Universitesi, 29(3-4):506-512.

Burgu I; AkÇa Y; Sahal M, 1991. First isolation of bovine adenovirus type-3 in Turkey (short communication). Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 98(6):237; 3 ref.

Burgu i; Toker A, 1985. Serological survey for infection with bovine adenovirus (types 1, 2 and 3) in Turkey. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Ankara üniversitesi, 32(1):223-230; 17 ref.

Burki F; Wege H; Reich-Rohrwig C; Hinaidy B, 1978. Bovine adenoviruses. I. Characterization and serological classification as types four of two isolates from latently infected calf testicles. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin, 25 B(7):555-565.

Caldow GL; Edwards S; Nixon P; Peters AR, 1988. Associations between viral infection and respiratory disease in young beef bulls. Veterinary Record, 122(22):529-531; 19 ref.

Cancellotti F; Turilli C; Gagliardi G, 1976. Serological studies with bovine adenovirus types 1, 2 and 3 in Venetia Province, Italy. Atti della Societa Italiana di Buiatria, 8:189-194.

Carrillo C; Zurbriggen MA; Uroz JC; Schudel AA, 1986. Epidemiological survey of some viral diseases of cattle in the Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office Internationale des épizooties, 5(3):731-742; 8 ref.

Cavirani S; Allegri G; Flammini CF, 1990. Identification of adenoviruses isolated from the genital system of cows. Selezione Veterinaria, 31(1):3-10; 26 ref.

Ceccarelli A; Farina R; Mani P, 1979. First seroepidemiological and virological observations on cattle adenoviruses in intensive breeding in Italy. Archivio Veterinario Italiano, 30(1-2):28-32.

Cho SY; Lee HC; Chung YY, 1985. Studies on hemagglutination, hemagglutination inhibition test and serologic survey by micro system to bovine adenovirus type 7 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection. Efficient animal production for Asian welfare. Proceedings of the 3rd AAAP Animal Science Congress, May 6-10, 1985. Volume 1., 564-566; 16 ref.

Choi WP; Izawa H, Onuma M et al. , 1982. Preliminary survey for antibodies against five bovine viruses in cattle in Korea. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 30(3-4):108-111.

Cole AM, 1970. The aetiology of calf pneumonia in Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal, 46(12):576-80.

Cole AM, 1970. The isolation of adenoviruses from calves with pneumonia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 46(12):569-75.

Coria MF; Lehmkuhl HD, 1978. Isolation and identification of a bovine adenovirus type 3 with an adenovirus-associated virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 39(12):1904-1906.

Coria MF; McClurkin AW, 1978. Isolation of bovine adenovirus type 1 without an adenovirus-associated virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 39(12):1975-1976.

Coulibaly S, 1990. Serological studies on the occurrence of antibodies against viral pathogens in cattle in Austria. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 77(7):245; [Abstract of dissertation, Veterinary University, Vienna.].

Darbyshire JH; Dawson PS, Lamont PH et al. , 1965. A new adenovirus serotype of bovine origin. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 75(3):327-330.

Darbyshire JH; Jennings AR, Omar AR et al. , 1965. Association of adenoviruses with bovine respiratory diseases. Nature, 208(7):307-308.

Davies DH; Humphreys S, 1977. Characterization of two strains of adenovirus isolated from New Zealand Sheep. Veterinary Microbiology, 2:97-107.

Deptula W; Buczek J; Deptula D, 1991. The immune response of calves vaccinated with live and inactivated strains of PI-3, BHV-1 and adeno-2 viruses. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 47(2):64-66; 36 ref.

Dreizin RS; Alieva NA, Akhmedova AG et al. , 1973. Study of sera from cattle in different farms of the Azerbaijan SSR for antibody to bovine adenoviruses types 1, 2 and 3 and to parainfluenza virus type 3. Vopr Virusol, 18(3):334-8.

Dyakov I, 1988. Viral respiratory diseases of calves (in the Razgrad region of Bulgaria). Veterinarna Sbirka, 86(1):25-27.

Eisa M, 1973. Isolation of bovine adenovirus type I in the Sudan. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 21(4):411-416.

Eisa M; Amin MAG El, 1972. Adenovirus precipitating antibodies in the sera of some domestic animal species in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, 13(2): 45-51.

Enders JF; Bell JA, Dingle JH et al. , 1956. "Adenoviruses", group name proposed for new respiratory-tract viruses. Science, 124:119-120.

Endre K, 1999. Prevalence of positive serological reactions to some viral diseases in cattle in the Western Transdanubian region of Hungary between 1972 and 1996. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 121(5):264-266.

Espinasse J; Chantal J; Faye P; Akakpo JA; Layec C le; L'Haridon R; Savey M, 1980. Antibody survey, using a passive haemagglutination technique, for the main respiratory viruses of cattle and Chlamydia psittaci in a sample of the cattle population of Togo. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 33(1):15-20.

Eyanga E; Jetteur P; Thiry E; Wellemans G; Dubuisson J; Opdenbosch Evan; Makumbu S; Pastoret PP, 1989. Survey of antibodies to bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 4, bovine diarrhoea virus, bovine adenoviruses A and B, and bovine rotavirus and coronavirus in cattle of Western Zaire: additional results. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 42(2):155-161; 36 ref.

Flammini CF; Allegri G; Cavirani S; Valla G; Galvani G, 1984. Serological studies in calves immunized against some viruses responsible for respiratory infections. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 5(10):39-44; 37 ref.

Frolov VS, 1984. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine adenovirus infection by means of the indirect haemagglutination test. Problemy veterinarnoi biologii. [Problems of veterinary biology]., 31-33; [Russian summary pp.99-100].

Fujiwara H; Konno S, 1968. Histopathology of an enzootic diarrheal disease in cattle. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly, 8:16-25.

Ghirotti M; Semproni G; Meneghi Dde; Mungaba FN; Nannini D; Calzetta G; Paganico G, 1991. Sero-prevalences of selected cattle diseases in the Kafue flats of Zambia. Veterinary Research Communications, 15(1):25-36; 30 ref.

Giangaspero M; Vacirca G; Vanopdenbosch E; Blondeel H, 1992. Epidemiological survey on virus diseases of cattle in north west Syria. Tropicultura, 10(2):55-57; 14 ref.

Goto K; Takahashi I; Obayashi H, 1977. Microbiological survey on calf pneumonia in feed-lot cattle. Bulletin of Azabu Veterinary College, 2(2)301-309.

Guenov I; Sartmadshiev K, Schopov I et al. , 1970. New serotype 9 of bovine adenoviruses. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin [B], 17(10):1064-1066.

Hafez SM; Krauss H, 1979. Detection of antibodies against some respiratory pathogens in the sera of domestic animals in Egypt. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 27(3):209-214.

Haralambiev H, 1975. The immunological response of calves after submucosal application of a live vaccine against parainfluenza-3 and adenovirus. Archiv fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin, 29(3):397-400.

Haralambiev H; Azev G, 1969. Isolation of a bovine adenovirus from enzootic cuffing pneumonia in calves. Archiv fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin, 23(5):1035-1042.

Haralambiev H; Ognyanov D; Dilovski M; Simov I, 1974. Mixed virus infections associated with respiratory diseases in calves. Veterinarnomeditsinski Nauki, Bulgaria, 11(7):46-52.

Horner GW; Hunter R; Bartha A; Benkö M, 1989. A new subgroup 2 bovine adenovirus proposed as the prototype strain 10. Archives of Virology, 109(1-2):121-124; 8 ref.

Horner GW; Hunter R; Thompson EJ, 1980. Isolation and characterization of a new adenovirus serotype from a yearling heifer with systemic infection. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 28(8):165-167.

Ignatov G; Pavlov N, 1978. Isolation of adenovirus type 1 from aborted cattle fetuses. Veterinarnomeditsinski Nauki, 15(9):86-91.

Inaba Y, 1971. Haemagglutination-inhibition test for bovine adenovirus and para-influenza viruses using the micro-titer method. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 24(6):321-325.

Inaba Y; Tanaka Y, Sato K et al. , 1968. Bovine adenovirus II. A serotype, Fukuroi, recovered from Japanese cattle. Japanese Journal of Microbiology, 12(2):219-229.

Istrate N; Garoiu M; Medrea N; Coman I, 1983. Adenovirus infections in ruminants. Revista de Cresterea Animalelor, 33(12):37-41; 16 ref.

Key DW; Derbyshire JB, 1984. Serological studies of parainfluenza type 3 virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in beef calves. Veterinary Microbiology, 9(6):587-592; 20 ref.

Kharalambiev K; Ognianov D; Dilovski M; Simov I, 1974. Mixed virus infections associated with respiratory diseases in calves. Veterinarno Meditsinski Nauki, 11(7):46-52.

Khristov S; Karadzhov I, Ignatov G et al. , 1976. Testing the preventive properties of polyvalent inactivated vaccine (IBR, PI-3, Adenovirus 1,3) at a cattle-breeding farm. Veterinarno Meditsinski Nauki, 13(6):3-14.

Kirkbride CA, 1992. Viral agents and associated lesions detected in a 10-year study of bovine abortions and stillbirths. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(4):374-379; 35 ref.

Kis VI, 1977. Treatment and prevention of viral pneumoenteritis in calves. Veterinariya, Moscow, USSR, 9:53-56.

Kita J; Ochmanska-Hecold M; Peryt T, 1994. Mixed viral infections in calves in bronchopneumonia outbreaks. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 50(12):608-609; 9 ref.

Klein M; Early E; Zellat J, 1959. Isolation from cattle of a virus related to human adenovirus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 102(1):1-4.

Klein M; Zellat J; Michaelson TC, 1960. New bovine adenovirus related to human adenovirus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 105:340-342.

Kolenkova LM; Belousova RV; Blekherman BE; Litvinov OB, 1985. Isolation and identification of bovine adenovirus. Teoreticheskie osnovy profilaktiki infektsionnykh i invazionnykh boleznei zhivotnykh., 8-11; [Russian summary p. 79].

Kretzschmar C, 1973. A new type of bovine adenovirus. Archiv fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin, 27(1):197-201.

Kretzschmar C, 1980. Roles of parainfluenza virus bovine diarrhoea virus and bovine adenovirus in the enzootic pneumonia complex of calves. Monatshefte fur Veterinarmedizin, 35(13):489-499.

Krpata V, 1978. Antibodies to various viruses and chlamydia in the body fluids of aborted bovine fetuses. Protilatky proti vybranym virum a bedsoniim v telnich tekutinach bovinnich zmetku. Veterinarni Medicina, 23(4):205-212.

Lehmkuhl HD; Briggs RE; Cutlip RC, 1998. Survey for antibodies to bovine adenoviruses in six- to nine-month-old feedyard cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 59(12):1579-1580; 11 ref.

Lehmkuhl HD; Cutlip RC; DeBey BM, 1999. Isolation of a bovine adenovirus serotype 10 from a calf in the United States. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 11(6):485-490; 23 ref.

Lehmkuhl HD; Gough PM, 1977. Investigation of causative agents of bovine respiratory tract disease in a beef cow-calf herd with an early weaning program. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 38(11):1717-1720.

Lehmkuhl HD; Smith MH; Dierks RE, 1975. A bovine adenovirus type 3: isolation, characterization, and experimental infection in calves. Archives of Virology, 48(1):39-46.

Lehmukhl HD; Smith MH; Gough PM, 1979. Neutralizing antibody to bovine adenovirus serotype 3 in healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory tract disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 40(4):580-583.

Litvinov OB; Belousova RV; Syurin VN; Kolenkova LM; Burtseva IA, 1983. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of inactivated bovine adenovirus vaccine. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Eksperimental'noi Veterinarii, 57:116-119; [Russian summary p.165]; 8 ref.

Lotthammer KH; Ehlers J, 1990. Epidemiological investigations on the frequencies of different viruses in calf losses in the Weser-Ems region. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 97(10):418-420; 21 ref.

Läuchli C; Kocherhans R; Wyler R, 1990. Multiple viral infections of the respiratory tract of cattle during the winter of 1986/87. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 77(4):109-110, 112-116; 37 ref.

Mahin L; Wellemans G; Shimi A, 1985. Prevalence of antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 1 (IBR-IPV), bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine respiratory syncytial parainfluenza 3, adeno A and adeno B viruses in indigenous and imported Moroccan cattle. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires, 16(3):279-283; 20 ref.

Majewska H; Baczynski Z; Dierzawski A, 1978. Biological properties of field strains of pneumotropic and enterotropic viruses isolated from cattle. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 22(3-4)48-54.

Mammerickx M; Antoine O; Burny A; Desmecht M; Kerkhofs P; Palm R; Portetelle D; Wellemans G; Wyffels R, 1989. Study of the relationships between infection with BLV (bovine leukaemia virus), persistent lymphocytosis and infections with other infective agents in a cattle herd. Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire, 133(6):515-524; 20 ref.

Mani P; Ceccarelli A, 1976. Serological and epidemiological studies in adenovirus infections in cattle in central southern Italy. Atti della Societa Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie, 30:623-626.

Mani P; Ceccarelli A; Salim HA; Tolari F, 1978. Precipitating antibodies to adenovirus in serum of cattle and sheep in Somalia. Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria di Pisa, 30:103-107.

Matiz K; Benkö M; Zádori Z; Harrach B, 1996. Restriction site mapping of a bovine adenovirus type 10 strain. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 44(3):389-394; 18 ref.

Matiz K; Ursu K; Harrach B; Zádori Z; Benkö M, 1998. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the protease gene, and genetic mapping of bovine adenovirus type 10 define its relatedness to other bovine adenoviruses. Virus Research, 55(1):29-35; 34 ref.

Mattson DE, 1973. Naturally occurring infection of calves with a bovine adenovirus. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 34(5):623-629.

Mattson DE; Norman BB; Dunbar JR, 1988. Bovine adenovirus type-3 infection in feedlot calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49(1):67-69; 18 ref.

Mattson DE; Smith PP Schmitz JA, 1977. Isolation of bovine adenovirus type 4 from cattle in Oregon. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 38(12):2029-2032.

Mattson DE; Wangelin JR; Sweat RL, 1987. Vaccination of dairy calves with bovine adenovirus type 3. Cornell Veterinarian, 77(4):351-361; 34 ref.

Matumoto M; Inaba Y, Tanaka Y et al. , 1970. New serotype 7 of bovine adenovirus. Japanese Journal of Microbiology, 14(5):430-431.

Matumoto M; Inabe Y; Tanaka Y; Sato K; Ito H, 1969. Serological typing of bovine adenovirus, Nagano and Fukuroi, as type 4 and new type 6. Japanese Journal of Microbiology, 13(1):131-132.

Mayr A; Wizigmann G; Bibrack B; Bachmann PA, 1970. A bovine adenovirus isolated from lymph nodes of cattle. Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, 29(2):271-273.

Miklós R; Izadpanah R; László F, 1999. Aetiology of the respiratory disease complex on some intensive cattle and sheep farms in Hungary. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 121(5):255-259; 21 ref.

Mohanty SB; Lillie MG, 1970. Type 2 bovine adenovirus as an adventitious contaminant in primary bovine embryonic kidney cell cultures. Applied Microbiology, 19(2):381-382.

Morzaria SP; Richards MS; Harkness JW; Maund BA, 1979. A field trial with a multicomponent inactivated respiratory viral vaccine. Veterinary Record, 105(18):410-414.

Murav'ev VN; Usmanova GV; Belyaev VM; Basov VI, 1985. Outbreak of acute respiratory disease of calves caused by respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus. Teoreticheskie osnovy profilaktiki infektsionnykh i invazionnykh boleznei zhivotnykh., 11-13.

Novak S, 1982. Parainfluenza 3 virus and bovine adenoviruses as pathogenic agents in calf diseases. Veterinarstvi, 32(2):75-77.

Nunez A; Castell S, 1985. Serological survey of bovine adenoviruses in Cuba. Revista de Salud Animal, 7(3):367-369; 4 ref.

Nurgaziev RZ; Belousova RV, 1989. Immunogenicity of inactivated vaccine against bovine adenovirus. Veterinariya, Moscow, No.2:25-26.

Obi TU; Taylor WP, 1984. Serological survey of adenovirus antibodies in domestic animals in Nigeria. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 7(1):63-68; 6 ref.

Opdenbosch Evan; Wellemans G; Theys H; Verhees I, 1986. Occurrence of subclinical viral infections in veal calves and their influence on weight gain. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 55(1):17-20; 5 ref.

Orr JP, 1984. Necrotizing enteritis in a calf infected with adenovirus. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 25(2):72-74; 15 ref.

Pavlov N, 1979. Pathohistological picture of adenovirus infection in calves. Archiv fur Experimentelle Veterinarmedizin, 33(2):253-261.

Pavlov V; Tsvetkov P; Kalcheva M, 1987. Immune response of calves following vaccination with attenuated parainfluenza-3 virus and adenovirus type 3, in relation to the degree of colostral immunity. Veterinarnomeditsinski Nauki, 24(9):17-21; 15 ref.

Peinhopf W; Deutz A; Köfer J; Schuller W; Hinterdorfer F; Möstl K, 1996. Microbiological, serological and clinical examinations of cattle with crowding disease. Tierärztliche Umschau, 51(12):747-753; 15 ref.

Pernthaner A; Baumgartner W; Cerny-Reiterer S; Köfer J, 1990. Serological survey of Austrian cattle for pathogens of respiratory disease. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 97(6):254-257; 21 ref.

Phillip JI; Sands JJ, 1972. The isolated of bovine adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7 in Britain. Research in Veterinary Science, 13(4):386-387.

Ramírez RR; Trigo FJ, 1986. Adenovirus infection in cattle and sheep. Veterinaria, M^acute~exico, 17(2):110-115; 43 ref.

Reed DE; Wheeler JG; Lupton HW, 1978. Isolation of bovine adenovirus type 7 from calves with pneumonia and enteritis. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 39(12):1968-1971.

Richer L; Marios P; Lamontagne L, 1988. Association of bovine viral diarrhea virus with multiple viral infections in bovine respiratory disease outbreaks. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 29(9):713-717; 26 ref.

Rondhuis PR, 1968. A new bovine adenovirus. Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, 25(2):235-236.

Rossi CR; Kiesel GK; Emrick VR, 1973. Distribution of antibody to bovine adenovirus type 1 in Alabama cattle, as determined by micro-serum-neutralization test. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 34(6):841-842.

Rowe WP; Huebner RJ, Hartley JW et al. , 1953. Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 84:570-573.

Rusvai M; Fodor L, 1998. Occurrence of some viruses and bacteria involved in respiratory diseases of ruminants in Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 46(4):405-414; 21 ref.

Sabirovic M, 1988. Aetiological role of adenoviruses in the calf respiratory syndrome. Veterinaria (Sarajevo), 37(2-3):273-285; 18 ref.

Sabirovic M; Bajrovic T; Bajalo N; Sola J, 1987. Use of indirect immunofluorescence in adenovirus diagnosis. Veterinarski Glasnik, 41(11/12):1006-1008.

Sato K; Inaba Y, Tokuhisa S et al. , 1980. Antibodies against several viruses in sera from normal bovine fetuses and precolostral calves. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Tokyo), 20(2):77-78.

Saxegaard F; Bratberg B, 1971. Isolation of bovine adenovirus type 1 from a calf with pneumo-enteritis. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 12(3):464-466.

Scanziani E; Sironi G; Finazzi M; Luini M, 1989. Adenoviral fibrinous enteritis in calves. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 96(4):165-168; 27 ref.

Shichkina VP; Pille ER; Dzagurov SG, 1971. Infectivity of bovine adenoviruses for cattle. Veterinariya Moscow, 11:29-40.

Shimizu T; Nosaka D; Nakamura N, 1975. Significance of T mycoplasmas in enzootic calf pneumonia. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science, 37(2):121-131.

Sihvonen L; Tuomi J, 1978. A seroepidemiological survey of adenovirus activity (types 1 3) at two Finnish calf rearing farms. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 19(2):192-203.

Sizov I, 1982. Adenovirus infection in cattle in Bulgaria. Veterinarnomeditsinski Nauki, 19(5):22-27.

Smyth JA; Moffett DA; Garderen Evan; Orr JP, 1999. Examination of adenovirus-types in intestinal vascular endothelial inclusions in fatal cases of enteric disease in cattle, by in situ hybridisation. Veterinary Microbiology, 70(1/2):1-6; 18 ref.

Stauber E; Renshaw HW; Boro C; Mattson D; Frank FW, 1976. Isolation of a subgroup two adenovirus from a calf with weak calf syndrome. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 40(1):98-103.

Stauber EH; Abinanti FR; Whitbeck GD, 1986. Seroepizootiology of types 3 and 7 adenoviruses and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection of beef cattle from birth to first parturition. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 47(4):774-776; 19 ref.

Stott JE; Thomas LH; Collins AP; Crouch S; Jebbett J; Smith GS; Luther PD; Cashwell R, 1980. A survey of virus infections of the respiratory tract of cattle and their association with disease. Journal of Hygiene, 85:257.

Suzan VM; Onuma M; Aguilar RE; Murakami Y, 1983. Prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, bovine rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine adenovirus-7, bovine leukemia virus and bluetongue virus antibodies in cattle in Mexico. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 31(3/4):125-132; 15 ref.

Tanaka Y; Inaba Y; Ito Y; Omori T; Matsumoto M, 1968. Bovine adenovirus. I. Recovery of a serotype, Nagano, from Japanese cattle. Japanese Journal of Microbiology, 12(1):77-95.

Tegtmeier C; Uttenthal A; Friis NF; Jensen NE; Jensen HE, 1999. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 46(10):693-700; 32 ref.

Thompson EJ, 1977. Bovine adenovirus infection. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 25(11):353.

Thompson KG; Thomson GW; Henry JN, 1981. Alimentary tract manifestation of bovine adenovirus infections. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 22(3):68-71.

Timoney PJ, 1971. Adenovirus precipitating antibodies in the sera of some domestic animal species in Ireland. British Veterinary Journal, 127(12):567-571.

Tribe GW; Kanarek AD; Kerry JB; White G, 1969. A combined bovine parainfluenza and adenovirus vaccine. Veterinary Record, 84(12):299-303.

Uttenthal A; Jensen NPB; Blom JY, 1996. Viral aetiology of enzootic pneumonia in Danish dairy herds: diagnostic tools and epidemiology. Veterinary Record, 139(5):114-117; 19 ref.

Welch DC; Dellers RW, 1973. Suspected adenoviral infection in adult dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

White DJ; Fishman B, 1972. Serological evidence for mixed infections in calf pneumonia. Veterinary Record, 90(10):314-315.

Wilcox GE, 1969. Isolation of adenoviruses from cattle with conjunctivitis and kerato-conjunctivitis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 45(6):265-270.

Wilcox GE, 1970. The aetiology of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Queensland. 2. Adenovirus. Australian Veterinary Journal, 46(9):415-420.

Wizigmann G, 1974. Epidemiology and aetiology of bovine enzootic bronchopneumonia. II. Involvement of bovine adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses and parainfluenza 3-virus. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin [B], 21(8):580-591.

Wizigmann G, 1974. Epidemiology and etiology of bovine influenza. I. Occurrence and distribution of bovine adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses, and parainfluenza 3 virus. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin [B], 21(8):563-579.

Wizigmann G; Dirksen G, Sandersleben Jv et al. , 1976. Enzootic bronchopneumonia of cattle (viral pneumonia). Tierarztliche Umschau, 31(8):343-352.

Woernle H; Brunner A, 1982. Serological studies in cattle herds with respiratory diseases, diarrhoea, infertility, abortion and neonatal mortality to investigate the role of viral infections. Tierarztliche Umschau, 37(2):100-109.

Wrzolek-lobocka G, 1984. Characteristics of a Polish bovine adenovirus with reference to changes during attenuation. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, DD (Medicina Veterinaria), 39:153-165; 42 ref.

Wrzolek-lobocka G, 1984. Studies on an attenuated bovine adenovirus for vaccine preparation. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, DD (Medicina Veterinaria), 39:167-177; 30 ref.

Wrzolek-lobocka G; Buczek J; Tyszko A, 1990. Immunogenicity of the Adenovac 2 vaccine in calves. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 46(8):293-295; 24 ref.

Yavru S; öztürk F, 1990. Comparison of the neutralization and agar precipitation tests in a survey of antibodies to bovine adenovirus type 1 in cattle in Konya, Turkey. Veterinarium, 1(2):28-32; 25 ref.

YonguÇ AD; Girgin H; AkÇora A, 1988. Aetiological serological and histopathological studies on adenovirus infections in calves. Doga, Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik, 12(1):93-97; 24 ref.

York IA; Thorsen J, 1992. Evaluation of a subunit vaccine for bovine adenoviruses for cattle. Veterinariya Moscow, 11:49-40.

Zakharchuk AN; Kruglyak VA; Akopian TA; Naroditsky BS; Tikhonenko TI, 1993. Physical mapping and homology studies of egg drop syndrome (EDS-76) adenovirus DNA. Archives of Virology, 128(1-2):171-176; 11 ref.

Zhumabaev KhZh; Belousova RV; Zhumabaev VZh, 1993. Circulation of bovine adenovirus on some farms in Kazakhstan. Voprosy veterinarnoi biologii., 57-58.

Zupancic Z; Cvetnic S; Mayer V, 1984. Bovine adenovirus precipitins (serotypes 1, 2 and 4) in cattle in Croatia. Veterinarski Arhiv, 54(2):67-76; 51 ref.

Zygraich N; Delforge JL, 1983. Simultaneous administration of live vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. Annales de Medecine Veterinaire. 127(1):23-27.

öztürk F; Toker A, 1988. Serological determination of bovine adenovirus type 1, type 2 and type 3 in cattle at the Konya Agricultural Institute. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, Selcuk üniversitesi, 4(1):213-218; 9 ref.

öztürk F; Yavru S; Duman R; simsek A, 1992. Serological survey for bovine adenovirus type 2 infection in cattle in Konya. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, Selcuk üniversitesi, 8(2):70-73; 30 ref.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map