Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bos taurus
(cattle)

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Datasheet

Bos taurus (cattle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bos taurus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cattle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
TitleHerd
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
Copyright©Paul Asman & Jill Lenoble/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
HerdBos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.©Paul Asman & Jill Lenoble/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
TitleHerd
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
Copyright©Bernard Gagnon, Quebec, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
HerdBos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.©Bernard Gagnon, Quebec, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
TitleBull
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
CopyrightPublic Domain - CC0 1.0 (from wikipedia)
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
BullBos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.Public Domain - CC0 1.0 (from wikipedia)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bos taurus

Preferred Common Name

  • cattle

Other Scientific Names

  • Bos indicus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Bos primigenius Bojanes, 1827

International Common Names

  • English: bull; bulls; calf; calves; cow; cows; ox; oxen; taurine cattle
  • Spanish: ganados
  • French: bétail; vaches; veau

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Hausrind; Vieh
  • Italy: bestiami
  • Portugal: gado

DADIS local name

  • Aurochs
  • B.p. namadicus
  • B.p. opisthonomus
  • B.p. primigenius
  • Bos
  • reem
  • rimu
  • Ur
  • urus
  • wild ox
  • Willayati and Cross

DADIS main name

  • Exotic and cross-bred
  • Tur

Summary of Invasiveness

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Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling. In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Ruminantia
  •                             Family: Bovidae
  •                                 Genus: Bos
  •                                     Species: Bos taurus

Description

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Feral cattle can be distinguished from domestic stock only by their location and lack of ear marks or tags. Their size and conformation vary greatly depending on sex, age and breed. The male is heavier and larger, particularly around the head and neck. The hair is either straight or curly, and ranges from whitish to black with shades and blotches of red, roan, brown or buff. Both sexes can have horns, which are permanent and hollow, and grow throughout life over bony cores projecting from a prominent ridge on the skull. The horns of bulls are usually shorter and thicker than those of cows (Parkes, 2005).

Distribution

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The ancestors of today's Eurasian breeds of humpless cattle were the "wild aurochs" - large, formidable, long-legged and long-horned beasts - the last of which were hunted to extinction in Poland in 1627. Archaeological evidence suggests that cattle were first domesticated in the Middle East between 6000 and 5000 BC, and spread from there through Africa and Europe. Other early independent centres of domestication included Switzerland, Germany and Denmark. Hundreds of distinct breeds have been produced by artificial selection and transported throughout the world (Parkes, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CambodiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AnhuiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-BeijingPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GansuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuangdongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuangxiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuizhouPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HeilongjiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HenanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HubeiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HunanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-JiangsuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-JiangxiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-JilinPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ShandongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-SichuanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TibetPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-YunnanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Andhra PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AssamPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GujaratPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HaryanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Indian PunjabPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-KarnatakaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-KeralaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MaharashtraPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OdishaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-RajasthanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TripuraPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-West BengalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Nusa TenggaraPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IranPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IraqPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IsraelPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JapanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JordanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MongoliaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NepalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PakistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PhilippinesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
South East AsiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Sri LankaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SyriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TaiwanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ThailandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TurkeyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UzbekistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
VietnamPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BeninPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BotswanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Burkina FasoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BurundiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CameroonPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Cape VerdePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Central African RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Côte d'IvoirePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EgyptPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EthiopiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GhanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GuineaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
KenyaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MadagascarPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MalawiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MaliPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MauritaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MoroccoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MozambiquePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NamibiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigerPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SenegalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
South AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SudanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TanzaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TogoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TunisiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UgandaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
West AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZimbabwePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

North America

CanadaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlbertaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-British ColumbiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OntarioPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-QuebecPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MexicoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlabamaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlaskaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-FloridaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1793 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IdahoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-IllinoisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-IowaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MichiganPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MinnesotaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MississippiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MontanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-NebraskaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New YorkPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-North CarolinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OklahomaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-PennsylvaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TexasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-VirginiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-WyomingPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
CaribbeanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Costa RicaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CubaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GuatemalaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
HaitiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NicaraguaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BoliviaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BrazilPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-BahiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Espirito SantoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GoiasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Mato GrossoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ParaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ParanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Santa CatarinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Sao PauloPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChilePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ColombiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroduced1839 on West Falkland, earlier on East Falkland Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuyanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ParaguayPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PeruPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UruguayPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
VenezuelaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Europe

AustriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BelarusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BelgiumPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BulgariaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CroatiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Czech RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
DenmarkPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EstoniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FinlandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FrancePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GermanyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GreecePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
HungaryPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IrelandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ItalyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-SicilyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
LithuaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MaltaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NetherlandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NorwayPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PolandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PortugalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RomaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Russian FederationPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ScandinaviaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SlovakiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SloveniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwedenPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwitzerlandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UKPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Northern IrelandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ScotlandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UkrainePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Western EuropePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New South WalesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-QueenslandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Western AustraliaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FijiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MarquesasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesRestricted distributionIntroduced1871 Invasive ISSG, 2011
KiribatiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced1850 Invasive ISSG, 2011
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedbefore 1742 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SamoaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TuvaluAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedLarge ruminant farms Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
In mainland forests feral cattle browse on a very wide range of shrubs and young trees. Feral cattle are afoot at first light, feeding rapidly until the paunch is full, and then they alternate periods of chewing the cud with grazing throughout the day. Normally they ruminate lying down, but in wet weather they may stand with their backs to the wind. In bush country feral cattle will "walk down" tall saplings up to 6m high, straddling the stem in order to bend the tops within reach, and then stripping off the leaves.

Reproduction
The oestrus cycle is 3 weeks, and the gestation period about 9.5 months. Feral calves are most commonly born in late spring. Multiple births are unknown in feral herds. Calves are born with their eyes open, they stand and suckle almost at once, and within a few hours can follow their mother. They are usually weaned well before the next calf is born.

Males reach puberty at about 10 months of age, and thereafter are fecund throughout the year, but feral bulls do not mate until strong enough to compete for cows. Domestic cows can conceive at 6-10 months, but apparently very few do so in the wild. Cows may remain fertile for about 12 years and comes into season in spring for about 3 weeks after calving.

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Transportation of domesticated animals: Particularly important in Hawaii and New Caledonia as the basis for a meat industry.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement: Unless well contained by adequate fences, cattle wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. If unchecked this can result in the formation of feral herds roaming wild through extensive areas of country.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive
Livestock production Positive
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Feral cattle can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling (Aston 1912; Wodzicki 1950). In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns, until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation. On sub-antarctic Enderby Island feral cattle prevented the regeneration of Poa litorosa tussock grassland and a variety of endemic sub-antarctic herbs (Parkes, 2005). Scott et al. (in Stone 1984) regarded domestic and feral cattle as the “single most destructive agent to Hawai‘ian ecosystems, particularly to koa forests”. Regeneration of young koa (see Acacia koaia in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) trees is completely suppressed in some forests of Hawai‘I (Baldwin and Fagerlund 1943; SPREP, 2000).
 
Degradation of breeding sites by introduced cattle has decreased the range and population of the 'critically endangered' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Across Amsterdam Island in the Southern French Territories (BirdLife International 2007).
 
Feral cattle can threaten other closely related species through interbreeding. For example, Halbert and Derr (2007) showed through genetic analysis that feral cattle threaten the genetic integrity of populations of North American bison (Bison bison).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acacia koaiaVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing; TramplingISSG, 2011
Diomedea amsterdamensis (Amsterdam albatross)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesISSG, 2011
Aconitum noveboracense (northern wild monkshood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIowa; New York; Ohio; WisconsinHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1983
Adelocosa anops (Kauai cave wolf spider)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006a
Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008g
Apios priceana (Price's potato-bean)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesAlabama; Illinois; Kentucky; Mississippi; TennesseeHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990
Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii (Northern wormwood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA candidate species USA ESA candidate speciesOregon; WashingtonEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014c
Astragalus anserinus (Goose Creek milkvetch)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA candidate species USA ESA candidate speciesIdaho; Nevada; UtahEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014d
Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999a
Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough milk-vetch)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004b
Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007g
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Brodiaea filifolia (thread-Leaved brodiaea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d
Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley spineflower)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013e
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea duvalliorumUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea maritaeUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea marksii (Marks' cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea mauiensisEX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii (Jones' cycladenia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; UtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008h
Cyrtandra oxybaphaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Drosophila aglaiaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila hemipezaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila heteroneuraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila montgomeryiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila musaphilaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila ochrobasisUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila substenopteraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila digressaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Dudleya cymosa subsp. marcescens (marcescent dudleya)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999b
Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009h
Dudleya stolonifera (Laguna Beach liveforever)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Elaphrus viridis (delta green ground beetle)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005a
Escobaria robbinsorum (Cochise pincushion cactus)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizonaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993
Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColorado; Nebraska; WyomingHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012c
Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007a
Helianthus paradoxus (paradoxical sunflower)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew Mexico; TexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005b
Hesperidanthus argillaceusUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992
Hexastylis naniflora (dwarf-flowered heartleaf)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNorth Carolina; South CarolinaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014e
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014f
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014g
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014h
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014i
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014j
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014k
Ivesia kingii var. eremica (Ash Meadows ivesia)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1985
Ivesia webberi (Webber's ivesia)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island woodland-star)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984a; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007b
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Mesa lupine)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingD’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Bossard et al., 2000; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009j
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (Proctor's staggerbush)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994a
Marstonia ogmoraphe (royal marstonia (snail))LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTennesseeHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994b
Melanthera venosa (spreading nehe)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994d
Mucuna sloanei var. persericeaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Neostapfia colusana (Colusa grass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Ochrosia haleakalae (island yellowwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014l
Oncorhynchus aguabonita whiteiUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011f
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011g
Osmoxylon mariannenseCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007e
Ovis ammon (argali)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesKyrgyzstan; Mongolia; TajikistanCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002
Ovis canadensis sierrae (Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008j
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Parvisedum leiocarpum (Lake County stonecrop)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009k
Pediocactus winkleri (Winkler's pincushion cactus)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Peristylus holochila (Hawai'i bog orchid)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Phacelia insularis var. insularis (island phacelia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008e
Phyllostegia bracteata (bracted phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Phyllostegia racemosa (kiponapona)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Phyllostegia velutina (velvet phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Physaria congesta (Dudley Bluffs bladderpod)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColoradoEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008c
Physaria filiformis (Missouri bladderpod)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArkansas; MissouriHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003a
Plagiobothrys hirtus (rough popcorn flower)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003b
Poa atropurpurea (San Bernardino bluegrass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay Mesa mint)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Pritchardia schattaueri (Lands of Papa pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus (Carson wandering skipper)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007f
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011e
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009n
Pteropus mariannus mariannus (Mariana fruit bat)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009g
Ptilimnium nodosum (harperella)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabamaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988
Pyrgulopsis bernardina (San Bernardino springsnail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizonaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012b
Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis (autumn buttercup)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991a
Ranunculus hawaiensis (Hawai'ian buttercup)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014m
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiTramplingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009l
Rhinichthys osculus (Kendall Warm Springs dace)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009i
Sarracenia oreophila (green pitcherplant)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabama; Georgia; North CarolinaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994c
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Schiedea salicariaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Sclerocactus brevispinusCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Sclerocactus glaucusUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColoradoHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Serianthes nelsoniiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994e
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010j
Sicyos albus (white burr cucumber)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Sidalcea keckii (Keck's checker-mallow)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008f
Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIdaho; Montana; Oregon; WashingtonBehaviour disruptionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007d
Solanum nelsonii (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014n
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010k
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Oregon silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001
Spiranthes delitescensEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizonaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997
Stahlia monospermaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996b
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur wire-lettuce)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991b
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canada; ; California; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012d
Acmispon dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island broom)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984a; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007c
Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008k
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Tetramolopium rockii (dune tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Thelypodium howellii subsp. spectabilis (Howell's spectacular thelypody)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Thymophylla tephroleuca (ashy dogweed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987
Townsendia aprica (last chance townsendia)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Trifolium dichotomum (showy Indian clover)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008i
Tuctoria greenei (Greene's tuctoria)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008d
Tuctoria mucronata (solano grass)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009m
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004a
Lepidaploa proctoriiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPuerto RicoEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Vetericaris chaceorum (anchialine pool shrimp)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration,
Vicia menziesii (Hawaiian vetch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984b
Villosa perpurpurea (purple bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAEcosystem change / habitat alterationButler and Biggins, 2004
Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
Zeltnera namophilaNo DetailsCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009f

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Trampling

Uses

Top of page

Domestic cattle are used for meat, milk, hides and as draft animals. Feral cattle may be hunted for meat and hides.

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Draught animal
  • Game animal

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Milk
  • Milk and dairy products

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

Prevention and Control

Top of page

 

Management Information
 
Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Preventative measures: Well maintained fences can give adequate protection from cattle to areas of native woody vegetation (Courchamp et al. 2003). A fence was used on Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean to prevent cattle damaging the breeding grounds of the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Cattle were restricted to a small part of the island and eradicated from the rest (Micol and Jouventin, 1995).
 
Physical: Dogs and shooting are a standard method of control (SPREP, 2000).

 

Bibliography

Top of page

Aston, B. C. 1912. Some effects of imported animals on the indigenous vegetation. Transactions and Proceedings of the NZ Institute 44: 19-24.

Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

Baldwin, P. H. and Fagerlund, G. O. 1943. The effect of cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park. Ecology 24: 118–122.

BirdLife International 2007. Diomedea amsterdamensis. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144900/0

Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/Assessing_the_risk_importing_exotic_vertebrates.pdf

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Chapuis, J.L, & Bousses, P. 1987. Relations animal-végétation : conséquences des introductions de mammifères phytophages dans l'archipel de Kerguelen. Actes du colloque sur la Recherche française dans les Terres Australes.269-278

Courchamp, F., Chapuis, J.-L., and Pascal, M. 2003. Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impact. Biological Reviews, 78: 347-383.

De Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Spaggiari, J., Menard, C. 2004. Ecologie et impact des ongulés introduits sur la forêt sèche de Nouvelle Calédonie. IAC/CIRAD, Programme Elevage et Faune, Païta, Nouvelle-Calédonie, 50p et 128 p d'annexes.

Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M., & Bergstrom, D. 2005. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Bio. Rev, 80, 45-72. http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/non-native%20species%20in%20the%20antarctic/Talk%202%20Frenot.pdf

Frenot, Y., Gloaguen, J., Massé, L., & Lebouvier, M. 2001. Human activities, ecosystem disturbance and plant invasions in subantarctic Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands. Biological Conservation, 101, 33-50.

Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneu, J. C. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie.. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 375-401.

Halbert D., Derr J.N., 2007. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Cattle Introgression into US Federal Bison Herds. Journal of Heredity, 98: 1-12.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Bos taurus http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=183838

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

Klinger, R. C.; P. Schuyler, and J. D. Sterner., 2002. The response of herbaceous vegetation and endemic plant species to the removal of feral sheep from the Santa Cruz Island, California. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 381-388. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Micol, T. & Jouventin, P. 1995. Restoration of Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, following control of feral cattle. Biol. Conserv., 72, 199-206.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Threatened Status for Apios Priceana (Price's Potato-bean). In: Federal Register , 55(4) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.429-433. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr1644.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan. In: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan. In: Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Final Rule to Determine the Plant Schoenocrambe argillacea (Clay Reed-Mustard) To Be a Threatened Species and the Plant Schoenocrambe barnebyl (Barneby Reed-Mustard) To Be an Endangered Species. In: Federal Register , 57(9) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.1398-1403. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr2006.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993. Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan. In: Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.49 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/930927c.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan. In: Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.21 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan. In: Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae. In: Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46 pp. + appendix.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii. In: Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.138 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster. In: Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.143 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan. In: Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/961101a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico : US Fish and Wildlife Service.25 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster. In: Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.80 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for Four Plants From Southwestern California and Baja California, Mexico. In: Federal Register , 63(197) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.54938-54946. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3325.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.207 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch) as Threatened. In: Federal Register , 64(202) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.56590-56596. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3460.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin. In: Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin : US Fish and Wildlife Service.77 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/990930a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta). In: Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.121 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/010822.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Retention of Threatened Status for Argali in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. In: Federal Register , 67(99) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.35942-35957. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-05-22/pdf/02-12824.pdf#page=1

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of Lesquerella filiformis (Missouri Bladderpod) from Endangered to Threatened. In: Federal Register , 68(111) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.34569-34576. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4111.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus). In: Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough Milk-vetch). In: Federal Register , 69(108) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31552-31569. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4309.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Federally Listed Animal Species. Delta Green Ground Beetle (Elaphrus viridis). In: Recovery Plan for Vernal Pool Ecosystems of California and Southern Oregon : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/Recovery-Planning/Vernal-Pool/Documents/delta_green_ground_beetle.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan. In: Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.47 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/050915.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana). In: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds : US Fish and Wildlife Service.622 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1865.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly). In: Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.203 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/071012.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus). In: Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.viii + 94 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense). In: Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.86 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review. Summary and Evaluation. In: Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.76 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1150.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.27 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1930.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1916.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.25 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1996.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii). In: Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/recovery_plan/Jones%20cycladenia_123008.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.40 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.26 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.48 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2570.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2569.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus). In: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.98 pp. https://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/documents/100330.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2576.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation. In: Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2524.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.18 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. In: Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.28 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3249.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.41 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Pariette%20Cactus_Recovery%20Outline_Apr%202010.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Sclerocactus%20wetlandicus%20recovery%20outline_final_Apr%202010.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.121 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.44 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3627.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase Mussels; Proposed Rule. In: Federal Register , 76(12) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.3392-3420. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-19/pdf/2011-469.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3894.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.44 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4008.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule , 77(74) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23060-23092. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-17/pdf/2012-8811.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.59 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4128.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(209) , USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.80 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4164.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.72 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4267.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r8/Q0EZ_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable Thoroughwort); Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 79(5) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.1552-1590. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-01-08/pdf/2013-31576.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Species Status for Ivesia webberi. In: Federal Register , 79(106) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31878-31883. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-06-03/pdf/2014-12627.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q2XG_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r6/Q3B5_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q3ES_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q38H_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q21R_P01.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Cattle Network - EAAPhttp://www.cattlenetwork.net/Website of the European Association for Animal Production Cattle Network. The site includes publications, summaries of cattle breeds, EU regulations, a database of companies involved at all levels of the food management chain and job postings.
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Principal sources: Taylor R. H. (1990) in King C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals

    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Tuesday, July 03, 2007

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