Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bos taurus
(cattle)

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Datasheet

Bos taurus (cattle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bos taurus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cattle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can sever...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
TitleHerd
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
Copyright©Paul Asman & Jill Lenoble/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
HerdBos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.©Paul Asman & Jill Lenoble/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
TitleHerd
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
Copyright©Bernard Gagnon, Quebec, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
HerdBos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.©Bernard Gagnon, Quebec, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
TitleBull
CaptionBos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
CopyrightPublic Domain - CC0 1.0 (from wikipedia)
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
BullBos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.Public Domain - CC0 1.0 (from wikipedia)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bos taurus

Preferred Common Name

  • cattle

Other Scientific Names

  • Bos indicus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Bos primigenius Bojanes, 1827

International Common Names

  • English: bull; bulls; calf; calves; cow; cows; ox; oxen; taurine cattle
  • Spanish: ganados
  • French: bétail; vaches; veau

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Hausrind; Vieh
  • Italy: bestiami
  • Portugal: gado

DADIS local name

  • Aurochs
  • B.p. namadicus
  • B.p. opisthonomus
  • B.p. primigenius
  • Bos
  • reem
  • rimu
  • Ur
  • urus
  • wild ox
  • Willayati and Cross

DADIS main name

  • Exotic and cross-bred
  • Tur

Summary of Invasiveness

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Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling. In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Ruminantia
  •                             Family: Bovidae
  •                                 Genus: Bos
  •                                     Species: Bos taurus

Description

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Feral cattle can be distinguished from domestic stock only by their location and lack of ear marks or tags. Their size and conformation vary greatly depending on sex, age and breed. The male is heavier and larger, particularly around the head and neck. The hair is either straight or curly, and ranges from whitish to black with shades and blotches of red, roan, brown or buff. Both sexes can have horns, which are permanent and hollow, and grow throughout life over bony cores projecting from a prominent ridge on the skull. The horns of bulls are usually shorter and thicker than those of cows (Parkes, 2005).

Distribution

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The ancestors of today's Eurasian breeds of humpless cattle were the "wild aurochs" - large, formidable, long-legged and long-horned beasts - the last of which were hunted to extinction in Poland in 1627. Archaeological evidence suggests that cattle were first domesticated in the Middle East between 6000 and 5000 BC, and spread from there through Africa and Europe. Other early independent centres of domestication included Switzerland, Germany and Denmark. Hundreds of distinct breeds have been produced by artificial selection and transported throughout the world (Parkes, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1871Invasive

Asia

BangladeshPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MongoliaPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-AlaskaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1793Invasive
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Marquesas IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced1850Invasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: before 1742
SamoaPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresent
TuvaluAbsent, Formerly present

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedInvasive
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: 1839 on West Falkland, earlier on East Falkland
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedLarge ruminant farms Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
In mainland forests feral cattle browse on a very wide range of shrubs and young trees. Feral cattle are afoot at first light, feeding rapidly until the paunch is full, and then they alternate periods of chewing the cud with grazing throughout the day. Normally they ruminate lying down, but in wet weather they may stand with their backs to the wind. In bush country feral cattle will "walk down" tall saplings up to 6m high, straddling the stem in order to bend the tops within reach, and then stripping off the leaves.

Reproduction
The oestrus cycle is 3 weeks, and the gestation period about 9.5 months. Feral calves are most commonly born in late spring. Multiple births are unknown in feral herds. Calves are born with their eyes open, they stand and suckle almost at once, and within a few hours can follow their mother. They are usually weaned well before the next calf is born.

Males reach puberty at about 10 months of age, and thereafter are fecund throughout the year, but feral bulls do not mate until strong enough to compete for cows. Domestic cows can conceive at 6-10 months, but apparently very few do so in the wild. Cows may remain fertile for about 12 years and comes into season in spring for about 3 weeks after calving.

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Transportation of domesticated animals: Particularly important in Hawaii and New Caledonia as the basis for a meat industry.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement: Unless well contained by adequate fences, cattle wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. If unchecked this can result in the formation of feral herds roaming wild through extensive areas of country.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive
Livestock production Positive
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Feral cattle can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling (Aston 1912; Wodzicki 1950). In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns, until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation. On sub-antarctic Enderby Island feral cattle prevented the regeneration of Poa litorosa tussock grassland and a variety of endemic sub-antarctic herbs (Parkes, 2005). Scott et al. (in Stone 1984) regarded domestic and feral cattle as the “single most destructive agent to Hawai‘ian ecosystems, particularly to koa forests”. Regeneration of young koa (see Acacia koaia in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) trees is completely suppressed in some forests of Hawai‘I (Baldwin and Fagerlund 1943; SPREP, 2000).
 
Degradation of breeding sites by introduced cattle has decreased the range and population of the 'critically endangered' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Across Amsterdam Island in the Southern French Territories (BirdLife International 2007).
 
Feral cattle can threaten other closely related species through interbreeding. For example, Halbert and Derr (2007) showed through genetic analysis that feral cattle threaten the genetic integrity of populations of North American bison (Bison bison).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acacia koaiaVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing; TramplingISSG (2011)
Diomedea amsterdamensis (Amsterdam albatross)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesISSG (2011)
Aconitum noveboracense (northern wild monkshood)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIowa; New York; Ohio; WisconsinHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1983)
Adelocosa anops (Kauai cave wolf spider)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006a)
Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008g)
Apios priceana (Price's potato-bean)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesAlabama; Illinois; Kentucky; Mississippi; TennesseeHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1990)
Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii (Northern wormwood)NatureServe; USA ESA candidate speciesOregon; WashingtonEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014c)
Astragalus anserinus (Goose Creek milkvetch)NatureServe; USA ESA candidate speciesIdaho; Nevada; UtahEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014d)
Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1999a)
Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough milk-vetch)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2004b)
Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007g)
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Brodiaea filifolia (thread-Leaved brodiaea)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009d)
Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley spineflower)NatureServe; USA ESA species proposed for listingCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013e)
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea duvalliorumUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea maritaeUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea marksii (Marks' cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Cyanea mauiensisEX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii (Jones' cycladenia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; UtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008h)
Cyrtandra oxybaphaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998a)
Drosophila aglaiaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila hemipezaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila heteroneuraUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila montgomeryiUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila musaphiliaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila ochrobasisUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila substenopteraUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila digressaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Dudleya cymosa subsp. marcescens (marcescent dudleya)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1999b)
Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009h)
Dudleya stolonifera (Laguna Beach liveforever)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998b)
Elaphrus viridis (delta green ground beetle)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2005a)
Escobaria robbinsorum (Cochise pincushion cactus)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizonaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1993)
Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColorado; Nebraska; WyomingHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012c)
Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007a)
Helianthus paradoxus (paradoxical sunflower)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew Mexico; TexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2005b)
Hesperidanthus argillaceusUSA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1992)
Hexastylis naniflora (dwarf-flowered heartleaf)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNorth Carolina; South CarolinaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011b)
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014e)
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014f)
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014g)
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014h)
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014i)
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014j)
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014k)
Ivesia kingii var. eremica (Ash Meadows ivesia)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1985)
Ivesia webberi (Webber's ivesia)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014b)
Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island woodland-star)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984a); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2007b)
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Mesa lupine)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingD’Antonio and Vitousek (1992); Bossard et al. (2000); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009j)
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (Proctor's staggerbush)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994a)
Marstonia ogmoraphe (royal marstonia (snail))LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTennesseeHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994b)
Melanthera venosa (spreading nehe)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994d)
Mucuna sloanei var. persericeaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Neostapfia colusana (Colusa grass)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008b)
Ochrosia haleakalae (island yellowwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014l)
Oncorhynchus aguabonita whiteiUSA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011f)
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013c)
Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011g)
Osmoxylon mariannenseCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007e)
Ovis ammon (argali)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesKyrgyzstan; Mongolia; TajikistanCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2002)
Ovis canadensis sierrae (Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008j)
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b)
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Parvisedum leiocarpum (Lake County stonecrop)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009k)
Pediocactus winkleri (Winkler's pincushion cactus)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010h)
Peristylus holochila (Hawai'i bog orchid)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009a)
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011d)
Phacelia insularis var. insularis (island phacelia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008e)
Phyllostegia bracteata (bracted phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995)
Phyllostegia racemosa (kiponapona)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998a)
Phyllostegia velutina (velvet phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998a)
Physaria congesta (Dudley Bluffs bladderpod)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColoradoEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008c)
Physaria filiformis (Missouri bladderpod)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArkansas; MissouriHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2003a)
Plagiobothrys hirtus (rough popcorn flower)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2003b)
Poa atropurpurea (San Bernardino bluegrass)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay Mesa mint)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010f)
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011a)
Pritchardia schattaueri (Lands of Papa pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009b)
Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus (Carson wandering skipper)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007f)
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2011e)
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009n)
Pteropus mariannus mariannus (Mariana fruit bat)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009g)
Ptilimnium nodosum (harperella)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabamaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1988)
Pyrgulopsis bernardina (San Bernardino springsnail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizonaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012b)
Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis (autumn buttercup)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1991a)
Ranunculus hawaiensis (Hawai'ian buttercup)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014m)
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiTramplingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009l)
Rhinichthys osculus (Kendall Warm Springs dace)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009i)
Sarracenia oreophila (green pitcherplant)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabama; Georgia; North CarolinaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994c)
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008a)
Schiedea salicariaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Sclerocactus brevispinusCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010g)
Sclerocactus glaucusUSA ESA listing as threatened speciesColoradoHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Serianthes nelsoniiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994e)
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010j)
Sicyos albus (white burr cucumber)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Sidalcea keckii (Keck's checker-mallow)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008f)
Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIdaho; Montana; Oregon; WashingtonBehaviour disruptionUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007d)
Solanum nelsonii (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014n)
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010k)
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009e)
Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Oregon silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2001)
Spiranthes delitescensEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizonaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1997)
Stahlia monospermaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996b)
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur wire-lettuce)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1991b)
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canada; Mexico; California; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012d)
Acmispon dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island broom)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984a); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2007c)
Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008k)
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995)
Tetramolopium rockii (dune tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Thelypodium howellii subsp. spectabilis (Howell's spectacular thelypody)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesOregonHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010e)
Thymophylla tephroleuca (ashy dogweed)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1987)
Townsendia aprica (last chance townsendia)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013d)
Trifolium dichotomum (showy Indian clover)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008i)
Tuctoria greenei (Greene's tuctoria)National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008d)
Tuctoria mucronata (solano grass)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009m)
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2004a)
Lepidaploa proctoriiUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesPuerto RicoEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010d)
Vetericaris chaceorum (anchialine pool shrimp)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration
Vicia menziesii (Hawaiian vetch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984b)
Villosa perpurpurea (purple bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAEcosystem change / habitat alterationButler and Biggins (2004)
Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010i)
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009c)
Zeltnera namophilaNo DetailsCalifornia; NevadaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009f)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Trampling

Uses

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Domestic cattle are used for meat, milk, hides and as draft animals. Feral cattle may be hunted for meat and hides.

Uses List

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General

  • Draught animal
  • Game animal

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Milk
  • Milk and dairy products

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

 

Management Information
 
Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Preventative measures: Well maintained fences can give adequate protection from cattle to areas of native woody vegetation (Courchamp et al. 2003). A fence was used on Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean to prevent cattle damaging the breeding grounds of the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Cattle were restricted to a small part of the island and eradicated from the rest (Micol and Jouventin, 1995).
 
Physical: Dogs and shooting are a standard method of control (SPREP, 2000).

 

Bibliography

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Baldwin, P. H. and Fagerlund, G. O. 1943. The effect of cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park. Ecology 24: 118–122.

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Courchamp, F., Chapuis, J.-L., and Pascal, M. 2003. Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impact. Biological Reviews, 78: 347-383.

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Frenot, Y., Gloaguen, J., Massé, L., & Lebouvier, M. 2001. Human activities, ecosystem disturbance and plant invasions in subantarctic Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands. Biological Conservation, 101, 33-50.

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IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

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Micol, T. & Jouventin, P. 1995. Restoration of Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, following control of feral cattle. Biol. Conserv., 72, 199-206.

Parkes, J.P. 2005. Feral cattle. In C.M. King (Ed.): Handbook of New Zealand Mammals, Second Edition, pp. 346-350. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Pascal, M., Barré, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Frétey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements néo-calédoniens de vertébébrés : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom

Rauzon, M. J., D. J. Forsell, and E. N. Flint., 2002. Seabird re-colonisation after cat eradication on equatorial Jarvis, Howland, and Baker Islands, USA, Central Pacific. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 406 - 414 IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Rescue Projects of the Rare Breeds Conservation Society of New Zealand: Enderby Island cattle. http://www.rarebreeds.co.nz/projects.html#enderbycattle

Snowcraft, P. G. 1983. Tree cover changes in mammane (Sophora chrysophylla) forests grazed by sheep and cattle. Pacific Science 37: 109–119.

Taylor, R. H. 1990. Feral cattle. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals, Oxford University Press, New Zealand: 373-379.

Torr, 2002. Eradication of rabbits and mice from subantarctic Enderby and Rose Islands. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 319-327. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

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References

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Bossard CC, Hoshovsky MC, Randall JM, 2000. Los Angeles, USA: University of California Press.164-170.

Butler, R. S., Biggins, R. G., 2004. Recovery Plan for Cumberland Elktoe (Alasmidonta atropurpurea), Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), Cumberlandian Combshell (Epioblasma brevidens), Purple Bean (Villosa perpurpurea), and Rough Rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrica strigillata). In: Recovery Plan for Cumberland Elktoe (Alasmidonta atropurpurea), Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), Cumberlandian Combshell (Epioblasma brevidens), Purple Bean (Villosa perpurpurea), and Rough Rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrica strigillata) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.ix + 168 pp.

D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM, 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 63-87.

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

NatureServe, 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1983. Recovery Plan for Northern Monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense). In: Recovery Plan for Northern Monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.83 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/830923.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. Recovery Plan for the endangered and threatened species of the California Channel Islands. In: Recovery Plan for the endangered and threatened species of the California Channel Islands : US Fish and Wildlife Service.165 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. The Vicia menziesii Recovery Plan. In: The Vicia menziesii Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.54 pp.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987. Ashy Dogweed (Thymophylla tephroleuca) Recovery Plan. In: Ashy Dogweed (Thymophylla tephroleuca) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ptilimnium nodosum. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ptilimnium nodosum : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Threatened Status for Apios Priceana (Price's Potato-bean). In: Federal Register , 55(4) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.429-433. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr1644.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan. In: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan. In: Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Final Rule to Determine the Plant Schoenocrambe argillacea (Clay Reed-Mustard) To Be a Threatened Species and the Plant Schoenocrambe barnebyl (Barneby Reed-Mustard) To Be an Endangered Species. In: Federal Register , 57(9) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.1398-1403. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr2006.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993. Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan. In: Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.49 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/930927c.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan. In: Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.21 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan. In: Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae. In: Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46 pp. + appendix.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii. In: Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.138 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster. In: Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.143 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan. In: Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/961101a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico : US Fish and Wildlife Service.25 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster. In: Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.80 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for Four Plants From Southwestern California and Baja California, Mexico. In: Federal Register , 63(197) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.54938-54946. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3325.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.207 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch) as Threatened. In: Federal Register , 64(202) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.56590-56596. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3460.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin. In: Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin : US Fish and Wildlife Service.77 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/990930a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta). In: Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.121 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/010822.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Retention of Threatened Status for Argali in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. In: Federal Register , 67(99) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.35942-35957. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-05-22/pdf/02-12824.pdf#page=1

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of Lesquerella filiformis (Missouri Bladderpod) from Endangered to Threatened. In: Federal Register , 68(111) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.34569-34576. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4111.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus). In: Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.60 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough Milk-vetch). In: Federal Register , 69(108) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31552-31569. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4309.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Federally Listed Animal Species. Delta Green Ground Beetle (Elaphrus viridis). In: Recovery Plan for Vernal Pool Ecosystems of California and Southern Oregon : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/Recovery-Planning/Vernal-Pool/Documents/delta_green_ground_beetle.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan. In: Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.47 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/050915.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana). In: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds : US Fish and Wildlife Service.622 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1865.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly). In: Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.203 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/071012.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus). In: Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.viii + 94 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense). In: Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.86 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review. Summary and Evaluation. In: Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.76 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1150.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.27 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1930.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1916.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.25 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1996.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii). In: Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/recovery_plan/Jones%20cycladenia_123008.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.40 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.26 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.48 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2570.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2569.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus). In: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.98 pp. https://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/documents/100330.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2576.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation. In: Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2524.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.18 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. In: Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.28 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3249.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.41 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Pariette%20Cactus_Recovery%20Outline_Apr%202010.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Sclerocactus%20wetlandicus%20recovery%20outline_final_Apr%202010.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.121 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.44 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3627.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase Mussels; Proposed Rule. In: Federal Register , 76(12) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.3392-3420. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-19/pdf/2011-469.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3894.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.44 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4008.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule , 77(74) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.23060-23092. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-17/pdf/2012-8811.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.59 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4128.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(209) , USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.80 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4164.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.72 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4267.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r8/Q0EZ_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable Thoroughwort); Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 79(5) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.1552-1590. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-01-08/pdf/2013-31576.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Species Status for Ivesia webberi. In: Federal Register , 79(106) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31878-31883. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-06-03/pdf/2014-12627.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q2XG_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r6/Q3B5_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q3ES_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q38H_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q21R_P01.pdf

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Cattle Network - EAAPhttp://www.cattlenetwork.net/Website of the European Association for Animal Production Cattle Network. The site includes publications, summaries of cattle breeds, EU regulations, a database of companies involved at all levels of the food management chain and job postings.
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Principal sources: Taylor R. H. (1990) in King C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals

    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Tuesday, July 03, 2007

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