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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- avian bordetellosis
International Common Names
- English: bordetellosis, bordetella avium, coryza; turkey coryza
Pathogen/sTop of page Bordetella avium
OverviewTop of page
Bordetella avium is a respiratory pathogen of birds (Kersters et al., 1984). The bacterium primarily affects turkeys, causing a disease known as turkey coryza or bordetellosis, and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry (Beach et al., 2012). Morbidity often approaches 100% in young turkeys, but mortality is usually low. Damage to the upper respiratory tract can lead to secondary infections with Escherichia coli or other pathogens, which can increase the severity of the disease (van Alstine and Arp, 1987; Pierson et al., 1996). Quail are also susceptible to B. avium (Odugbo et al., 2006), and the bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in chickens (Jackwood et al., 1995).
Host AnimalsTop of page
Systems AffectedTop of page respiratory diseases of poultry
DistributionTop of page
Bordetellosis has been identified in most regions of the world where turkeys are intensively reared (Kersters et al., 1984).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Turkey||Present||Türkyılmaz et al. (2009)|
|Hungary||Present||Szabó et al. (2015)|
|Poland||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Smia
|United States||Present||Raffel et al. (2002)|
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed||Sign|
|General Signs / Increased mortality in flocks of birds||Sign|
|General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Chemosis, conjunctival, scleral edema, swelling||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes||Sign|
|Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Change in voice, vocal strength||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
B. avium binds preferentially to ciliated tracheal epithelial cells (Arp and Cheville, 1984). Subsequent death of the ciliated cells is thought to contribute to the clinical signs associated with bordetellosis (e.g. coughing and oculonasal discharge).
EpidemiologyTop of page
Mortality associated with uncomplicated bordetellosis in turkeys is low (generally <5%), but morbidity is usually 80-100% in young turkeys (Noguera et al., 2001). Mortality can increase if young turkeys infected with B. avium also become infected with other agents, such as E. coli (van Alstine and Arp, 1987; Pierson et al., 1996) or when environmental conditions are not optimum. B. avium is highly transmissible and may be spread either through exposure to contaminated litter or water or by direct contact with infected birds (Simmons and Gray, 1979).
Disease TreatmentTop of page
Treatment with antimicrobial agents is not very effective. Resistance to antibiotics can be carried on plasmids (Beach et al., 2012). Antimicrobial therapy may be helpful for secondary colibacillosis.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Developing effective vaccines has proved difficult and these are not commonly used. Good husbandry is the main way of preventing the disease, with adequate ventilation and decreased stress. Removal of dirty litter and thorough disinfection should be carried out after depopulation.
ReferencesTop of page
Beach NM; Thompson S; Mutnick R; Brown L; Kettig G; Puffenbarger R; Stockwell SB; Miyamoto D; Temple L, 2012. Bordetella avium antibiotic resistance, novel enrichment culture, and antigenic characterization. Veterinary Microbiology, 160(1/2):189-196. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Kersters K; Hinz K-H; Hertle A; Segers P; Lievens A; Siegmann O; Ley Jde, 1984. Bordetella avium sp. nov., isolated from the respiratory tracts of turkeys and other birds. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 34(1):56-70.
Noguera Cde; Infante D; León AJ; Fernández JG; Rolo Mde; Avila I; Herrera A, 2001. First identification and isolation of the causal agent of avian Bordetellosis and disease reproduction in Venezuela. (Primer aislamiento e identificación del agente causal de bordetelosis aviar y reproducción de la enfermedad en Venezuela.) Veterinaria Tropical, 26(1):35-46.
Pierson FW; Larsen CT; Domermuth CH, 1996. The production of colibacillosis in turkeys following sequential exposure to Newcastle disease virus or Bordetella avium, avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus, and Escherichia coli. Avian Diseases, 40(4):837-840.
Szabó R; Wehmann E; Magyar T, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella avium and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from wild and domesticated birds in Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 63(4):413-424. http://www.akademiai.com/doi/pdf/10.1556/004.2015.039
Türkyilmaz S; Kirdar S; Ocak F; Hazimoglu S, 2009. Detection of Bordetella avium by polymerase chain reaction in the lungs and tracheas of turkeys with pneumonia. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 33(2):147-150. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Szabó R, Wehmann E, Magyar T, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella avium and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from wild and domesticated birds in Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica. 63 (4), 413-424. http://www.akademiai.com/doi/pdf/10.1556/004.2015.039 DOI:10.1556/004.2015.039
Türkyılmaz S, Kırdar S, Ocak F, Hazımoğlu Ș, 2009. Detection of Bordetella avium by polymerase chain reaction in the lungs and tracheas of turkeys with pneumonia. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences. 33 (2), 147-150. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/
Distribution MapsTop of page
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