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OverviewTop of page
Boophilus ticks are small inornate ticks having a short and broad capitulum with rounded lateral margins. The basis of the capitulum is hexagonal in shape. Males bear elongated, pointed anal and adanal shields. The eyes are difficult to see and festoons are absent. Boophilus ticks are parasites of ungulates and have a compressed life cycle with all stages parasitic on the same host (one-host tick), and are among the most important pests and disease vectors affecting livestock. B. annulatus is one of the five Boophilus species.
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821)
Other Scientific Names
- Boophilus calcaratus
International Common Names
- English: blue tick; Texas fever tick; tick, blue; tick, Texas fever
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Chelicerata
- Class: Arachnida
- Subclass: Acari
- Order: Parasitiformes
- Suborder: Ixodida
- Family: Ixodidae
- Genus: Boophilus
- Species: Boophilus annulatus
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host||Cattle & Buffaloes: All Stages|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)|
|Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)|
|Canis familiaris (dogs)|
|Capra hircus (goats)||Domesticated host|
|Cervus elaphus (red deer)|
|Equus caballus (horses)||Domesticated host|
|Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)|
|Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host|
|Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
B. annulatus occurs mainly on cattle, but is also found on horses and small ruminants.
Pathogens VectoredTop of page Anaplasma marginale
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
DistributionTop of page
B. annulatus originates in the southern part of the former USSR, occurs in the Middle East and the Mediterranean area, and has moved southwards into Africa into a belt from West Africa to southern and central Sudan (FAO, 1984). The tick was introduced into Mexico, from where it spread into much of the southern USA before it was virtually eradicated together with B. microplus.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
ReferencesTop of page
Anonymous, 1984. Ticks and Tick-borne Disease control. A practical field manual. Volume 1, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Fragoso H; Hoshman Rad P; Ortiz M; Rodríguez M; Redondo M; Herrera L; Fuente Jde la, 1998. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. Vaccine, 16(20):1990-1992; 13 ref.
Matthysse JG; Colbo MH, 1987. The ixodid ticks of Uganda. College Park, Maryland, USA: Entomological Society of America, 426 pp.
Willadsen P; Jongejan F, 1999. Immunology of the tick-host interaction and the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Parasitology Today, 15(7):258-262.
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
Distribution MapsTop of page
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