Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bluetongue virus

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Datasheet

bluetongue virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bluetongue virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Reoviridae
  •         Genus: Orbivirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
TitleVirus particles
CaptionFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
CopyrightGeoffrey P. Gard
Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
Virus particlesFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stainedGeoffrey P. Gard

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bluetongue virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Reoviridae
  •                 Genus: Orbivirus
  •                     Species: bluetongue virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentJul-Dec-2020
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresent
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarPresentJan-Jun-2019
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayottePresentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
China
-AnhuiPresent
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
-Andhra PradeshPresent
IndonesiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsentJan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2020
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
BulgariaPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
CroatiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2020
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2020
GreecePresentJul-Dec-2020
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgPresentJul-Dec-2020
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresentJul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2020
RomaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Canada
-British ColumbiaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupePresentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019
-CaliforniaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LestePresentJul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaPresentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bluetongue virus is an icosahedral-shaped particle consisting of a segmented double-stranded RNA genome, encapsidated in a double-layered protein coat. Removal of the outer protein layer activates a viral-associated RNA polymerase which transcribes the ten genome segments into 10 mRNAs which are in turn translated into at least seven structural (VP1-VP7) and three non-structural (NS1-NS3) proteins (Huismans and Dijk, 1990). The virions have a diameter of 68-70 nm, comprising an outer capsid around a 54 nm core (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).

The genome segments vary in size from 0.5 kDa to 2.7x103 kDa, and the viral proteins range in size from 25,000 to 144,000 daltons. VP2 and VP5 form the outer capsid and the other five structural proteins are in the core. VP2 is primarily responsible for the induction of type-specific neutralizing antibodies and its variable sequence results in the 24 recognized serotypes of bluetongue virus (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). The 24 serotypes are designated BLU 1- BLU 24 (Daniels et al., 1996). Variations in other proteins of the virus are responsible for the innumerable strains of the virus and for their varied biological properties. This genetic diversity of bluetongue virus is a consequence of both genetic drift and reassortment of individual gene segments (OIE, 1998).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amblyomma americanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma maculatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Anopheles bancroftiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Argas robertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex annulirostris annulirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex edwardsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides actoniInsectSouth East Asia; East Asia; Australia
Culicoides austropalpalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides barbosaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides bolitinosInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides boydiInsectCalifornia
Culicoides brevipalpisInsectAsia; Australia
Culicoides brevitarsisInsectSouth East Asia; Australia
Culicoides bruceiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cataneiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides circumscriptusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides coarctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cornutusInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides debilipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides denningiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides diabolicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides distinctipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides filariferusInsectCentral America; Caribbean
Culicoides foxiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides fulvusInsectSouth East Asia; East Asia; Australia
Culicoides furensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides guyanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hieroglyphicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides histrioMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hollensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides homotomusInsectChina
Culicoides imicolaInsectAfrica; Middle East; East Asia; Mediterranean countries; South Asia
Culicoides impunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides insignisInsectCentral America; North America; South America
Culicoides jamaicensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides jamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides leopoldoiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides limaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides marksiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides melleusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides milneiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides newsteadiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides nubeculosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides obsoletusInsectBulgaria; Mediterranean countries
Culicoides oxystomaInsectChina
Culicoides paraensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides phlebotomusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides pusillusInsectCentral America; North America; South America
Culicoides schultzeiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides stelliferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides variipennisInsectNorth America; Canada
Culicoides variipennis sonorensisInsectCentral America; North America; South America
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides wadaiInsectSouth East Asia; Australia
Culicoides zuluensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Damalinia lipeuroidesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Damalinia parallelaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor nitensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor parumapertusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor variabilisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Eutrombicula splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus sanguineusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Daniels PW; Sendow I; Melville LF, 1996. Epidemiological considerations in the study of bluetongue viruses. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 110-119; 43 ref.

Homan EJ; Gibbs EPJ; Walker JS; Walton TE; Yuill TM; González J; Barreto CH; Greiner EC, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 99-105; 34 ref.

Huismans H; Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.

Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in China (People’s Rep. of China). Additional information on the outbreak in August 2004. Disease Information, 17(53).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Croatia. Serological findings in sentinel bovine animals (follow-up report No. 1). Disease Information, 17(49).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in France in the island of Corsica. Disease Information, 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Morocco. Disease Information, 17(39).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Namibia. Disease Information, 17(29).

OIE, 2005. Bluetongue in Portugal. Follow-up report No. 5. Disease Information, 18(2).

Verwoerd DW; Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 443-459.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Homan E J, Gibbs E P J, Walker J S, Walton T E, Yuill T M, González J, Barreto C H, Greiner E C, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review. In: Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. [Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.], [ed. by Walton T E, Osburn B I]. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press Inc. 99-105.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in China (People's Rep. of China). Additional information on the outbreak in August 2004. In: Disease Information, 17 (53) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

OIE, 2004a. Bluetongue in France in the island of Corsica. In: Disease Information, 17 (38) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

OIE, 2004b. Bluetongue in Morocco. In: Disease Information, 17 (39) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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