Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


bluetongue virus



bluetongue virus


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bluetongue virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Reoviridae
  •         Genus: Orbivirus

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Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
TitleVirus particles
CaptionFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
CopyrightGeoffrey P. Gard
Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
Virus particlesFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stainedGeoffrey P. Gard


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bluetongue virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Reoviridae
  •                 Genus: Orbivirus
  •                     Species: bluetongue virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaLast reported2004OIE, 2004a
-AnhuiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Andhra PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South East AsiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005


AlgeriaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004d; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004e; OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
-British ColumbiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MexicoSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAOIE Handistatus, 2005
-CaliforniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint LuciaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentHoman et al., 1992
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005


AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentNativeOIE, 2004b; OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceOIE Handistatus, 2005
-CorsicaLast reported2004OIE, 2004c
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalNativeOIE, 2005; OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Last reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Last reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005


AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bluetongue virus is an icosahedral-shaped particle consisting of a segmented double-stranded RNA genome, encapsidated in a double-layered protein coat. Removal of the outer protein layer activates a viral-associated RNA polymerase which transcribes the ten genome segments into 10 mRNAs which are in turn translated into at least seven structural (VP1-VP7) and three non-structural (NS1-NS3) proteins (Huismans and Dijk, 1990). The virions have a diameter of 68-70 nm, comprising an outer capsid around a 54 nm core (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).

The genome segments vary in size from 0.5 kDa to 2.7x103 kDa, and the viral proteins range in size from 25,000 to 144,000 daltons. VP2 and VP5 form the outer capsid and the other five structural proteins are in the core. VP2 is primarily responsible for the induction of type-specific neutralizing antibodies and its variable sequence results in the 24 recognized serotypes of bluetongue virus (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). The 24 serotypes are designated BLU 1- BLU 24 (Daniels et al., 1996). Variations in other proteins of the virus are responsible for the innumerable strains of the virus and for their varied biological properties. This genetic diversity of bluetongue virus is a consequence of both genetic drift and reassortment of individual gene segments (OIE, 1998).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website:

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amblyomma americanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma maculatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Anopheles bancroftiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Argas robertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex annulirostris annulirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex edwardsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides actoniInsectAustralia
Culicoides austropalpalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides barbosaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides bolitinosInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides boydiInsectCalifornia
Culicoides brevipalpisInsectAustralia
Culicoides brevitarsisInsectAustralia
Culicoides bruceiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cataneiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides circumscriptusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides coarctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cornutusInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides debilipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides denningiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides diabolicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides distinctipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides filariferusInsectCaribbean
Culicoides foxiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides fulvusInsectAustralia
Culicoides furensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides guyanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hieroglyphicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides histrioMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hollensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides homotomusInsectChina
Culicoides imicolaInsectMediterranean countries
Culicoides impunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides insignisInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides jamaicensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides jamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides leopoldoiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides limaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides marksiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides melleusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides milneiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides newsteadiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides nubeculosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides obsoletusInsectMediterranean countries
Culicoides oxystomaInsectChina
Culicoides paraensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides phlebotomusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides pusillusInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides schultzeiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides stelliferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides variipennisInsectCanada
Culicoides variipennis sonorensisInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides wadaiInsectAustralia
Culicoides zuluensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Damalinia lipeuroidesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Damalinia parallelaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor nitensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor parumapertusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor variabilisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Eutrombicula splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus sanguineusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0


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Daniels PW; Sendow I; Melville LF, 1996. Epidemiological considerations in the study of bluetongue viruses. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 110-119; 43 ref.

Homan EJ; Gibbs EPJ; Walker JS; Walton TE; Yuill TM; González J; Barreto CH; Greiner EC, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 99-105; 34 ref.

Huismans H; Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.

Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in China (People’s Rep. of China). Additional information on the outbreak in August 2004. Disease Information, 17(53).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Croatia. Serological findings in sentinel bovine animals (follow-up report No. 1). Disease Information, 17(49).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in France in the island of Corsica. Disease Information, 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Morocco. Disease Information, 17(39).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Namibia. Disease Information, 17(29).

OIE, 2005. Bluetongue in Portugal. Follow-up report No. 5. Disease Information, 18(2).

Verwoerd DW; Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 443-459.

Distribution Maps

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