Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

bluetongue virus

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Datasheet

bluetongue virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bluetongue virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Reoviridae
  •         Genus: Orbivirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
TitleVirus particles
CaptionFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
CopyrightGeoffrey P. Gard
Five bluetongue virus particles, negatively stained
Virus particlesFive bluetongue virus particles, negatively stainedGeoffrey P. Gard

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bluetongue virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Reoviridae
  •                 Genus: Orbivirus
  •                     Species: bluetongue virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GambiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentNativeOIE (2004a); OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentNativeOIE (2004b); OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
China
-AnhuiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
India
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IndonesiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentNativeOIE (2004); OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Canada
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint LuciaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentHoman et al. (1992)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United States
-CaliforniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Bluetongue virus is an icosahedral-shaped particle consisting of a segmented double-stranded RNA genome, encapsidated in a double-layered protein coat. Removal of the outer protein layer activates a viral-associated RNA polymerase which transcribes the ten genome segments into 10 mRNAs which are in turn translated into at least seven structural (VP1-VP7) and three non-structural (NS1-NS3) proteins (Huismans and Dijk, 1990). The virions have a diameter of 68-70 nm, comprising an outer capsid around a 54 nm core (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994).

The genome segments vary in size from 0.5 kDa to 2.7x103 kDa, and the viral proteins range in size from 25,000 to 144,000 daltons. VP2 and VP5 form the outer capsid and the other five structural proteins are in the core. VP2 is primarily responsible for the induction of type-specific neutralizing antibodies and its variable sequence results in the 24 recognized serotypes of bluetongue virus (Verwoerd and Erasmus, 1994). The 24 serotypes are designated BLU 1- BLU 24 (Daniels et al., 1996). Variations in other proteins of the virus are responsible for the innumerable strains of the virus and for their varied biological properties. This genetic diversity of bluetongue virus is a consequence of both genetic drift and reassortment of individual gene segments (OIE, 1998).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amblyomma americanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma maculatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Anopheles bancroftiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Argas robertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex annulirostris annulirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex edwardsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides actoniInsectAustralia
Culicoides austropalpalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides barbosaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides bolitinosInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides boydiInsectCalifornia
Culicoides brevipalpisInsectAustralia
Culicoides brevitarsisInsectAustralia
Culicoides bruceiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cataneiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides circumscriptusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides coarctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides cornutusInsectSouth Africa
Culicoides debilipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides denningiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides diabolicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides distinctipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides filariferusInsectCaribbean
Culicoides foxiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides fulvusInsectAustralia
Culicoides furensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides guyanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hieroglyphicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides histrioMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides hollensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides homotomusInsectChina
Culicoides imicolaInsectMediterranean countries
Culicoides impunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides insignisInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides jamaicensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides jamesiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides leopoldoiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides limaiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides marksiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides melleusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides milneiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides newsteadiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides nubeculosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides obsoletusInsectMediterranean countries
Culicoides oxystomaInsectChina
Culicoides paraensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides phlebotomusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides pusillusInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides schultzeiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides stelliferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides variipennisInsectCanada
Culicoides variipennis sonorensisInsectCentral America|North America|South America
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides wadaiInsectAustralia
Culicoides zuluensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Damalinia lipeuroidesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Damalinia parallelaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermacentor nitensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor parumapertusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor variabilisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Eutrombicula splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ixodes scapularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros coriaceusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros moubata moubataMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus sanguineusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Daniels PW; Sendow I; Melville LF, 1996. Epidemiological considerations in the study of bluetongue viruses. Bluetongue disease in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Bluetongue Symposium, Greenlake Hotel, Kunming, P.R. China, 22-24 August 1995., 110-119; 43 ref.

Homan EJ; Gibbs EPJ; Walker JS; Walton TE; Yuill TM; González J; Barreto CH; Greiner EC, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review. Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium., 99-105; 34 ref.

Huismans H; Dijk AAvan, 1990. Bluetongue virus structural components. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 162:21-41; 101 ref.

Office International des Epizooties, 1998. Supporting document for the OIE International Animal Health Code chapter 2.1.9 on bluetongue. OIE Ad hoc working group on bluetongue, September 1998.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in China (People’s Rep. of China). Additional information on the outbreak in August 2004. Disease Information, 17(53).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Croatia. Serological findings in sentinel bovine animals (follow-up report No. 1). Disease Information, 17(49).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in France in the island of Corsica. Disease Information, 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Morocco. Disease Information, 17(39).

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in Namibia. Disease Information, 17(29).

OIE, 2005. Bluetongue in Portugal. Follow-up report No. 5. Disease Information, 18(2).

Verwoerd DW; Erasmus BJ, 1994. Bluetongue. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock with special reference to Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 443-459.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Homan E J, Gibbs E P J, Walker J S, Walton T E, Yuill T M, González J, Barreto C H, Greiner E C, 1992. Central American and Caribbean regional bluetongue epidemiologic study: Antecedents and geographic review. In: Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. [Bluetongue, African horse sickness, and related orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium.], [ed. by Walton T E, Osburn B I]. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press Inc. 99-105.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Bluetongue in China (People's Rep. of China). Additional information on the outbreak in August 2004. In: Disease Information, 17 (53) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

OIE, 2004a. Bluetongue in France in the island of Corsica. In: Disease Information, 17 (38) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

OIE, 2004b. Bluetongue in Morocco. In: Disease Information, 17 (39) Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

Distribution Maps

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